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MySQL Reference Manual


1 General Information

The MySQL (R) software delivers a very fast, multi-threaded, multi-user, and robust SQL (Structured Query Language) database server. MySQL Server is intended for mission-critical, heavy-load production systems as well as for embedding into mass-deployed software. MySQL is a registered trademark of MySQL AB.

The MySQL software is Dual Licensed. Users can choose to use the MySQL software as an Open Source product under the terms of the GNU General Public License (http://www.fsf.org/licenses/) or can purchase a standard commercial license from MySQL AB. See http://www.mysql.com/company/legal/licensing/ for more information on our licensing policies.

The following list describes some sections of particular interest in this manual:

Important:

Reports of errors (often called ``bugs''), as well as questions and comments, should be sent to http://bugs.mysql.com. See section 1.4.1.3 How to Report Bugs or Problems.

If you have found a sensitive security bug in MySQL Server, please let us know immediately by sending an email message to security@mysql.com.

1.1 About This Manual

This is the Reference Manual for the MySQL Database System. It documents MySQL up to Version 4.1.10a, but is also applicable for older versions of the MySQL software (such as 3.23 or 4.0-production) because functional changes are indicated with reference to a version number.

Because this manual serves as a reference, it does not provide general instruction on SQL or relational database concepts. It also will not teach you how to use your operating system or command-line interpreter.

The MySQL Database Software is under constant development, and the Reference Manual is updated frequently as well. The most recent version of the manual is available online in searchable form at http://dev.mysql.com/doc/. Other formats also are available, including HTML, PDF, and Windows CHM versions.

The primary document is the Texinfo file. The HTML version is produced automatically using a modified version of texi2html. The plain text and Info versions are produced with makeinfo. The PostScript version is produced using texi2dvi and dvips. The PDF version is produced with pdftex.

If you have any suggestions concerning additions or corrections to this manual, please send them to the documentation team at docs@mysql.com.

This manual was initially written by David Axmark and Michael ``Monty'' Widenius. It is maintained by the MySQL Documentation Team, consisting of Paul DuBois, Stefan Hinz, Mike Hillyer, Jon Stephens, and Russell Dyer. For the many other contributors, see section B Credits.

The copyright (2004) to this manual is owned by the Swedish company MySQL AB. MySQL and the MySQL logo are (registered) trademarks of MySQL AB. Other trademarks and registered trademarks referred to in this manual are the property of their respective owners, and are used for identification purposes only.

1.1.1 Conventions Used in This Manual

This manual uses certain typographical conventions:

constant
Constant-width font is used for command names and options; SQL statements; database, table, and column names; C and Perl code; and environment variables. Example: ``To see how mysqladmin works, invoke it with the --help option.''
constant italic
Italic constant-width font is used to indicate variable input for which you should substitute a value of your own choosing.
`filename'
Constant-width font with surrounding quotes is used for filenames and pathnames. Example: ``The distribution is installed under the `/usr/local/' directory.''
`c'
Constant-width font with surrounding quotes is also used to indicate character sequences. Example: ``To specify a wildcard, use the `%' character.''
italic
Italic font is used for emphasis, like this.
boldface
Boldface font is used in table headings and to convey especially strong emphasis.

When commands are shown that are meant to be executed from within a particular program, the program is indicated by a prompt shown before the command. For example, shell> indicates a command that you execute from your login shell, and mysql> indicates a statement that you execute from the mysql client program:

shell> type a shell command here
mysql> type a mysql statement here

The ``shell'' is your command interpreter. On Unix, this is typically a program such as sh or csh. On Windows, the equivalent program is command.com or cmd.exe, typically run in a console window.

When you enter a command or statement shown in an example, do not type the prompt shown in the example.

Database, table, and column names must often be substituted into statements. To indicate that such substitution is necessary, this manual uses db_name, tbl_name, and col_name. For example, you might see a statement like this:

mysql> SELECT col_name FROM db_name.tbl_name;

This means that if you were to enter a similar statement, you would supply your own database, table, and column names, perhaps like this:

mysql> SELECT author_name FROM biblio_db.author_list;

SQL keywords are not case sensitive and may be written in uppercase or lowercase. This manual uses uppercase.

In syntax descriptions, square brackets (`[' and `]') are used to indicate optional words or clauses. For example, in the following statement, IF EXISTS is optional:

DROP TABLE [IF EXISTS] tbl_name

When a syntax element consists of a number of alternatives, the alternatives are separated by vertical bars (`|'). When one member from a set of choices may be chosen, the alternatives are listed within square brackets (`[' and `]'):

TRIM([[BOTH | LEADING | TRAILING] [remstr] FROM] str)

When one member from a set of choices must be chosen, the alternatives are listed within braces (`{' and `}'):

{DESCRIBE | DESC} tbl_name [col_name | wild]

An ellipsis (...) indicates the omission of a section of a statement, typically to provide a shorter version of more complex syntax. For example, INSERT ... SELECT is shorthand for the form of INSERT statement that is followed by a SELECT statement.

An ellipsis can also indicate that the preceding syntax element of a statement may be repeated. In the following example, multiple reset_option values may be given, with each of those after the first preceded by commas:

RESET reset_option [,reset_option] ...

Commands for setting shell variables are shown using Bourne shell syntax. For example, the sequence to set an environment variable and run a command looks like this in Bourne shell syntax:

shell> VARNAME=value some_command

If you are using csh or tcsh, you must issue commands somewhat differently. You would execute the sequence just shown like this:

shell> setenv VARNAME value
shell> some_command

1.2 Overview of the MySQL Database Management System

MySQL, the most popular Open Source SQL database management system, is developed, distributed, and supported by MySQL AB. MySQL AB is a commercial company, founded by the MySQL developers. It is a second generation Open Source company that unites Open Source values and methodology with a successful business model.

The MySQL Web site (http://www.mysql.com/) provides the latest information about MySQL software and MySQL AB.

MySQL is a database management system.
A database is a structured collection of data. It may be anything from a simple shopping list to a picture gallery or the vast amounts of information in a corporate network. To add, access, and process data stored in a computer database, you need a database management system such as MySQL Server. Since computers are very good at handling large amounts of data, database management systems play a central role in computing, as standalone utilities or as parts of other applications.
MySQL is a relational database management system.
A relational database stores data in separate tables rather than putting all the data in one big storeroom. This adds speed and flexibility. The SQL part of ``MySQL'' stands for ``Structured Query Language.'' SQL is the most common standardized language used to access databases and is defined by the ANSI/ISO SQL Standard. The SQL standard has been evolving since 1986 and several versions exist. In this manual, ``SQL-92'' refers to the standard released in 1992, ``SQL:1999'' refers to the standard released in 1999, and ``SQL:2003'' refers to the current version of the standard. We use the phrase ``the SQL standard'' to mean the current version of the SQL Standard at any time.
MySQL software is Open Source.
Open Source means that it is possible for anyone to use and modify the software. Anybody can download the MySQL software from the Internet and use it without paying anything. If you wish, you may study the source code and change it to suit your needs. The MySQL software uses the GPL (GNU General Public License), http://www.fsf.org/licenses/, to define what you may and may not do with the software in different situations. If you feel uncomfortable with the GPL or need to embed MySQL code into a commercial application, you can buy a commercially licensed version from us. See the MySQL Licensing Overview for more information (http://www.mysql.com/company/legal/licensing/).
The MySQL Database Server is very fast, reliable, and easy to use.
If that is what you are looking for, you should give it a try. MySQL Server also has a practical set of features developed in close cooperation with our users. You can find a performance comparison of MySQL Server with other database managers on our benchmark page. See section 7.1.4 The MySQL Benchmark Suite. MySQL Server was originally developed to handle large databases much faster than existing solutions and has been successfully used in highly demanding production environments for several years. Although under constant development, MySQL Server today offers a rich and useful set of functions. Its connectivity, speed, and security make MySQL Server highly suited for accessing databases on the Internet.
MySQL Server works in client/server or embedded systems.
The MySQL Database Software is a client/server system that consists of a multi-threaded SQL server that supports different backends, several different client programs and libraries, administrative tools, and a wide range of application programming interfaces (APIs). We also provide MySQL Server as an embedded multi-threaded library that you can link into your application to get a smaller, faster, easier-to-manage product.
A large amount of contributed MySQL software is available.
It is very likely that you will find that your favorite application or language supports the MySQL Database Server.

The official way to pronounce ``MySQL'' is ``My Ess Que Ell'' (not ``my sequel''), but we don't mind if you pronounce it as ``my sequel'' or in some other localized way.

1.2.1 History of MySQL

We started out with the intention of using mSQL to connect to our tables using our own fast low-level (ISAM) routines. However, after some testing, we came to the conclusion that mSQL was not fast enough or flexible enough for our needs. This resulted in a new SQL interface to our database but with almost the same API interface as mSQL. This API was designed to allow third-party code that was written for use with mSQL to be ported easily for use with MySQL.

The derivation of the name MySQL is not clear. Our base directory and a large number of our libraries and tools have had the prefix ``my'' for well over 10 years. However, co-founder Monty Widenius's daughter is also named My. Which of the two gave its name to MySQL is still a mystery, even for us.

The name of the MySQL Dolphin (our logo) is ``Sakila,'' which was chosen by the founders of MySQL AB from a huge list of names suggested by users in our ``Name the Dolphin'' contest. The winning name was submitted by Ambrose Twebaze, an Open Source software developer from Swaziland, Africa. According to Ambrose, the name Sakila has its roots in SiSwati, the local language of Swaziland. Sakila is also the name of a town in Arusha, Tanzania, near Ambrose's country of origin, Uganda.

1.2.2 The Main Features of MySQL

The following list describes some of the important characteristics of the MySQL Database Software. See also section 1.3 MySQL Development Roadmap for more information about current and upcoming features.

Internals and Portability
Column Types
Statements and Functions
Security
Scalability and Limits
Connectivity
Localization
Clients and Tools

1.2.3 MySQL Stability

This section addresses the questions, ``How stable is MySQL Server?'' and, ``Can I depend on MySQL Server in this project?'' We will try to clarify these issues and answer some important questions that concern many potential users. The information in this section is based on data gathered from the mailing lists, which are very active in identifying problems as well as reporting types of use.

The original code stems back to the early 1980s. It provides a stable code base, and the ISAM table format used by the original storage engine remains backward-compatible. At TcX, the predecessor of MySQL AB, MySQL code has worked in projects since mid-1996, without any problems. When the MySQL Database Software initially was released to a wider public, our new users quickly found some pieces of untested code. Each new release since then has had fewer portability problems, even though each new release has also had many new features.

Each release of the MySQL Server has been usable. Problems have occurred only when users try code from the ``gray zones.'' Naturally, new users don't know what the gray zones are; this section therefore attempts to document those areas that are currently known. The descriptions mostly deal with Version 3.23, 4.0 and 4.1 of MySQL Server. All known and reported bugs are fixed in the latest version, with the exception of those listed in the bugs section, which are design-related. See section 1.5.7 Known Errors and Design Deficiencies in MySQL.

