accelerators -- Keystrokes that allow users to select menu items using the keyboard. You can use accelerator keys to invoke a variety of menu items without using the mouse to select the item. Accelerator keystrokes are listed to the right of their menu items.
account -- The identification that you use to log in to a system. Accounts are set up by the system's administrator and identify the files and directories to which you have access.
active window -- The window that currently accepts and displays mouse and keyboard input; it is identified by a solid window frame instead of a stippled one or by a special color. The exception to this window frame rule is when the Desktop itself is active. Only one window can be active at a time. If there is no active window, anything that you enter from the keyboard is ignored.
address -- The unique string of characters that identifies a user in mail. On a single computer, the address is the user's account name. On a network of computers, the address includes the network address for the user's home computer in addition to the account name.
administrator -- A person who manages a system or a network of systems. Typically, this person configures the system, maintains the network, assigns passwords and privileges, and helps users.
alias -- In mail, a name that is equivalent to a group of user names. Aliases enable you to mail to more than one person using a single name.
arrow keys -- The four arrow keys on the keypad control cursor movement in text fields. In an application the effect of these keys may vary, but generally they move the cursor up, down, left, and right.
background process -- A process that does not require interaction with the user to run. While a background process runs, the user can continue using other programs or commands. Background processing enables the operating system to execute multiple programs or commands at the same time.
backup -- A copy of one or more files, directories, or filesystems that is stored apart from the original to safeguard against unplanned deletion.
bell -- The tone produced by a terminal or computer. The tone is sometimes used to indicate an invalid keystroke, an error, or a finished process.
bitmap -- A picture or other graphical image that is stored as a series of 0's and 1's. Each character represents a single dot in the image. A bitmap includes only two colors. Bitmaps are used to define the backgrounds displayed on the Desktop and in directory and treeview windows.
button -- A button on a mouse or a graphical representation on the screen of a button. You can position the mouse pointer on an onscreen button and click to ``push'' the onscreen button, thus initiating the corresponding action.
cancel button -- A button in some dialog boxes that closes the dialog box without implementing any changes. Click on the Cancel button with mouse button 1 to cancel any changes you may have made.
carriage return -- The keyboard key usually labeled <Return> or <Enter>. It sends a carriage return command to the computer and usually indicates that you have finished typing in a text field, that you have reached the end of a line of text, or that you are accepting text entered in a dialog box.
cascading menu -- A submenu that displays when you select certain menu items. A cascading menu provides additional menu items.
class -- A file's class is indicated by a group of one to six characters that show its type, permissions, and ownership.
chording -- If you have a two-button mouse, pressing both mouse buttons at the same time, which is known as chording, is equivalent to pressing mouse button 2 on a three-button mouse.
click -- To press briefly and release a mouse button. You click a mouse button; you click on an icon (by pointing to it and clicking the mouse button). When the mouse button is not specified, click refers to mouse button 1. See also double-click.
clipboard -- A place in computer memory where text is temporarily stored during a cut-and-paste operation.
command -- A command is a series of words or characters that send an instruction or request to the computer.
command line -- A place on your screen where you can type commands. You use command lines to communicate with the operating system in a UNIX® or DOS window. See prompt.
computername -- The name by which the computer is known on the network.
context-sensitive help -- A facility that provides information specific to the command, window, or part of the screen that you are currently using.
control key -- The control key is marked CTRL on most terminals and is used as a modifier key. It is represented as <Ctrl> in this documentation. The control key can be compared with the <Shift> key on a typewriter keyboard, because it is always used in conjunction with another key or mouse button. This is done by pressing and holding down the control key, pressing the required character or mouse button, then releasing both.
control character -- A character in a file that was typed using the <Ctrl> key in conjunction with another key.
cursor -- A blinking or constant box, underline, I-shaped character or other graphical image that shows your position in text.
cut and paste -- To copy a marked area of text from one position to another, either within a file or between files or windows. The text is temporarily stored on a clipboard during the cut-and-paste operation.
cut -- To copy a marked area of text to a clipboard so it can be inserted elsewhere. See cut and paste.
default -- The standard configuration or values for a screen, program, or field. For example, the default Desktop is displayed the very first time you start the Desktop, before you have made any changes.