The MySQL Server design is multi-layered with independent modules. Some of the newer modules are listed here with an indication of how well-tested each of them is:

Replication (Stable)
Large groups of servers using replication are in production use, with good results. Work on enhanced replication features is continuing in MySQL 5.x.
InnoDB tables (Stable)
The InnoDB transactional storage engine has been declared stable in the MySQL 3.23 tree, starting from version 3.23.49. InnoDB is being used in large, heavy-load production systems.
BDB tables (Stable)
The Berkeley DB code is very stable, but we are still improving the BDB transactional storage engine interface in MySQL Server.
Full-text searches (Stable)
Full-text searching is widely used. Important feature enhancements were added in MySQL 4.0 and 4.1.
MyODBC 3.51 (Stable)
MyODBC 3.51 uses ODBC SDK 3.51 and is in wide production use. Some issues brought up appear to be application-related and independent of the ODBC driver or underlying database server.

1.2.4 How Big MySQL Tables Can Be

MySQL 3.22 had a 4GB (4 gigabyte) limit on table size. With the MyISAM storage engine in MySQL 3.23, the maximum table size was increased to 8 million terabytes (2 ^ 63 bytes). With this larger allowed table size, the maximum effective table size for MySQL databases is usually determined by operating system constraints on file sizes, not by MySQL internal limits.

The InnoDB storage engine maintains InnoDB tables within a tablespace that can be created from several files. This allows a table to exceed the maximum individual file size. The tablespace can include raw disk partitions, which allows extremely large tables. The maximum tablespace size is 64TB.

The following table lists some examples of operating system file-size limits. This is only a rough guide and is not intended to be definitive. For the most up-to-date information, be sure to check the documentation specific to your operating system.

Operating System File-size Limit
Linux 2.2-Intel 32-bit 2GB (LFS: 4GB)
Linux 2.4 (using ext3 filesystem) 4TB
Solaris 9/10 16TB
NetWare w/NSS filesystem 8TB
win32 w/ FAT/FAT32 2GB/4GB
win32 w/ NTFS 2TB (possibly larger)
MacOS X w/ HFS+ 2TB

On Linux 2.2, you can get MyISAM tables larger than 2GB in size by using the Large File Support (LFS) patch for the ext2 filesystem. On Linux 2.4, patches also exist for ReiserFS to get support for big files (up to 2TB). Most current Linux distributions are based on kernel 2.4 and include all the required LFS patches. With JFS and XFS, petabyte and larger files are possible on Linux. However, the maximum available file size still depends on several factors, one of them being the filesystem used to store MySQL tables.

For a detailed overview about LFS in Linux, have a look at Andreas Jaeger's Large File Support in Linux page at http://www.suse.de/~aj/linux_lfs.html.

Windows users please note: FAT and VFAT (FAT32) are not considered suitable for production use with MySQL. Use NTFS instead.

By default, MySQL creates MyISAM tables with an internal structure that allows a maximum size of about 4GB. You can check the maximum table size for a table with the SHOW TABLE STATUS statement or with myisamchk -dv tbl_name. See section 13.5.4 SHOW Syntax.

If you need a MyISAM table that will be larger than 4GB in size (and your operating system supports large files), the CREATE TABLE statement allows AVG_ROW_LENGTH and MAX_ROWS options. See section 13.2.6 CREATE TABLE Syntax. You can also change these options with ALTER TABLE after the table has been created, to increase the table's maximum allowable size. See section 13.2.2 ALTER TABLE Syntax.

Other ways to work around file-size limits for MyISAM tables are as follows:

1.2.5 Year 2000 Compliance

The MySQL Server itself has no problems with Year 2000 (Y2K) compliance:

The following simple demonstration illustrates that MySQL Server has no problems with DATE or DATETIME values through the year 9999, and no problems with TIMESTAMP values until after the year 2030:

mysql> DROP TABLE IF EXISTS y2k;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

mysql> CREATE TABLE y2k (date DATE,
    ->                   date_time DATETIME,
    ->                   time_stamp TIMESTAMP);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

mysql> INSERT INTO y2k VALUES
    -> ('1998-12-31','1998-12-31 23:59:59',19981231235959),
    -> ('1999-01-01','1999-01-01 00:00:00',19990101000000),
    -> ('1999-09-09','1999-09-09 23:59:59',19990909235959),
    -> ('2000-01-01','2000-01-01 00:00:00',20000101000000),
    -> ('2000-02-28','2000-02-28 00:00:00',20000228000000),
    -> ('2000-02-29','2000-02-29 00:00:00',20000229000000),
    -> ('2000-03-01','2000-03-01 00:00:00',20000301000000),
    -> ('2000-12-31','2000-12-31 23:59:59',20001231235959),
    -> ('2001-01-01','2001-01-01 00:00:00',20010101000000),
    -> ('2004-12-31','2004-12-31 23:59:59',20041231235959),
    -> ('2005-01-01','2005-01-01 00:00:00',20050101000000),
    -> ('2030-01-01','2030-01-01 00:00:00',20300101000000),
    -> ('2040-01-01','2040-01-01 00:00:00',20400101000000),
    -> ('9999-12-31','9999-12-31 23:59:59',99991231235959);
Query OK, 14 rows affected (0.01 sec)
Records: 14  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 2

mysql> SELECT * FROM y2k;
+------------+---------------------+----------------+
| date       | date_time           | time_stamp     |
+------------+---------------------+----------------+
| 1998-12-31 | 1998-12-31 23:59:59 | 19981231235959 |
| 1999-01-01 | 1999-01-01 00:00:00 | 19990101000000 |
| 1999-09-09 | 1999-09-09 23:59:59 | 19990909235959 |
| 2000-01-01 | 2000-01-01 00:00:00 | 20000101000000 |
| 2000-02-28 | 2000-02-28 00:00:00 | 20000228000000 |
| 2000-02-29 | 2000-02-29 00:00:00 | 20000229000000 |
| 2000-03-01 | 2000-03-01 00:00:00 | 20000301000000 |
| 2000-12-31 | 2000-12-31 23:59:59 | 20001231235959 |
| 2001-01-01 | 2001-01-01 00:00:00 | 20010101000000 |
| 2004-12-31 | 2004-12-31 23:59:59 | 20041231235959 |
| 2005-01-01 | 2005-01-01 00:00:00 | 20050101000000 |
| 2030-01-01 | 2030-01-01 00:00:00 | 20300101000000 |
| 2040-01-01 | 2040-01-01 00:00:00 | 00000000000000 |
| 9999-12-31 | 9999-12-31 23:59:59 | 00000000000000 |
+------------+---------------------+----------------+
14 rows in set (0.00 sec)

The final two TIMESTAMP column values are zero because the year values (2040, 9999) exceed the TIMESTAMP maximum. The TIMESTAMP data type, which is used to store the current time, supports values that range from 19700101000000 to 20300101000000 on 32-bit machines (signed value). On 64-bit machines, TIMESTAMP handles values up to 2106 (unsigned value).

Although MySQL Server itself is Y2K-safe, you may run into problems if you use it with applications that are not Y2K-safe. For example, many old applications store or manipulate years using two-digit values (which are ambiguous) rather than four-digit values. This problem may be compounded by applications that use values such as 00 or 99 as ``missing'' value indicators. Unfortunately, these problems may be difficult to fix because different applications may be written by different programmers, each of whom may use a different set of conventions and date-handling functions.

Thus, even though MySQL Server has no Y2K problems, it is the application's responsibility to provide unambiguous input. See section 11.3.4 Y2K Issues and Date Types for MySQL Server's rules for dealing with ambiguous date input data that contains two-digit year values.

1.3 MySQL Development Roadmap

This section provides a snapshot of the MySQL development roadmap, including major features implemented or planned for MySQL 4.0, 4.1, 5.0, and 5.1. The following sections provide information for each release series.

The current production release series is MySQL 4.1, which was declared stable for production use as of Version 4.1.7, released in October 2004. The previous production release series is MySQL 4.0, which was declared stable for production use as of Version 4.0.12, released in March 2003. Production status means that future 4.1 and 4.0 development is limited only to bugfixes. For the older MySQL 3.23 series, only critical bugfixes are made.

Active MySQL development currently is taking place in the MySQL 5.0 release series, this means that new features are being added there. MySQL 5.0 is available in alpha status.

Before upgrading from one release series to the next, please see the notes at section 2.10 Upgrading MySQL.

Plans for some of the most requested features are summarized in the following table.

Feature MySQL Series
Unions 4.0
Subqueries 4.1
R-trees 4.1 (for MyISAM tables)
Stored procedures 5.0
Views 5.0
Cursors 5.0
Foreign keys 5.1 (implemented in 3.23 for InnoDB)
Triggers 5.0 and 5.1
Full outer join 5.1
Constraints 5.1

1.3.1 MySQL 4.0 in a Nutshell

MySQL Server 4.0 is available in production status.

MySQL 4.0 is available for download at http://dev.mysql.com/ and from our mirrors. MySQL 4.0 has been tested by a large number of users and is in production use at many large sites.

The major new features of MySQL Server 4.0 are geared toward our existing business and community users, enhancing the MySQL database software as the solution for mission-critical, heavy-load database systems. Other new features target the users of embedded databases.

1.3.1.1 Features Available in MySQL 4.0

Speed enhancements
Embedded MySQL Server introduced
InnoDB storage engine as standard
New functionality
Standards compliance, portability, and migration
Internationalization
Usability enhancements
In the process of implementing features for new users, we have not forgotten requests from our loyal community of existing users.

The news section of this manual includes a more in-depth list of features. See section D.3 Changes in release 4.0.x (Production).

1.3.1.2 The Embedded MySQL Server

The libmysqld embedded server library makes MySQL Server suitable for a vastly expanded realm of applications. By using this library, developers can embed MySQL Server into various applications and electronics devices, where the end user has no knowledge of there actually being an underlying database. Embedded MySQL Server is ideal for use behind the scenes in Internet appliances, public kiosks, turnkey hardware/software combination units, high performance Internet servers, self-contained databases distributed on CD-ROM, and so on.

Many users of libmysqld will benefit from the MySQL Dual Licensing. For those not wishing to be bound by the GPL, the software is also made available under a commercial license. See http://www.mysql.com/company/legal/licensing/ for more information on the licensing policy of MySQL AB. The embedded MySQL library uses the same interface as the normal client library, so it is convenient and easy to use. See section 22.2.16 libmysqld, the Embedded MySQL Server Library.

On Windows there are two different libraries:

libmysqld.lib Dynamic library for threaded applications.
mysqldemb.lib Static library for not threaded applications.

1.3.2 MySQL 4.1 in a Nutshell

MySQL Server 4.0 laid the foundation for new features implemented in MySQL 4.1, such as subqueries and Unicode support, and for the work on stored procedures being done in version 5.0. These features come at the top of the wish list of many of our customers. Well-known for its stability, speed, and ease of use, MySQL Server is able to fulfill the requirement checklists of very demanding buyers.

MySQL Server 4.1 is currently in production status, and binaries are available for download at http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mysql/4.1.html. All binary releases pass our extensive test suite without any errors on the platforms on which we test. See section D.2 Changes in release 4.1.x (Production).

For those wishing to use the most recent development source for MySQL 4.1, we also make our BitKeeper repositories publicly available. See section 2.8.3 Installing from the Development Source Tree.

1.3.2.1 Features Available in MySQL 4.1

This section lists features implemented in MySQL 4.1. New features that will be available in MySQL 5.0 are described in section C.1 New Features Planned for 5.0.

Support for subqueries and derived tables
Speed enhancements
New functionality
Standards compliance, portability, and migration
Internationalization and Localization
Usability enhancements

The news section of this manual includes a more in-depth list of features. See section D.2 Changes in release 4.1.x (Production).

1.3.3 MySQL 5.0: The Next Development Release

New development for MySQL is focused on the 5.0 release, featuring stored procedures, views (including updatable views), rudimentary triggers, and other new features. See section C.1 New Features Planned for 5.0.

For those wishing to take a look at the bleeding edge of MySQL development, we make our BitKeeper repository for MySQL version 5.0 publicly available. See section 2.8.3 Installing from the Development Source Tree. As of December 2003, binary builds of version 5.0 have also been available.

1.4 MySQL Information Sources

1.4.1 MySQL Mailing Lists

This section introduces the MySQL mailing lists and provides guidelines as to how the lists should be used. When you subscribe to a mailing list, you will receive all postings to the list as email messages. You can also send your own questions and answers to the list.

1.4.1.1 The MySQL Mailing Lists

To subscribe to or unsubscribe from any of the mailing lists described in this section, visit http://lists.mysql.com/. For most of them, you can select the regular version of the list where you get individual messages, or a digest version where you get one large message per day.

Please do not send messages about subscribing or unsubscribing to any of the mailing lists, because such messages are distributed automatically to thousands of other users.

Your local site may have many subscribers to a MySQL mailing list. If so, the site may have a local mailing list, so that messages sent from lists.mysql.com to your site are propagated to the local list. In such cases, please contact your system administrator to be added to or dropped from the local MySQL list.

If you wish to have traffic for a mailing list go to a separate mailbox in your mail program, set up a filter based on the message headers. You can use either the List-ID: or Delivered-To: headers to identify list messages.

The MySQL mailing lists are as follows:

announce
This list is for announcements of new versions of MySQL and related programs. This is a low-volume list to which all MySQL users should subscribe.
mysql
This is the main list for general MySQL discussion. Please note that some topics are better discussed on the more-specialized lists. If you post to the wrong list, you may not get an answer.
bugs
This list will be of interest to you if you want to stay informed about issues reported since the last release of MySQL or if you want to be actively involved in the process of bug hunting and fixing. See section 1.4.1.3 How to Report Bugs or Problems.
internals
This list is for people who work on the MySQL code. This is also the forum for discussions on MySQL development and for posting patches.
mysqldoc
This list is for people who work on the MySQL documentation: people from MySQL AB, translators, and other community members.
benchmarks
This list is for anyone interested in performance issues. Discussions concentrate on database performance (not limited to MySQL), but also include broader categories such as performance of the kernel, filesystem, disk system, and so on.
packagers
This list is for discussions on packaging and distributing MySQL. This is the forum used by distribution maintainers to exchange ideas on packaging MySQL and on ensuring that MySQL looks and feels as similar as possible on all supported platforms and operating systems.
java
This list is for discussions about the MySQL server and Java. It is mostly used to discuss JDBC drivers, including MySQL Connector/J.
win32
This list is for all topics concerning the MySQL software on Microsoft operating systems, such as Windows 9x, Me, NT, 2000, XP, and 2003.
myodbc
This list is for all topics concerning connecting to the MySQL server with ODBC.
gui-tools
This list is for all topics concerning MySQL GUI tools, including MySQL Administrator and the MySQL Control Center graphical client.
cluster
This list is for discussion of MySQL Cluster.
dotnet
This list is for discussion of the MySQL server and the .NET platform. Mostly related to the MySQL Connector/Net provider.
plusplus
This list is for all topics concerning programming with the C++ API for MySQL.
perl
This list is for all topics concerning the Perl support for MySQL with DBD::mysql.

If you're unable to get an answer to your questions from a MySQL mailing list, one option is to purchase support from MySQL AB. This will put you in direct contact with MySQL developers.

The following table shows some MySQL mailing lists in languages other than English. These lists are not operated by MySQL AB.

mysql-france-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
A French mailing list.
list@tinc.net
A Korean mailing list. Email subscribe mysql your@email.address to this list.
mysql-de-request@lists.4t2.com
A German mailing list. Email subscribe mysql-de your@email.address to this list. You can find information about this mailing list at http://www.4t2.com/mysql/.
mysql-br-request@listas.linkway.com.br
A Portuguese mailing list. Email subscribe mysql-br your@email.address to this list.
mysql-alta@elistas.net
A Spanish mailing list. Email subscribe mysql your@email.address to this list.

1.4.1.2 Asking Questions or Reporting Bugs

Before posting a bug report or question, please do the following:

If you can't find an answer in the manual or the archives, check with your local MySQL expert. If you still can't find an answer to your question, please follow the guidelines on sending mail to a MySQL mailing list, outlined in the next section, before contacting us.

1.4.1.3 How to Report Bugs or Problems

The normal place to report bugs is http://bugs.mysql.com/, which is the address for our bugs database. This database is public, and can be browsed and searched by anyone. If you log in to the system, you will also be able to enter new reports.

Writing a good bug report takes patience, but doing it right the first time saves time both for us and for yourself. A good bug report, containing a full test case for the bug, makes it very likely that we will fix the bug in the next release. This section will help you write your report correctly so that you don't waste your time doing things that may not help us much or at all.

We encourage everyone to use the mysqlbug script to generate a bug report (or a report about any problem). mysqlbug can be found in the `scripts' directory (source distribution) and in the `bin' directory under your MySQL installation directory (binary distribution). If you are unable to use mysqlbug (for example, if you are running on Windows), it is still vital that you include all the necessary information noted in this section (most importantly, a description of the operating system and the MySQL version).

The mysqlbug script helps you generate a report by determining much of the following information automatically, but if something important is missing, please include it with your message. Please read this section carefully and make sure that all the information described here is included in your report.

Preferably, you should test the problem using the latest production or development version of MySQL Server before posting. Anyone should be able to repeat the bug by just using mysql test < script_file on the included test case or by running the shell or Perl script that is included in the bug report.

All bugs posted in the bugs database at http://bugs.mysql.com/ will be corrected or documented in the next MySQL release. If only minor code changes are needed to correct a problem, we may also post a patch that fixes the problem.

If you have found a sensitive security bug in MySQL, you can send email to security@mysql.com.

If you have a repeatable bug report, please report it to the bugs database at http://bugs.mysql.com/. Note that even in this case it's good to run the mysqlbug script first to find information about your system. Any bug that we are able to repeat has a high chance of being fixed in the next MySQL release.

To report other problems, you can use one of the MySQL mailing lists.

Remember that it is possible for us to respond to a message containing too much information, but not to one containing too little. People often omit facts because they think they know the cause of a problem and assume that some details don't matter. A good principle is this: If you are in doubt about stating something, state it. It is faster and less troublesome to write a couple more lines in your report than to wait longer for the answer if we must ask you to provide information that was missing from the initial report.

The most common errors made in bug reports are (a) not including the version number of the MySQL distribution used, and (b) not fully describing the platform on which the MySQL server is installed (including the platform type and version number). This is highly relevant information, and in 99 cases out of 100, the bug report is useless without it. Very often we get questions like, ``Why doesn't this work for me?'' Then we find that the feature requested wasn't implemented in that MySQL version, or that a bug described in a report has been fixed in newer MySQL versions. Sometimes the error is platform-dependent; in such cases, it is next to impossible for us to fix anything without knowing the operating system and the version number of the platform.

If you compiled MySQL from source, remember also to provide information about your compiler, if it is related to the problem. Often people find bugs in compilers and think the problem is MySQL-related. Most compilers are under development all the time and become better version by version. To determine whether your problem depends on your compiler, we need to know what compiler you use. Note that every compiling problem should be regarded as a bug and reported accordingly.

It is most helpful when a good description of the problem is included in the bug report. That is, give a good example of everything you did that led to the problem and describe, in exact detail, the problem itself. The best reports are those that include a full example showing how to reproduce the bug or problem. See section E.1.6 Making a Test Case If You Experience Table Corruption.

If a program produces an error message, it is very important to include the message in your report. If we try to search for something from the archives using programs, it is better that the error message reported exactly matches the one that the program produces. (Even the lettercase should be observed.) You should never try to reproduce from memory what the error message was; instead, copy and paste the entire message into your report.

If you have a problem with Connector/ODBC (MyODBC), please try to generate a trace file and send it with your report. See section 23.1.1.9 How to Report MyODBC Problems or Bugs.

Please remember that many of the people who will read your report will do so using an 80-column display. When generating reports or examples using the mysql command-line tool, you should therefore use the --vertical option (or the \G statement terminator) for output that would exceed the available width for such a display (for example, with the EXPLAIN SELECT statement; see the example later in this section).

Please include the following information in your report:

If you are a support customer, please cross-post the bug report to mysql-support@mysql.com for higher-priority treatment, as well as to the appropriate mailing list to see whether someone else has experienced (and perhaps solved) the problem.

For information on reporting bugs in MyODBC, see section 23.1.1.9 How to Report MyODBC Problems or Bugs.

For solutions to some common problems, see section A Problems and Common Errors.

When answers are sent to you individually and not to the mailing list, it is considered good etiquette to summarize the answers and send the summary to the mailing list so that others may have the benefit of responses you received that helped you solve your problem.

1.4.1.4 Guidelines for Answering Questions on the Mailing List

If you consider your answer to have broad interest, you may want to post it to the mailing list instead of replying directly to the individual who asked. Try to make your answer general enough that people other than the original poster may benefit from it. When you post to the list, please make sure that your answer is not a duplication of a previous answer.

Try to summarize the essential part of the question in your reply; don't feel obliged to quote the entire original message.

Please don't post mail messages from your browser with HTML mode turned on. Many users don't read mail with a browser.

1.4.2 MySQL Community Support on IRC (Internet Relay Chat)

In addition to the various MySQL mailing lists, you can find experienced community people on IRC (Internet Relay Chat). These are the best networks/channels currently known to us:

If you are looking for IRC client software to connect to an IRC network, take a look at X-Chat (http://www.xchat.org/). X-Chat (GPL licensed) is available for Unix as well as for Windows platforms.

1.4.3 MySQL Community Support at the MySQL Forums

The latest community support resource are the forums at http://forums.mysql.com.

There are a variety of forums available, grouped in the following general categories:

1.5 MySQL Standards Compliance

This section describes how MySQL relates to the ANSI/ISO SQL standards. MySQL Server has many extensions to the SQL standard, and here you will find out what they are and how to use them. You will also find information about functionality missing from MySQL Server, and how to work around some differences.

The SQL standard has been evolving since 1986 and several versions exist. In this manual, ``SQL-92'' refers to the standard released in 1992, ``SQL:1999'' refers to the standard released in 1999, and ``SQL:2003'' refers to the current version of the standard. We use the phrase ``the SQL standard'' to mean the current version of the SQL Standard at any time.

Our goal is to not restrict MySQL Server usability for any usage without a very good reason for doing so. Even if we don't have the resources to perform development for every possible use, we are always willing to help and offer suggestions to people who are trying to use MySQL Server in new territories.

One of our main goals with the product is to continue to work toward compliance with the SQL standard, but without sacrificing speed or reliability. We are not afraid to add extensions to SQL or support for non-SQL features if this greatly increases the usability of MySQL Server for a large segment of our user base. The HANDLER interface in MySQL Server 4.0 is an example of this strategy. See section 13.1.3 HANDLER Syntax.

We will continue to support transactional and non-transactional databases to satisfy both mission-critical 24/7 usage and heavy Web or logging usage.

MySQL Server was originally designed to work with medium size databases (10-100 million rows, or about 100MB per table) on small computer systems. Today MySQL Server handles terabyte-size databases, but the code can also be compiled in a reduced version suitable for hand-held and embedded devices. The compact design of the MySQL server makes development in both directions possible without any conflicts in the source tree.