Desktop, desktop -- The Desktop is the primary primary graphical user interface for communicating with the computer. You can open additional desktops, which you can then use for special tasks, from the Desktop.
dialog box -- A pop-up window that contains options or instructions. By modifying this information, you carry on a kind of ``dialog'' with a program.
dimmed -- The name of a menu item displayed with reduced intensity or stippled characters. It indicates that the menu selection is currently unavailable. It is also called ``grayed'' or ``stippled.''
directory -- A special type of file that contains a collection of files and other directories. Directories are part of a hierarchical system of organizing files and can be used to group related files and directories together.
directory icons -- The icons that represent directories. To open a directory window, double-click on the directory icon with mouse button 1. The directory window displays the files and any subdirectories contained in the directory.
directory window -- The window that displays the files and any subdirectories contained in a directory. Open a directory and display its directory window by double-clicking on the directory icon with mouse button 1.
diskette -- A thin, flexible data storage disk permanently enclosed in a protective jacket. It is also called a floppy disk.
DOS -- A type of operating system. It may sometimes be called MS-DOS®.
DOS command line -- A line in a DOS window, on which you can enter commands to communicate with the DOS operating system.
DOS drive -- The personal computer hardware associated with DOS diskettes or fixed disks. DOS drives are named with letters followed by a colon. By convention, diskette drives are usually designated A: and B:, and a local fixed disk is designated C:.
DOS executable files -- A file that contains a DOS program or command. The program or command is executed when you enter the name of the file on a command line. DOS requires names of executable files to end with one of the three-letter extensions .BAT, .COM, or .EXE (for example AUTOEXEC.BAT and COMMAND.COM.)
DOS icon -- The icon that opens a DOS window. Open a DOS window by double-clicking on the DOS icon in the Accessories window.
DOS window -- A window that allows you to communicate directly with the DOS operating system.
dot file -- A UNIX file that configures some aspect of the Desktop, related programs, or your computer environment. Dot files are so called because their file names start with a period or ``dot.'' They usually are created automatically and reside in each user's home directory.
double-click -- To click a mouse button twice in rapid succession. Do not move the mouse when double-clicking. See also click.
draft mail message -- A mail message that is in the process of being composed.
drag -- To press and hold a mouse button while moving the mouse, which moves a selected object on the screen. If you select multiple icons, dragging one of them performs the same action on all of them.
drop -- To drag an icon on top of another and release the mouse button. You drop one icon on another to perform certain tasks, such as starting the text editor or sending a file to a printer.
electronic mail -- Messages sent via the computer. You can send messages to any other user on your system. You may be able to send messages to users on other computers if your computer is part of a network.
enter -- To input one or more characters from the keyboard, followed by a carriage return. For example, ``Enter your password'' means to type the characters of your password and then press the carriage return key.
escape key -- The escape key is marked ESC on most keyboards. In this documentation, the escape key is referred to as <Esc>.
executable file -- A file that contains a program or command. To run the program or command, double-click on the associated icon, drop an appropriate file on the icon, or enter the filename at the prompt in a UNIX window. Some executable files are in binary form and are not readable like regular text files.
executable file icons -- The icons that represent executable files. Double-clicking on an executable file icon executes the program or command represented by that icon. Some programs have their own specially designed icons and others use a generic executable file icon.
file -- A named collection of information stored on your computer. A file can contain regular text, commands, a program in binary form, or it can contain special characters in a format that is recognized by a specific program.
filename -- The name of a file, which must be unique in the directory in which it resides.
file properties -- The information that can be displayed about an icon, such as its name, owner, group, size, type, class, the number of links it has, its access times, and the permissions assigned to it.
filesystem -- A hierarchical organization of directories and files. In a filesystem, each file has a unique location in relation to all others.
focus -- Also ``keyboard focus.'' A window or menu has focus when it can accept input from the mouse or keyboard. The easiest way to get focus on something is to click on it. <Shift><Alt><F2> gives you keyboard focus on the Desktop.
font -- A style of text characters on the Desktop or elsewhere.
font angle -- Specifies the angle of the font, such as italic, oblique, or normal.
font family -- A group of different forms of one font that includes varieties of font weights (such as bold or normal), angles (such as italic or oblique), and point sizes.
font path -- The pathname that identifies where the font description resides.
font point size -- The size of font characters in ``points.'' There are 72 points to an inch.
font weight -- The heaviness of the font, such as bold or normal.
ftp -- A file transfer program that allows you to copy files to and from a remote computer in a network.
function keys -- The keys marked <F1> through <F10> (or more) on your keyboard. These keys are used in some programs to issue specific commands.
general font -- The font used in menus and messages on the Desktop.