Currently, we are not targeting realtime support, although MySQL replication capabilities offer significant functionality.

Database cluster support exists through third-party clustering solutions as well as the integration of our acquired NDB Cluster technology, available from version 4.1.2. See section 16 MySQL Cluster.

We are also looking at providing XML support in the database server.

1.5.1 What Standards MySQL Follows

We are aiming toward supporting the full ANSI/ISO SQL standard, but without making concessions to speed and quality of the code.

ODBC levels 0-3.51.

1.5.2 Selecting SQL Modes

The MySQL server can operate in different SQL modes, and can apply these modes differentially for different clients. This allows an application to tailor server operation to its own requirements.

Modes define what SQL syntax MySQL should support and what kind of validation checks it should perform on the data. This makes it easier to use MySQL in a lot of different environments and to use MySQL together with other database servers.

You can set the default SQL mode by starting mysqld with the --sql-mode="modes" option. Beginning with MySQL 4.1, you can also change the mode after startup time by setting the sql_mode variable with a SET [SESSION|GLOBAL] sql_mode='modes' statement.

For more information on setting the server mode, see section 5.2.2 The Server SQL Mode.

1.5.3 Running MySQL in ANSI Mode

You can tell mysqld to use the ANSI mode with the --ansi startup option. See section 5.2.1 mysqld Command-Line Options.

Running the server in ANSI mode is the same as starting it with these options (specify the --sql_mode value on a single line):

--transaction-isolation=SERIALIZABLE
--sql-mode=REAL_AS_FLOAT,PIPES_AS_CONCAT,ANSI_QUOTES,
IGNORE_SPACE,ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY

In MySQL 4.1, you can achieve the same effect with these two statements (specify the sql_mode value on a single line):

SET GLOBAL TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE;
SET GLOBAL sql_mode = 'REAL_AS_FLOAT,PIPES_AS_CONCAT,ANSI_QUOTES,
IGNORE_SPACE,ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY';

See section 1.5.2 Selecting SQL Modes.

In MySQL 4.1.1, the sql_mode options shown can be also be set with this statement:

SET GLOBAL sql_mode='ansi';

In this case, the value of the sql_mode variable will be set to all options that are relevant for ANSI mode. You can check the result like this:

mysql> SET GLOBAL sql_mode='ansi';
mysql> SELECT @@global.sql_mode;
        -> 'REAL_AS_FLOAT,PIPES_AS_CONCAT,ANSI_QUOTES,
            IGNORE_SPACE,ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY,ANSI';

1.5.4 MySQL Extensions to Standard SQL

MySQL Server includes some extensions that you probably will not find in other SQL databases. Be warned that if you use them, your code will not be portable to other SQL servers. In some cases, you can write code that includes MySQL extensions, but is still portable, by using comments of the form /*! ... */. In this case, MySQL Server will parse and execute the code within the comment as it would any other MySQL statement, but other SQL servers will ignore the extensions. For example:

SELECT /*! STRAIGHT_JOIN */ col_name FROM table1,table2 WHERE ...

If you add a version number after the `!' character, the syntax within the comment will be executed only if the MySQL version is equal to or newer than the specified version number:

CREATE /*!32302 TEMPORARY */ TABLE t (a INT);

This means that if you have Version 3.23.02 or newer, MySQL Server will use the TEMPORARY keyword.

The following descriptions list MySQL extensions, organized by category.

Organization of data on disk
MySQL Server maps each database to a directory under the MySQL data directory, and tables within a database to filenames in the database directory. This has a few implications: Database, table, index, column, or alias names may begin with a digit (but may not consist solely of digits).
General language syntax
SQL statement syntax
Column types
Functions and operators

For a prioritized list indicating when new extensions will be added to MySQL Server, you should consult the online MySQL TODO list at http://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql/en/TODO.html. That is the latest version of the TODO list in this manual. See section C MySQL and the Future (the TODO).

1.5.5 MySQL Differences from Standard SQL

We try to make MySQL Server follow the ANSI SQL standard and the ODBC SQL standard, but MySQL Server performs operations differently in some cases:

1.5.5.1 Subqueries

MySQL 4.1 supports subqueries and derived tables. A ``subquery'' is a SELECT statement nested within another statement. A ``derived table'' (an unnamed view) is a subquery in the FROM clause of another statement. See section 13.1.8 Subquery Syntax.

For MySQL versions older than 4.1, most subqueries can be rewritten using joins or other methods. See section 13.1.8.11 Rewriting Subqueries as Joins for Earlier MySQL Versions for examples that show how to do this.

1.5.5.2 SELECT INTO TABLE

MySQL Server doesn't support the Sybase SQL extension: SELECT ... INTO TABLE .... Instead, MySQL Server supports the standard SQL syntax INSERT INTO ... SELECT ..., which is basically the same thing. See section 13.1.4.1 INSERT ... SELECT Syntax.

INSERT INTO tbl_temp2 (fld_id)
    SELECT tbl_temp1.fld_order_id
    FROM tbl_temp1 WHERE tbl_temp1.fld_order_id > 100;

Alternatively, you can use SELECT INTO OUTFILE ... or CREATE TABLE ... SELECT.

From version 5.0, MySQL supports SELECT ... INTO with user variables. The same syntax may also be used inside stored procedures using cursors and local variables. See section 19.1.6.3 SELECT ... INTO Statement.

1.5.5.3 Transactions and Atomic Operations

MySQL Server (version 3.23-max and all versions 4.0 and above) supports transactions with the InnoDB and BDB transactional storage engines. InnoDB provides full ACID compliance. See section 14 MySQL Storage Engines and Table Types.

The other non-transactional storage engines in MySQL Server (such as MyISAM) follow a different paradigm for data integrity called ``atomic operations.'' In transactional terms, MyISAM tables effectively always operate in AUTOCOMMIT=1 mode. Atomic operations often offer comparable integrity with higher performance.

With MySQL Server supporting both paradigms, you can decide whether your applications are best served by the speed of atomic operations or the use of transactional features. This choice can be made on a per-table basis.

As noted, the trade-off for transactional versus non-transactional table types lies mostly in performance. Transactional tables have significantly higher memory and diskspace requirements, and more CPU overhead. On the other hand, transactional table types such as InnoDB also offer many significant features. MySQL Server's modular design allows the concurrent use of different storage engines to suit different requirements and deliver optimum performance in all situations.

But how do you use the features of MySQL Server to maintain rigorous integrity even with the non-transactional MyISAM tables, and how do these features compare with the transactional table types?

  1. If your applications are written in a way that is dependent on being able to call ROLLBACK rather than COMMIT in critical situations, transactions are more convenient. Transactions also ensure that unfinished updates or corrupting activities are not committed to the database; the server is given the opportunity to do an automatic rollback and your database is saved. If you use non-transactional tables, MySQL Server in almost all cases allows you to resolve potential problems by including simple checks before updates and by running simple scripts that check the databases for inconsistencies and automatically repair or warn if such an inconsistency occurs. Note that just by using the MySQL log or even adding one extra log, you can normally fix tables perfectly with no data integrity loss.
  2. More often than not, critical transactional updates can be rewritten to be atomic. Generally speaking, all integrity problems that transactions solve can be done with LOCK TABLES or atomic updates, ensuring that you never will get an automatic abort from the server, which is a common problem with transactional database systems.
  3. Even a transactional system can lose data if the server goes down. The difference between different systems lies in just how small the time-lag is where they could lose data. No system is 100% secure, only ``secure enough.'' Even Oracle, reputed to be the safest of transactional database systems, is reported to sometimes lose data in such situations. To be safe with MySQL Server, whether or not using transactional tables, you only need to have backups and have binary logging turned on. With this you can recover from any situation that you could with any other transactional database system. It is always good to have backups, regardless of which database system you use.

The transactional paradigm has its benefits and its drawbacks. Many users and application developers depend on the ease with which they can code around problems where an abort appears to be, or is necessary. However, even if you are new to the atomic operations paradigm, or more familiar with transactions, do consider the speed benefit that non-transactional tables can offer on the order of three to five times the speed of the fastest and most optimally tuned transactional tables.

In situations where integrity is of highest importance, MySQL Server offers transaction-level reliability and integrity even for non-transactional tables. If you lock tables with LOCK TABLES, all updates will stall until any integrity checks are made. If you obtain a READ LOCAL lock (as opposed to a write lock) for a table that allows concurrent inserts at the end of the table, reads are allowed, as are inserts by other clients. The new inserted records will not be seen by the client that has the read lock until it releases the lock. With INSERT DELAYED, you can queue inserts into a local queue, until the locks are released, without having the client wait for the insert to complete. See section 13.1.4.2 INSERT DELAYED Syntax.

``Atomic,'' in the sense that we mean it, is nothing magical. It only means that you can be sure that while each specific update is running, no other user can interfere with it, and there will never be an automatic rollback (which can happen with transactional tables if you are not very careful). MySQL Server also guarantees that there will not be any dirty reads.

Following are some techniques for working with non-transactional tables:

1.5.5.4 Stored Procedures and Triggers

Stored procedures are implemented in MySQL version 5.0. See section 19 Stored Procedures and Functions.

Triggers are currently being implemented, with basic functionality in MySQL 5.0, with further development planned for MySQL 5.1.

1.5.5.5 Foreign Keys

In MySQL Server 3.23.44 and up, the InnoDB storage engine supports checking of foreign key constraints, including CASCADE, ON DELETE, and ON UPDATE. See section 15.7.4 FOREIGN KEY Constraints.

For storage engines other than InnoDB, MySQL Server parses the FOREIGN KEY syntax in CREATE TABLE statements, but does not use or store it. In the future, the implementation will be extended to store this information in the table specification file so that it may be retrieved by mysqldump and ODBC. At a later stage, foreign key constraints will be implemented for MyISAM tables as well.

Foreign key enforcement offers several benefits to database developers:

Do keep in mind that these benefits come at the cost of additional overhead for the database server to perform the necessary checks. Additional checking by the server affects performance, which for some applications may be sufficiently undesirable as to be avoided if possible. (Some major commercial applications have coded the foreign-key logic at the application level for this reason.)

MySQL gives database developers the choice of which approach to use. If you don't need foreign keys and want to avoid the overhead associated with enforcing referential integrity, you can choose another table type instead, such as MyISAM. (For example, the MyISAM storage engine offers very fast performance for applications that perform only INSERT and SELECT operations, because the inserts can be performed concurrently with retrievals. See section 7.3.2 Table Locking Issues.)

If you choose not to take advantage of referential integrity checks, keep the following considerations in mind:

Be aware that the use of foreign keys can in some instances lead to problems:

Note that foreign keys in SQL are used to check and enforce referential integrity, not to join tables. If you want to get results from multiple tables from a SELECT statement, you do this by performing a join between them:

SELECT * FROM t1, t2 WHERE t1.id = t2.id;

See section 13.1.7.1 JOIN Syntax. See section 3.6.6 Using Foreign Keys.

The FOREIGN KEY syntax without ON DELETE ... is often used by ODBC applications to produce automatic WHERE clauses.

1.5.5.6 Views

Views (including updatable views) are implemented in the 5.0 version of MySQL Server. Views are available in binary releases from 5.0.1 and up. See section 13.2.7 CREATE VIEW Syntax.

Views are useful for allowing users to access a set of relations (tables) as if it were a single table, and limiting their access to just that. Views can also be used to restrict access to rows (a subset of a particular table). For access control to columns, you can also use the sophisticated privilege system in MySQL Server. See section 5.5 The MySQL Access Privilege System.

In designing an implementation of views, our ambitious goal, as much as is possible within the confines of SQL, has been full compliance with ``Codd's Rule #6'' for relational database systems: ``All views that are theoretically updatable, should in practice also be updatable.''

1.5.5.7 `--' as the Start of a Comment

Some other SQL databases use `--' to start comments. MySQL Server uses `#' as the start comment character. You can also use the C comment style /* this is a comment */ with MySQL Server. See section 9.5 Comment Syntax.

MySQL Server 3.23.3 and above support the `--' comment style, provided the comment is followed by a space (or by a control character such as a newline). The requirement for a space is to prevent problems with automatically generated SQL queries that have used something like the following code, where we automatically insert the value of the payment for !payment!:

UPDATE account SET credit=credit-!payment!

Think about what happens if the value of payment is a negative value such as -1:

UPDATE account SET credit=credit--1

credit--1 is a legal expression in SQL, but if -- is interpreted as the start of a comment, part of the expression is discarded. The result is a statement that has a completely different meaning than intended:

UPDATE account SET credit=credit

The statement produces no change in value at all! This illustrates that allowing comments to start with `--' can have serious consequences.

Using our implementation of this method of commenting in MySQL Server 3.23.3 and up, credit--1 is actually safe.

Another safe feature is that the mysql command-line client removes all lines that start with `--'.

The following information is relevant only if you are running a MySQL version earlier than 3.23.3:

If you have an SQL program in a text file that contains `--' comments, you should use the replace utility as follows to convert the comments to use `#' characters:

shell> replace " --" " #" < text-file-with-funny-comments.sql \
         | mysql db_name

instead of the usual:

shell> mysql db_name < text-file-with-funny-comments.sql

You can also edit the command file ``in place'' to change the `--' comments to `#' comments:

shell> replace " --" " #" -- text-file-with-funny-comments.sql

Change them back with this command:

shell> replace " #" " --" -- text-file-with-funny-comments.sql

1.5.6 How MySQL Deals with Constraints

MySQL allows you to work both with transactional tables that allow rollback and with non-transactional tables that do not. Because of this, constraint handling is a bit different in MySQL than in other databases. We must handle the case when you have inserted or updated a lot of rows in a non-transactional table for which changes cannot be rolled back when an error occurs.

The basic philosophy is that MySQL Server tries to produce an error for anything that it can detect while parsing a statement to be executed, and tries to recover from any errors that occur while executing the statement. We do this in most cases, but not yet for all. See section C.3 New Features Planned for the Near Future.

The options MySQL has when an error occurs are to stop the statement in the middle or to recover as well as possible from the problem and continue. By default, the server follows the latter course. This means, for example, that the server may coerce illegal values to the closest legal values.

Beginning with MySQL 5.0.2, several SQL mode options are available to provide greater control over how accepting to be of bad data values and whether to continue executing a statement or abort it when errors occur. Using these options, you can configure MySQL Server to act in a more traditional fashion that is like other DBMSs that reject improper input. The SQL mode can be set at runtime, which enables individual clients to select the behavior most appropriate for their requirements. See section 5.2.2 The Server SQL Mode.

The following sections describe what happens for the different types of constraints.

1.5.6.1 PRIMARY KEY and UNIQUE Index Constraints

Normally, an error occurs when you try to INSERT or UPDATE a row that causes a primary key, unique key, or foreign key violation. If you are using a transactional storage engine such as InnoDB, MySQL automatically rolls back the statement. If you are using a non-transactional storage engine, MySQL stops processing the statement at the row for which the error occurred and leaves any remaining rows unprocessed.

If you wish to ignore such key violations, MySQL supports an IGNORE keyword for INSERT and UPDATE. In this case, MySQL ignores any key violations and continues processing with the next row. See section 13.1.4 INSERT Syntax. See section 13.1.10 UPDATE Syntax.

You can get information about the number of rows actually inserted or updated with the mysql_info() C API function. See section 22.2.3.31 mysql_info(). In MySQL 4.1 and up, you also can use the SHOW WARNINGS statement. See section 13.5.4.20 SHOW WARNINGS Syntax.

For the moment, only InnoDB tables support foreign keys. See section 15.7.4 FOREIGN KEY Constraints. Foreign key support in MyISAM tables is scheduled for implementation in MySQL 5.1.

1.5.6.2 Constraints on Invalid Data

Before MySQL 5.0.2, MySQL is forgiving of illegal or improper data values and coerces them to legal values for data entry. In MySQL 5.0.2 and up, that remains the default behavior, but you can select more traditional treatment of bad values such that the server rejects them and aborts the statement in which they occur. This section describes the default (forgiving) behavior of MySQL, as well as the newer strict SQL mode and how it differs.

The following holds true when you are not using strict mode. If you insert an ``incorrect'' value into a column, such as a NULL into a NOT NULL column or a too-large numeric value into a numeric column, MySQL sets the column to the ``best possible value'' instead of producing an error:

The reason for the preceding rules is that we can't check these conditions until the statement has begun executing. We can't just roll back if we encounter a problem after updating a few rows, because the storage engine may not support rollback. The option of terminating the statement is not that good; in this case, the update would be ``half done,'' which is probably the worst possible scenario. In this case, it's better to ``do the best you can'' and then continue as if nothing happened.

In MySQL 5.0.2 and up, you can select stricter treatment of input values by using the STRICT_TRANS_TABLES or STRICT_ALL_TABLES SQL modes. See section 5.2.2 The Server SQL Mode.

STRICT_TRANS_TABLES works like this: For transactional storage engines, bad data values occurring anywhere in the statement causes the to abort and roll back. For non-transactional storage engines, the statement aborts if the error occurs in the first row to be inserted or updated. (In this case, the statement can be regarded to leave the table unchanged, just as for a transactional table.) Errors in rows after the first do not abort the statement. Instead, bad data values are adjusted and result in warnings rather than errors. In other words, with STRICT_TRANS_TABLES, a wrong value causes MySQL to roll back, if it can, all updates done so far.

For stricter checking, enable STRICT_ALL_TABLES. This is the same as STRICT_TRANS_TABLES except that for non-transactional storage engines, errors abort the statement even for bad data in rows following the first row. This means that if an error occurs partway through a multiple-row insert or update for a non-transactional table, a partial update results. Earlier rows are inserted or updated, but those from the point of the error on are not. To avoid this for non-transactional tables, either use single-row statements or else use STRICT_TRANS_TABLES if conversion warnings rather than errors are acceptable. To avoid problems in the first place, do not use MySQL to check column content. It is safest (and often faster) to let the application ensure that it passes only legal values to the database.

With either of the strict mode options, you can cause errors to be treated as warnings by using INSERT IGNORE or UPDATE IGNORE.

1.5.6.3 ENUM and SET Constraints

ENUM and SET columns provide an efficient way to define columns that can contain only a given set of values. However, before MySQL 5.0.2, ENUM and SET are not real constraints. This is for the same reasons that NOT NULL is not honored. See section 1.5.6.2 Constraints on Invalid Data.

ENUM columns always have a default value. If you don't specify a default value, then it will be NULL for columns that can have NULL, otherwise the first enumeration value is used as the default value.

If you insert an incorrect value into an ENUM column or if you force a value into an ENUM column with IGNORE, it is set to the reserved enumeration value of 0, which is displayed as an empty string in string context. See section 11.4.4 The ENUM Type.

If you insert an incorrect value into a SET column, the incorrect value is ignored. For example, if the column can contain the values 'a', 'b', and 'c', an attempt to assign 'a,x,b,y' results in a value of 'a,b'. See section 11.4.5 The SET Type.

As of MySQL 5.0.2, you can configure the server to use strict SQL mode. See section 5.2.2 The Server SQL Mode. When strict mode is not enabled, values entered into ENUM and SET columns are handled as just described for MySQL 4.x. However, if strict mode is enabled, the definition of a ENUM or SET column does act as a constraint on values entered into the column. An error occurs for values that do not satisfy these conditions:

Errors for invalid values can be suppressed in strict mode if you use INSERT IGNORE or UPDATE IGNORE. In this case, a warning is generated rather than an error. For ENUM, the value is inserted as the error member (0). For SET, the value is inserted as given except that any invalid substrings are deleted. For example, 'a,x,b,y' results in a value of 'a,b', as described earlier.

1.5.7 Known Errors and Design Deficiencies in MySQL

1.5.7.1 Errors in 3.23 Fixed in a Later MySQL Version

The following known errors or bugs are not fixed in MySQL 3.23 because fixing them would involve changing a lot of code that could introduce other even worse bugs. The bugs are also classified as ``not fatal'' or ``bearable.''

1.5.7.2 Errors in 4.0 Fixed in a Later MySQL Version

The following known errors or bugs are not fixed in MySQL 4.0 because fixing them would involve changing a lot of code that could introduce other even worse bugs. The bugs are also classified as ``not fatal'' or ``bearable.''

1.5.7.3 Open Bugs and Design Deficiencies in MySQL

The following problems are known and fixing them is a high priority:

The following problems are known and will be fixed in due time:

The following are known bugs in earlier versions of MySQL:

For information about platform-specific bugs, see the installation and porting instructions in section 2.12 Operating System-Specific Notes and section E Porting to Other Systems.

2 Installing MySQL

This chapter describes how to obtain and install MySQL:

  1. Determine whether your platform is supported. Please note that not all supported systems are equally good for running MySQL on them. On some it is much more robust and efficient than others. See section 2.1.1 Operating Systems Supported by MySQL for details.
  2. Choose which distribution to install. Several versions of MySQL are available, and most are available in several distribution formats. You can choose from pre-packaged distributions containing binary (precompiled) programs or source code. When in doubt, use a binary distribution. We also provide public access to our current source tree for those who want to see our most recent developments and help us test new code. To determine which version and type of distribution you should use, see section 2.1.2 Choosing Which MySQL Distribution to Install.
  3. Download the distribution that you want to install. For a list of sites from which you can obtain MySQL, see section 2.1.3 How to Get MySQL. You can verify the integrity of the distribution using the instructions in section 2.1.4 Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG.
  4. Install the distribution. To install MySQL from a binary distribution, use the instructions in section 2.2 Standard MySQL Installation Using a Binary Distribution. To install MySQL from a source distribution or from the current development source tree, use the instructions in section 2.8 MySQL Installation Using a Source Distribution. Note: If you plan to upgrade an existing version of MySQL to a newer version rather than installing MySQL for the first time, see section 2.10 Upgrading MySQL for information about upgrade procedures and about issues that you should consider before upgrading. If you encounter installation difficulties, see section 2.12 Operating System-Specific Notes for information on solving problems for particular platforms.
  5. Perform any necessary post-installation setup. After installing MySQL, read section 2.9 Post-Installation Setup and Testing. This section contains important information about making sure the MySQL server is working properly. It also describes how to secure the initial MySQL user accounts, which have no passwords until you assign passwords. The section applies whether you install MySQL using a binary or source distribution.
  6. If you want to run the MySQL benchmark scripts, Perl support for MySQL must be available. See section 2.13 Perl Installation Notes.

2.1 General Installation Issues

Before installing MySQL, you should do the following:

  1. Determine whether or not MySQL runs on your platform.
  2. Choose a distribution to install.
  3. Download the distribution and verify its integrity.

This section contains the information necessary to carry out these steps. After doing so, you can use the instructions in later sections of the chapter to install the distribution that you choose.