ghost icon -- An icon that represents a file that cannot be located. Putting a ghost icon away removes it from the Desktop for the current session.
grayed selection -- The name of a menu item displayed with reduced intensity or stippled characters. It indicates that the menu selection is currently unavailable. It is also called ``dimmed.''
group -- A set of users on a computer. Every user belongs to one or more groups. User groups are usually comprised of users with similar job functions and similar needs for access to files.
help -- A program in the Desktop and in some control, accessory, and application programs that provides explanatory text if you need assistance or more information. It is also called online help.
help key -- The function key that calls online help (<F1> by default).
home directory -- The place in the filesystem where you can keep your personal files and subdirectories. When you log in, you are automatically placed in your home directory.
icon -- A graphical representation of a file, directory, program, or window.
icon font -- The font used in icon labels.
icon label -- The name displayed with the icon.
icon picture -- The graphical image part of an icon.
iconify -- To store a window as a window icon (also called ``minimize''). When you iconify a window, the only indication that it is open is its icon.
inactive window -- A window that does not currently accept mouse or keyboard input.
link -- A filename that points to another file. Links let you access a single file from multiple directories without storing multiple copies of the file. If you make a change to the content of a linked file, the change is reflected in each of the links.
locked icon -- An icon that cannot be removed from the Desktop window except by the system administrator.
log in -- To enter your user name and password so you can gain access to the computer.
login -- The process of logging in or the name you use when logging in.
lower -- To move a window underneath all the other open windows on the Desktop.
lp -- A program that prints files.
manual pages -- The reference documentation for individual commands, utilities, and programs. They are also called ``man pages.''
maximize -- To enlarge a window so that it fills the entire screen.
maximize button -- A button in the upper right corner of a window frame that maximizes the window. The button contains an image of a square.
menu -- An on-screen list of items from which users can select. Selecting an item causes an action to be taken or another menu to be displayed. Menus are usually located at the top of the window frame in a menu bar.
menu bar -- A bar across the top of a window, under the title bar, that contains the titles of the pull-down menus for that window.
menu item -- A choice on a menu.
message box -- A dialog box that provides information, gives the current state of work in progress, asks a question, issues a warning, or draws attention to an error.
minimize -- To store a window as a window icon, temporarily removing the window display. A program running in a window continues to run in the background when you minimize the window. This is also called ``iconifying.''
minimize button -- A button in the upper right corner of a window frame that minimizes the window. The button contains an image of a small circle.
missing-picture icon -- An icon that is used when the correct icon picture cannot be located. The icon functions normally even though the correct picture is not displayed.
Motif window manager -- A program that controls window configuration and creates window frames. It is also called mwm.
mouse -- A pointing device used to move a pointer about on the screen.
mouse button -- One of the buttons on a mouse pointing device. The mouse buttons select or manipulate graphical objects.
mouse buttons 1 and 2 -- Button 1 is usually the leftmost button, but this can be changed using the Mouse program. Dragging an icon with mouse button 1 moves the icon. For example, dragging a file icon with mouse button 1 from one directory window to another directory window moves the file the icon represents. Dragging an icon with mouse button 2 copies that icon. For example, dragging a file icon with mouse button 2 from one directory window into another directory window copies the file into the second directory.
Mouse icon -- A program used to change mouse characteristics. Start the Mouse program by double-clicking on the Mouse icon.
mouse pointer -- The graphical image, such as an arrow or other symbol, that indicates your current position on the screen. Move the pointer by moving the mouse. The pointer changes shape to indicate what you can do at a particular location or to indicate a program's status. For example, if a program is busy, the pointer may change to an image of an hourglass.
network -- A group of computers that are linked together and can communicate with each other.
object -- An object is a graphical representation of a file. Each object has two parts: the picture or icon that appears on the desktop, and action scripts that are invoked when operations (such as double clicking and drag & drop) are performed on the object.