2.1.1 Operating Systems Supported by MySQL

This section lists the operating systems on which you can expect to be able to run MySQL.

We use GNU Autoconf, so it is possible to port MySQL to all modern systems that have a C++ compiler and a working implementation of POSIX threads. (Thread support is needed for the server. To compile only the client code, the only requirement is a C++ compiler.) We use and develop the software ourselves primarily on Linux (SuSE and Red Hat), FreeBSD, and Sun Solaris (Versions 8 and 9).

MySQL has been reported to compile successfully on the following combinations of operating system and thread package. Note that for many operating systems, native thread support works only in the latest versions.

Not all platforms are equally well-suited for running MySQL. How well a certain platform is suited for a high-load mission-critical MySQL server is determined by the following factors:

Based on the preceding criteria, the best platforms for running MySQL at this point are x86 with SuSE Linux using a 2.4 kernel, and ReiserFS (or any similar Linux distribution) and SPARC with Solaris (2.7-9). FreeBSD comes third, but we really hope it will join the top club once the thread library is improved. We also hope that at some point we will be able to include into the top category all other platforms on which MySQL currently compiles and runs okay, but not quite with the same level of stability and performance. This will require some effort on our part in cooperation with the developers of the operating system and library components that MySQL depends on. If you are interested in improving one of those components, are in a position to influence its development, and need more detailed instructions on what MySQL needs to run better, send an email message to the MySQL internals mailing list. See section 1.4.1.1 The MySQL Mailing Lists.

Please note that the purpose of the preceding comparison is not to say that one operating system is better or worse than another in general. We are talking only about choosing an OS for the specific purpose of running MySQL. With this in mind, the result of this comparison would be different if we considered more factors. In some cases, the reason one OS is better than the other could simply be that we have been able to put more effort into testing and optimizing for a particular platform. We are just stating our observations to help you decide which platform to use for running MySQL.

2.1.2 Choosing Which MySQL Distribution to Install

When preparing to install MySQL, you should decide which version to use. MySQL development occurs in several release series, and you can pick the one that best fits your needs. After deciding which version to install, you can choose a distribution format. Releases are available in binary or source format.

2.1.2.1 Choosing Which Version of MySQL to Install

The first decision to make is whether you want to use a production (stable) release or a development release. In the MySQL development process, multiple release series co-exist, each at a different stage of maturity:

We don't believe in a complete freeze, as this also leaves out bugfixes and things that ``must be done.'' ``Somewhat frozen'' means that we may add small things that ``almost surely will not affect anything that's currently working.'' Naturally, relevant bugfixes from an earlier series propagate to later series.

Normally, if you are beginning to use MySQL for the first time or trying to port it to some system for which there is no binary distribution, we recommend going with the production release series. Currently this is MySQL 4.1. All MySQL releases, even those from development series, are checked with the MySQL benchmarks and an extensive test suite before being issued.

If you are running an old system and want to upgrade, but don't want to take the chance of having a non-seamless upgrade, you should upgrade to the latest version in the same release series you are using (where only the last part of the version number is newer than yours). We have tried to fix only fatal bugs and make small, relatively safe changes to that version.

If you want to use new features not present in the production release series, you can use a version from a development series. Note that development releases are not as stable as production releases.

If you want to use the very latest sources containing all current patches and bugfixes, you can use one of our BitKeeper repositories. These are not ``releases'' as such, but are available as previews of the code on which future releases will be based.

The MySQL naming scheme uses release names that consist of three numbers and a suffix; for example, mysql-4.1.2-alpha. The numbers within the release name are interpreted like this:

For each minor update, the last number in the version string is incremented. When there are major new features or minor incompatibilities with previous versions, the second number in the version string is incremented. When the file format changes, the first number is increased.

Release names also include a suffix to indicates the stability level of the release. Releases within a series progress through a set of suffixes to indicate how the stability level improves. The possible suffixes are:

MySQL uses a naming scheme that is slightly different from most other products. In general, it's relatively safe to use any version that has been out for a couple of weeks without being replaced with a new version within the release series.

All releases of MySQL are run through our standard tests and benchmarks to ensure that they are relatively safe to use. Because the standard tests are extended over time to check for all previously found bugs, the test suite keeps getting better.

All releases have been tested at least with:

An internal test suite
The `mysql-test' directory contains an extensive set of test cases. We run these tests for virtually every server binary. See section 25.1.2 MySQL Test Suite for more information about this test suite.
The MySQL benchmark suite
This suite runs a range of common queries. It is also a test to see whether the latest batch of optimizations actually made the code faster. See section 7.1.4 The MySQL Benchmark Suite.
The crash-me test
This test tries to determine what features the database supports and what its capabilities and limitations are. See section 7.1.4 The MySQL Benchmark Suite.

Another test is that we use the newest MySQL version in our internal production environment, on at least one machine. We have more than 100GB of data to work with.

2.1.2.2 Choosing a Distribution Format

After choosing which version of MySQL to install, you should decide whether to use a binary distribution or a source distribution. In most cases, you should probably use a binary distribution, if one exists for your platform. Binary distributions are available in native format for many platforms, such as RPM files for Linux or DMG package installers for Mac OS X. Distributions also are available as Zip archives or compressed tar files.

Reasons to choose a binary distribution include the following:

Under some circumstances, you probably will be better off installing MySQL from a source distribution:

2.1.2.3 How and When Updates Are Released

MySQL is evolving quite rapidly here at MySQL AB and we want to share new developments with other MySQL users. We try to make a release when we have very useful features that others seem to have a need for.

We also try to help out users who request features that are easy to implement. We take note of what our licensed users want to have, and we especially take note of what our support customers want and try to help them out.

No one has to download a new release. The News section will tell you if the new release has something you really want. See section D MySQL Change History.

We use the following policy when updating MySQL:

2.1.2.4 Release Philosophy--No Known Bugs in Releases

We put a lot of time and effort into making our releases bug-free. To our knowledge, we have not released a single MySQL version with any known ``fatal'' repeatable bugs. (A ``fatal'' bug is something that crashes MySQL under normal usage, produces incorrect answers for normal queries, or has a security problem.)

We have documented all open problems, bugs, and issues that are dependent on design decisions. See section 1.5.7 Known Errors and Design Deficiencies in MySQL.

Our aim is to fix everything that is fixable without risk of making a stable MySQL version less stable. In certain cases, this means we can fix an issue in the development versions, but not in the stable (production) version. Naturally, we document such issues so that users are aware of them.

Here is a description of how our build process works:

2.1.2.5 MySQL Binaries Compiled by MySQL AB

As a service of MySQL AB, we provide a set of binary distributions of MySQL that are compiled on systems at our site or on systems where supporters of MySQL kindly have given us access to their machines.

In addition to the binaries provided in platform-specific package formats, we offer binary distributions for a number of platforms in the form of compressed tar files (.tar.gz files). See section 2.2 Standard MySQL Installation Using a Binary Distribution.

For Windows distributions, see section 2.3 Installing MySQL on Windows.

These distributions are generated using the script Build-tools/Do-compile, which compiles the source code and creates the binary tar.gz archive using scripts/make_binary_distribution.

These binaries are configured and built with the following compilers and options. This information can also be obtained by looking at the variables COMP_ENV_INFO and CONFIGURE_LINE inside the script bin/mysqlbug of every binary tar file distribution.

The following binaries are built on MySQL AB development systems:

Linux 2.4.xx x86 with gcc 2.95.3:
CFLAGS="-O2 -mcpu=pentiumpro" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O2 -mcpu=pentiumpro -felide-constructors" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --enable-assembler --disable-shared --with-client-ldflags=-all-static --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
Linux 2.4.x x86 with icc (Intel C++ Compiler 8.0):
CC=icc CXX=icc CFLAGS="-O3 -unroll2 -ip -mp -no-gcc -restrict" CXXFLAGS="-O3 -unroll2 -ip -mp -no-gcc -restrict" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data --libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --enable-assembler --disable-shared --with-client-ldflags=-all-static --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static --with-embedded-server --with-innodb
Linux 2.4.xx Intel Itanium 2 with ecc (Intel C++ Itanium Compiler 7.0):
CC=ecc CFLAGS="-O2 -tpp2 -ip -nolib_inline" CXX=ecc CXXFLAGS="-O2 -tpp2 -ip -nolib_inline" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile
Linux 2.4.xx Intel Itanium with ecc (Intel C++ Itanium Compiler 7.0):
CC=ecc CFLAGS=-tpp1 CXX=ecc CXXFLAGS=-tpp1 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile
Linux 2.4.xx alpha with ccc (Compaq C V6.2-505 / Compaq C++ V6.3-006):
CC=ccc CFLAGS="-fast -arch generic" CXX=cxx CXXFLAGS="-fast -arch generic -noexceptions -nortti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-mysqld-ldflags=-non_shared --with-client-ldflags=-non_shared --disable-shared
Linux 2.x.xx ppc with gcc 2.95.4:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data --libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared --with-embedded-server --with-innodb
Linux 2.4.xx s390 with gcc 2.95.3:
CFLAGS="-O2" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O2 -felide-constructors" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared --with-client-ldflags=-all-static --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
Linux 2.4.xx x86_64 (AMD64) with gcc 3.2.1:
CXX=gcc ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared
Sun Solaris 8 x86 with gcc 3.2.3:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data --libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared --with-innodb
Sun Solaris 8 SPARC with gcc 3.2:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --enable-assembler --with-named-z-libs=no --with-named-curses-libs=-lcurses --disable-shared
Sun Solaris 8 SPARC 64-bit with gcc 3.2:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -m64 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -m64 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-named-z-libs=no --with-named-curses-libs=-lcurses --disable-shared
Sun Solaris 9 SPARC with gcc 2.95.3:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --enable-assembler --with-named-curses-libs=-lcurses --disable-shared
Sun Solaris 9 SPARC with cc-5.0 (Sun Forte 5.0):
CC=cc-5.0 CXX=CC ASFLAGS="-xarch=v9" CFLAGS="-Xa -xstrconst -mt -D_FORTEC_ -xarch=v9" CXXFLAGS="-noex -mt -D_FORTEC_ -xarch=v9" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --enable-assembler --with-named-z-libs=no --enable-thread-safe-client --disable-shared
IBM AIX 4.3.2 ppc with gcc 3.2.3:
CFLAGS="-O2 -mcpu=powerpc -Wa,-many " CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O2 -mcpu=powerpc -Wa,-many -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-named-z-libs=no --disable-shared
IBM AIX 4.3.3 ppc with xlC_r (IBM Visual Age C/C++ 6.0):
CC=xlc_r CFLAGS="-ma -O2 -qstrict -qoptimize=2 -qmaxmem=8192" CXX=xlC_r CXXFLAGS ="-ma -O2 -qstrict -qoptimize=2 -qmaxmem=8192" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data --libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-named-z-libs=no --disable-shared --with-innodb
IBM AIX 5.1.0 ppc with gcc 3.3:
CFLAGS="-O2 -mcpu=powerpc -Wa,-many" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O2 -mcpu=powerpc -Wa,-many -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-named-z-libs=no --disable-shared
IBM AIX 5.2.0 ppc with xlC_r (IBM Visual Age C/C++ 6.0):
CC=xlc_r CFLAGS="-ma -O2 -qstrict -qoptimize=2 -qmaxmem=8192" CXX=xlC_r CXXFLAGS="-ma -O2 -qstrict -qoptimize=2 -qmaxmem=8192" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data --libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-named-z-libs=no --disable-shared --with-embedded-server --with-innodb
HP-UX 10.20 pa-risc1.1 with gcc 3.1:
CFLAGS="-DHPUX -I/opt/dce/include -O3 -fPIC" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-DHPUX -I/opt/dce /include -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti -O3 -fPIC" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-pthread --with-named-thread-libs=-ldce --with-lib-ccflags=-fPIC --disable-shared
HP-UX 11.00 pa-risc with aCC (HP ANSI C++ B3910B A.03.50):
CC=cc CXX=aCC CFLAGS=+DAportable CXXFLAGS=+DAportable ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data --libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared --with-embedded-server --with-innodb
HP-UX 11.11 pa-risc2.0 64bit with aCC (HP ANSI C++ B3910B A.03.33):
CC=cc CXX=aCC CFLAGS=+DD64 CXXFLAGS=+DD64 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared
HP-UX 11.11 pa-risc2.0 32bit with aCC (HP ANSI C++ B3910B A.03.33):
CC=cc CXX=aCC CFLAGS="+DAportable" CXXFLAGS="+DAportable" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data --libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared --with-innodb
HP-UX 11.22 ia64 64bit with aCC (HP aC++/ANSI C B3910B A.05.50):
CC=cc CXX=aCC CFLAGS="+DD64 +DSitanium2" CXXFLAGS="+DD64 +DSitanium2" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data --libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared --with-embedded-server --with-innodb
Apple Mac OS X 10.2 powerpc with gcc 3.1:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared
FreeBSD 4.7 i386 with gcc 2.95.4:
CFLAGS=-DHAVE_BROKEN_REALPATH ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --enable-assembler --with-named-z-libs=not-used --disable-shared
FreeBSD 4.7 i386 using LinuxThreads with gcc 2.95.4:
CFLAGS="-DHAVE_BROKEN_REALPATH -D__USE_UNIX98 -D_REENTRANT -D_THREAD_SAFE -I/usr/local/include/pthread/linuxthreads" CXXFLAGS="-DHAVE_BROKEN_REALPATH -D__USE_UNIX98 -D_REENTRANT -D_THREAD_SAFE -I/usr/local/include/pthread/linuxthreads" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data --libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --enable-assembler --with-named-thread-libs="-DHAVE_GLIBC2_STYLE_GETHOSTBYNAME_R -D_THREAD_SAFE -I /usr/local/include/pthread/linuxthreads -L/usr/local/lib -llthread -llgcc_r" --disable-shared --with-embedded-server --with-innodb
QNX Neutrino 6.2.1 i386 with gcc 2.95.3qnx-nto 20010315:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared

The following binaries are built on third-party systems kindly provided to MySQL AB by other users. These are provided only as a courtesy; MySQL AB does not have full control over these systems, so we can provide only limited support for the binaries built on them.

SCO Unix 3.2v5.0.6 i386 with gcc 2.95.3:
CFLAGS="-O3 -mpentium" LDFLAGS=-static CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -mpentium -felide-constructors" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-named-z-libs=no --enable-thread-safe-client --disable-shared
SCO OpenUnix 8.0.0 i386 with CC 3.2:
CC=cc CFLAGS="-O" CXX=CC ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-named-z-libs=no --enable-thread-safe-client --disable-shared
Compaq Tru64 OSF/1 V5.1 732 alpha with cc/cxx (Compaq C V6.3-029i / DIGITAL C++ V6.1-027):
CC="cc -pthread" CFLAGS="-O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed -speculate all" CXX="cxx -pthread" CXXFLAGS="-O4 -ansi_alias -fast -inline speed -speculate all -noexceptions -nortti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-named-thread-libs="-lpthread -lmach -lexc -lc" --disable-shared --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
SGI Irix 6.5 IP32 with gcc 3.0.1:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared
FreeBSD/sparc64 5.0 with gcc 3.2.1:
CFLAGS=-DHAVE_BROKEN_REALPATH ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data --libexecdir=/usr/local/mysql/bin --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared --with-innodb

The following compile options have been used for binary packages that MySQL AB provided in the past. These binaries no longer are being updated, but the compile options are listed here for reference purposes.

Linux 2.2.xx SPARC with egcs 1.1.2:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --enable-assembler --disable-shared
Linux 2.2.x with x686 with gcc 2.95.2:
CFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static --disable-shared --with-extra-charsets=complex
SunOS 4.1.4 2 sun4c with gcc 2.7.2.1:
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --disable-shared --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-assembler
SunOS 5.5.1 (and above) sun4u with egcs 1.0.3a or 2.90.27 or
gcc 2.95.2 and newer: CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-low-memory --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-assembler
SunOS 5.6 i86pc with gcc 2.8.1:
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-low-memory --with-extra-charsets=complex
BSDI BSD/OS 3.1 i386 with gcc 2.7.2.1:
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex
BSDI BSD/OS 2.1 i386 with gcc 2.7.2:
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex
AIX 4.2 with gcc 2.7.2.2:
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex

Anyone who has more optimal options for any of the preceding configurations listed can always mail them to the MySQL internals mailing list. See section 1.4.1.1 The MySQL Mailing Lists.

RPM distributions prior to MySQL 3.22 are user-contributed. Beginning with MySQL 3.22, RPM distributions are generated by MySQL AB.

If you want to compile a debug version of MySQL, you should add --with-debug or --with-debug=full to the preceding configure commands and remove any -fomit-frame-pointer options.

2.1.3 How to Get MySQL

Check the MySQL downloads page (http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/) for information about the current version and for downloading instructions. For a complete up-to-date list of MySQL download mirror sites, see http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mirrors.html. There you will also find information about becoming a MySQL mirror site and how to report a bad or out-of-date mirror.

Our main mirror is located at http://mirrors.sunsite.dk/mysql/.

2.1.4 Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG

After you have downloaded the MySQL package that suits your needs and before you attempt to install it, you should make sure that it is intact and has not been tampered with. MySQL AB offers three means of integrity checking:

The following sections describe how to use these methods.

If you notice that the MD5 checksum or GPG signatures do not match, first try to download the respective package one more time, perhaps from another mirror site. If you repeatedly cannot successfully verify the integrity of the package, please notify us about such incidents, including the full package name and the download site you have been using, at webmaster@mysql.com or build@mysql.com. Do not report downloading problems using the bug-reporting system.

2.1.4.1 Verifying the MD5 Checksum

After you have downloaded a MySQL package, you should make sure that its MD5 checksum matches the one provided on the MySQL download pages. Each package has an individual checksum that you can verify with the following command, where package_name is the name of the package you downloaded:

shell> md5sum package_name

Example:

shell> md5sum mysql-standard-4.0.17-pc-linux-i686.tar.gz
60f5fe969d61c8f82e4f7f62657e1f06  mysql-standard-4.0.17-pc-linux-i686.tar.gz

You should verify that the resulting checksum (the string of hexadecimal digits) matches the one displayed on the download page immediately below the respective package.

Note: Make sure to verify the checksum of the archive file (e.g. the .zip or .tar.gz file) and not of the files that are contained inside of the archive!

Note that not all operating systems support the md5sum command. On some, it is simply called md5 and others do not ship it at all. On Linux, it is part of the GNU Text Utilities package, which is available for a wide range of platforms. You can download the source code from http://www.gnu.org/software/textutils/ as well. If you have OpenSSL installed, you can also use the command openssl md5 package_name instead. A DOS/Windows implementation of the md5 command line utility is available from http://www.fourmilab.ch/md5/. A graphical MD5 checking tool is winMd5Sum, which can be obtained from http://winmd5sum.solidblue.biz/.

2.1.4.2 Signature Checking Using GnuPG

Another method of verifying the integrity and authenticity of a package is to use cryptographic signatures. This is more reliable than using MD5 checksums, but requires more work.

Beginning with MySQL 4.0.10 (February 2003), MySQL AB started signing downloadable packages with GnuPG (GNU Privacy Guard). GnuPG is an Open Source alternative to the very well-known Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) by Phil Zimmermann. See http://www.gnupg.org/ for more information about GnuPG and how to obtain and install it on your system. Most Linux distributions ship with GnuPG installed by default. For more information about OpenPGP, see http://www.openpgp.org/.

To verify the signature for a specific package, you first need to obtain a copy of MySQL AB's public GPG build key. You can download the key from http://www.keyserver.net/. The key that you want to obtain is named build@mysql.com. Alternatively, you can cut and paste the key directly from the following text:

Key ID:
pub  1024D/5072E1F5 2003-02-03
     MySQL Package signing key (www.mysql.com) <build@mysql.com>
Fingerprint: A4A9 4068 76FC BD3C 4567  70C8 8C71 8D3B 5072 E1F5

Public Key (ASCII-armored):

-----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
Version: GnuPG v1.0.6 (GNU/Linux)
Comment: For info see http://www.gnupg.org
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=YJkx
-----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----

You can import the build key into your personal public GPG keyring by using gpg --import. For example, if you save the key in a file named `mysql_pubkey.asc', the import command looks like this:

shell> gpg --import mysql_pubkey.asc

See the GPG documentation for more information on how to work with public keys.

After you have downloaded and imported the public build key, download your desired MySQL package and the corresponding signature, which also is available from the download page. The signature file has the same name as the distribution file with an `.asc' extension. For example:

Distribution file mysql-standard-4.0.17-pc-linux-i686.tar.gz
Signature file mysql-standard-4.0.17-pc-linux-i686.tar.gz.asc

Make sure that both files are stored in the same directory and then run the following command to verify the signature for the distribution file:

shell> gpg --verify package_name.asc

Example:

shell> gpg --verify mysql-standard-4.0.17-pc-linux-i686.tar.gz.asc
gpg: Warning: using insecure memory!
gpg: Signature made Mon 03 Feb 2003 08:50:39 PM MET
using DSA key ID 5072E1F5
gpg: Good signature from
     "MySQL Package signing key (www.mysql.com) <build@mysql.com>"

The Good signature message indicates that everything is all right. You can ignore the insecure memory warning.

2.1.4.3 Signature Checking Using RPM

For RPM packages, there is no separate signature. RPM packages have a built-in GPG signature and MD5 checksum. You can verify a package by running the following command:

shell> rpm --checksig package_name.rpm

Example:

shell> rpm --checksig MySQL-server-4.0.10-0.i386.rpm
MySQL-server-4.0.10-0.i386.rpm: md5 gpg OK

Note: If you are using RPM 4.1 and it complains about (GPG) NOT OK (MISSING KEYS: GPG#5072e1f5), even though you have imported the MySQL public build key into your own GPG keyring, you need to import the key into the RPM keyring first. RPM 4.1 no longer uses your personal GPG keyring (or GPG itself). Rather, it maintains its own keyring because it is a system-wide application and a user's GPG public keyring is a user-specific file. To import the MySQL public key into the RPM keyring, first obtain the key as described in the previous section. Then use rpm --import to import the key. For example, if you have the public key stored in a file named `mysql_pubkey.asc', import it using this command:

shell> rpm --import mysql_pubkey.asc

If you need to obtain the MySQL public key, see section 2.1.4.2 Signature Checking Using GnuPG.

2.1.5 Installation Layouts

This section describes the default layout of the directories created by installing binary or source distributions provided by MySQL AB. If you install a distribution provided by another vendor, some other layout might be used.