OK button -- A button in a dialog box that accepts any changes you made in the box. Click on the OK button with mouse button 1 to accept your changes.
operating system -- A ``base program'' that lets you communicate with the computer. It interprets what you type on the command line.
owner -- The user who created a file or directory. Only the owner and the super user can change the permissions assigned to the file or directory.
parent directory icon -- An icon that moves you up one directory in the filesystem hierarchy when you double-click on it.
password -- A confidential string of characters that you use to confirm your identity to the computer when you log in or that you use to unlock a locked display.
paste -- To insert previously cut text from the clipboard into a file or a window.
pathname -- A list of the directories and subdirectories that define the precise path to a file from the root directory (/).
pattern match -- To find strings of characters in a text file that match a string you specify.
permissions -- The settings that regulate which users can access each file and directory, and what types of access are permitted.
pixmap -- A picture or other graphical image that can include multiple colors.
point -- To position the pointer.
pop-up window -- A window that is displayed on top of the active window. Pop-up windows display choices, ask for user input, or display informative text.
print queue -- A queue (line) in which print requests are stored while they are waiting to be printed.
print spooler -- A program that manages print requests.
program -- Software that performs a task. Desktop controls, accessories, and applications are all programs.
prompt -- One or more characters or symbols that identify a line on which commands can be entered, as in a UNIX or DOS window. ``Prompt'' also refers to the text displayed when the computer displays a request for input or an instruction.
pull-down menu -- A menu that can be pulled down from the menu bar by clicking on its name.
rcp -- A file transfer program for copying files to and from a remote computer in a network.
remote computer -- A computer in a network other than the computer that you originally logged in to.
request-ID -- A number assigned to each print job when you send it to the printer. The number is displayed on the screen when you print a file.
resize -- To change the height and/or width of a window.
restore -- To return an iconified or maximized window to its normal size. Also, to copy files from a backup onto the system.
rlogin -- A program for logging in to a remote computer.
root -- The top directory of a UNIX filesystem, represented as a slash (/). Also, the login name of the super user, a user who has the widest form of computer privileges.
root directory -- The top directory of a UNIX filesystem, represented as a slash (/). Root is the home directory of the super user.
Root menu -- A standard menu that displays when you hold mouse button 1 or 2 down anywhere on the main Desktop's background. The Root menu lets you shuffle windows, refresh your screen, restart the window manager, and log out.
Root window -- The background on your terminal screen. The Desktop that appears when you first log in is in the Root window.
scologin -- A program for logging in to the Desktop. For more information, see the scologin(XC) manual page.
screen -- The computer's display that shows your communications, or ``input,'' to the computer. It also shows some of the computer's ``output,'' such as prompts and the results of your commands.
scroll -- To change your viewpoint in a window or file, either vertically or horizontally, thus displaying information that is not currently visible.
scroll bars -- The sliding controls located on the right or bottom of some windows, which you move to scroll through the window contents.
select -- To select a menu item or an icon, click on it with mouse button 1. See also ``Selecting multiple icons''.
shuffle -- To move a window up or down through a stack of open windows on your screen.
stack -- A group of open windows, one on top of another.
submenu -- A menu that appears when a menu item is selected. It provides additional choices specific to the selected item. It is also known as a cascading menu.
super user -- A user who has powerful special privileges needed to help administer and maintain the system. The super user logs in as root.
telnet -- A program that communicates with another computer in a network.
text file -- A file that contains text.
title bar -- The bar at the top of the window frame that contains the window's title or name. In certain programs' windows, the title bar can contain the name of a file that the program has opened. You can move the entire window by dragging the title bar.
toggle -- To switch back and forth between any two conditions. For example, to toggle from OFF to ON.
trash desktop -- A desktop in which files are temporarily stored before being removed from the system permanently.
Trash icon -- An icon that represents the trash desktop. You can remove files by dropping them on the Trash icon.
type -- The category that describes whether the file is a regular file, a directory, or other type of file, such as a block device or character device.
UNIX -- An operating system originally developed at Bell Laboratories, after which several different versions were developed. UNIX supports multiuser and multitasking operation and provides software tools that make it advantageous as an environment for software development.
UNIX command line -- A line in a UNIX window on which you can enter commands to communicate with the UNIX operating system.
UNIX window -- A window that allows you to communicate directly with the UNIX operating system.
user name -- The name by which a user is known in a UNIX operating system.
window -- A rectangular area on the screen that is dedicated to specific tasks. Windows display information such as the files and subdirectories in a directory; all or part of the text in a file; prompts for information that is required by a program; status information; or data that is being modified.
window frame -- The graphical borders around a window, including the title bar, menu bar, scroll bars, the minimize and maximize buttons, and the window menu button.
window icons -- The icons that represent minimized windows.
window manager -- A program that controls window configuration and creates window frames.
Window menu -- A standard menu that appears when you click on the window menu button. Use the Window menu to restore, move, resize, minimize, maximize, lower, and close the window.
window menu button -- The button at the top left corner of a window. When pressed, it displays the Window menu for that window. You can double-click on the window menu button to close the window.