On Windows, the default installation directory is `C:\mysql'. With MySQL version 4.1.5 and higher, this has changed to `C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 4.1', where 4.1 will be the major version of the installation. The folder has the following subdirectories:

Directory Contents of Directory
`bin' Client programs and the mysqld server
`data' Log files, databases
`Docs' Documentation
`examples' Example programs and scripts
`include' Include (header) files
`lib' Libraries
`scripts' Utility scripts
`share' Error message files

Installations created from Linux RPM distributions result in files under the following system directories:

Directory Contents of Directory
`/usr/bin' Client programs and scripts
`/usr/sbin' The mysqld server
`/var/lib/mysql' Log files, databases
`/usr/share/doc/packages' Documentation
`/usr/include/mysql' Include (header) files
`/usr/lib/mysql' Libraries
`/usr/share/mysql' Error message and character set files
`/usr/share/sql-bench' Benchmarks

On Unix, a tar file binary distribution is installed by unpacking it at the installation location you choose (typically `/usr/local/mysql') and creates the following directories in that location:

Directory Contents of Directory
`bin' Client programs and the mysqld server
`data' Log files, databases
`docs' Documentation, ChangeLog
`include' Include (header) files
`lib' Libraries
`scripts' mysql_install_db
`share/mysql' Error message files
`sql-bench' Benchmarks

A source distribution is installed after you configure and compile it. By default, the installation step installs files under `/usr/local', in the following subdirectories:

Directory Contents of Directory
`bin' Client programs and scripts
`include/mysql' Include (header) files
`info' Documentation in Info format
`lib/mysql' Libraries
`libexec' The mysqld server
`share/mysql' Error message files
`sql-bench' Benchmarks and crash-me test
`var' Databases and log files

Within an installation directory, the layout of a source installation differs from that of a binary installation in the following ways:

You can create your own binary installation from a compiled source distribution by executing the `scripts/make_binary_distribution' script from the top directory of the source distribution.

2.2 Standard MySQL Installation Using a Binary Distribution

The next several sections cover the installation of MySQL on platforms where we offer packages using the native packaging format of the respective platform. (This is also known as performing a ``binary install.'') However, binary distributions of MySQL are available for many other platforms as well. See section 2.7 Installing MySQL on Other Unix-Like Systems for generic installation instructions for these packages that apply to all platforms.

See section 2.1 General Installation Issues for more information on what other binary distributions are available and how to obtain them.

2.3 Installing MySQL on Windows

A native Windows version of MySQL has been available from MySQL AB since version 3.21 and represents a sizable percentage of the daily downloads of MySQL. This section describes the process for installing MySQL on Windows.

With the release of MySQL 4.1.5, MySQL AB has introduced a new installer for the Windows version of MySQL, combined with a new GUI Configuration Wizard. This combination automatically installs MySQL, creates an option file, starts the server, and secures the default user accounts.

If you have installed a version of MySQL prior to version 4.1.5, you must perform the following steps:

  1. Obtain and install the distribution.
  2. Set up an option file if necessary.
  3. Select the server that you want to use.
  4. Start the server.
  5. Assign passwords to the initial MySQL accounts.

This process also must be followed with newer MySQL installations where the installation package does not include an installer.

MySQL for Windows is available in two distribution formats:

Generally speaking, you should use the binary distribution. It's simpler, and you need no additional tools to get MySQL up and running.

This section describes how to install MySQL on Windows using a binary distribution. To install using a source distribution, see section 2.8.6 Installing MySQL from Source on Windows.

2.3.1 Windows System Requirements

To run MySQL on Windows, you need the following:

You may also have the following optional requirements:

2.3.2 Choosing An Installation Package

Starting with MySQL version 4.1.5, there are three install packages to choose from when installing MySQL on Windows. The Packages are as follows:

The Essentials package is recommended for most users.

Your choice of install package affects the installation process you must follow. If you choose to install either the Essentials or Complete install packages, see section 2.3.3 Installing MySQL with the Automated Installer. If you choose to install MySQL from the Noinstall archive, see section 2.3.6 Installing MySQL from a noinstall Zip Archive.

2.3.3 Installing MySQL with the Automated Installer

Starting with MySQL 4.1.5, users can use the new MySQL Installation Wizard and MySQL Configuration Wizard to install MySQL on Windows. The MySQL Installation Wizard and MySQL Configuration Wizard are designed to install and configure MySQL in such a way that new users can immediately get started using MySQL.

The MySQL Installation Wizard and MySQL Configuration Wizard are available in the Essentials and Complete install packages, and are recommended for most standard MySQL installations. Exceptions include users who need to install multiple instances of MySQL on a single server and advanced users who want complete control of server configuration.

If you are installing a version of MySQL prior to MySQL 4.1.5, please follow the instructions for installing MySQL from the Noinstall installation package. See section 2.3.6 Installing MySQL from a noinstall Zip Archive.

2.3.4 Using the MySQL Installation Wizard

2.3.4.1 Introduction

MySQL Installation Wizard is a new installer for the MySQL server that uses the latest installer technologies for Microsoft Windows. The MySQL Installation Wizard, in combination with the MySQL Configuration Wizard, allows a user to install and configure a MySQL server that is ready for use immediately after installation.

The MySQL Installation Wizard is the standard installer for all MySQL server distributions, version 4.1.5 and higher. Users of previous versions of MySQL need to manually shut down and remove their existing MySQL installations before installing MySQL with the MySQL Installation Wizard. See section 2.3.4.7 Upgrading MySQL for more information on upgrading from a previous version.

Microsoft has included an improved version of their Microsoft Windows Installer (MSI) in the recent versions of Windows. Using the MSI has become the de-facto standard for application installations on Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003. The MySQL Installation Wizard makes use of this technology to provide a smoother and more flexible installation progress.

The Microsoft Windows Installer Engine was updated with the release of Windows XP; those using a previous version of Windows can reference this Microsoft Knowledge Base article for information on upgrading to the latest version of the Windows Installer Engine.

Further, Microsoft has introduced the WiX (Windows Installer XML) tool set recently. It is the first highly acknowledged Open Source project from Microsoft. We switched to WiX because it is an Open Source project and it allows us to handle the complete Windows installation process in a flexible way with scripts.

Improving the MySQL Installation Wizard depends on the support and feedback of users like you. If you find that the MySQL Installation Wizard is lacking some feature important to you, or if you discover a bug, please use our MySQL Bug System to request features or report problems.

2.3.4.2 Downloading and Starting the MySQL Installation Wizard

The MySQL server install packages can be downloaded from http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/. If the package you download is contained within a Zip archive, you need to extract the archive first.

The process for starting the wizard depends on the contents of the install package you download. If there is a setup.exe file present, double-click it to start the install process. If there is a .msi file present, double-click it to start the install process.

2.3.4.3 Choosing an Install Type

There are up three installation types available: Typical, Complete, and Custom.

The Typical installation type installs the MySQL server, the mysql command-line client, and the command-line utilities. The command-line clients and utilities include mysqldump, myisamchk, and several other tools to help you manage the MySQL server.

The Complete installation type installs all components included in the installation package. The full installation package includes components such as the embedded server library, the benchmark suite, support scripts, and documentation.

The Custom installation type gives you complete control over which packages you wish to install and the installation path that will be used. See section 2.3.4.4 The Custom Install Dialog for more information on performing a custom install.

If you choose the Typical or Complete installation types and click the Next button, you advance to the confirmation screen to confirm your choices and begin the installation. If you choose the Custom installation type and click the Next button, you advance to the custom install dialog, described in section 2.3.4.4 The Custom Install Dialog

2.3.4.4 The Custom Install Dialog

If you wish to change the installation path or the specific components that are installed by the MySQL Installation Wizard, you should choose the Custom installation type.

All available components are listed in a tree view on the left side of the custom install dialog. Components that will not be installed have a red X icon, components that will be installed have a gray icon. To change whether a component is installed, click on the component's icon and choose an new option from the drop-down list that appears.

You can change the default installation path by clicking the Change... button to the right of the displayed installation path.

After choosing your install components and installation path, click the Next button to advance to the confirmation dialog.

2.3.4.5 The Confirmation Dialog

Once you choose an installation type and optionally choose your installation components, you advance to the confirmation dialog. Your installation type and installation path are displayed for you to review.

To install MySQL if you are satisfied with your settings, click the Install button. To change your settings, click the Back button. To exit the MySQL Installation Wizard without installing MySQL, click the Cancel button.

After installation is complete, you will be given the option of registering with the MySQL web site. Registration will give you access to post in the MySQL forums at forums.mysql.com, along with the ability to report bugs at bugs.mysql.com and subscribe to the newsletter. The final screen of the installer provides a summary of the installation and gives you the option to launch the MySQL Configuration Wizard, which you can use to create a configuration file, install the MySQL service, and configure security.

2.3.4.6 Changes Made by MySQL Installation Wizard

Once you click the Install button, the MySQL Installation Wizard begins the installation process and makes certain changes to your system which are described in the sections that follow.

Changes to the Registry

The MySQL Installation Wizard creates one Windows registry key in a typical install situation, located in HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\MySQL AB.

The MySQL Installation Wizard creates a key named after the major version of the server that is being installed, such as MySQL Server 4.1. It contains two string values, Location and Version. The Location string contains the path to the installation directory. In a default installation it contains C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 4.1\. The Version string contains the release number. For example, for an installation of MySQL Server 4.1.5 the key contains a value of 4.1.5.

These registry keys are used to help external tools identify the installed location of the MySQL server, preventing a complete scan of the hard-disk to determine the installation path of the MySQL server. The registry keys are not required to run the server and when using the noinstall Zip archive the registry keys are not created.

Changes to the Start Menu

The MySQL Installation Wizard creates a new entry in the Windows Start menu under a common MySQL menu heading named after the major version of MySQL that you have installed. For example, if you install MySQL 4.1, the MySQL Installation Wizard creates a MySQL Server 4.1 section in the start menu.

The following entries are created within the new Start menu section:

Changes to the File System

The MySQL Installation Wizard by default installs the MySQL server to C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 4.1, where Program Files is the default location for applications in your system, and 4.1 is the major version of your MySQL server. This is the new recommended location for the MySQL server, replacing the previous default location of `c:\mysql'.

By default, all MySQL applications are stored in a common directory at C:\Program Files\MySQL, where Program Files is the default location for applications in your Windows installation. A typical MySQL installation on a developer machine may look like this:

C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 4.1
C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.0
C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Administrator 1.0
C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Query Browser 1.0

This approach makes it easier to manage and maintain all MySQL applications installed on a particular system.

2.3.4.7 Upgrading MySQL

From MySQL version 4.1.5, the new MySQL Installation Wizard can perform server upgrades automatically using the upgrade capabilities of MSI. That means you do not need to remove a previous installation manually before installing a new release. The installer automatically shuts down and removes the previous MySQL service before installing the new version.

Automatic upgrades are only available when upgrading between installations that have the same major and minor version numbers. For example, you can upgrade automatically from MySQL 4.1.5 to MySQL 4.1.6, but not from MySQL 4.1 to MySQL 5.0.

If you are upgrading MySQL version 4.1.4 or earlier to version 4.1.5 or later, you must first manually shut down and remove the older installation before upgrading. Be sure to back up your databases before performing such an upgrade, so that you can restore the databases after the upgrade is completed. It is always recommended that you back up your data before performing any upgrades.

See section 2.3.15 Upgrading MySQL on Windows.

2.3.5 Using the Configuration Wizard

2.3.5.1 Introduction

The MySQL Configuration Wizard helps automate the process of configuring your server under Windows. The MySQL Configuration Wizard creates a custom `my.ini' file by asking you a series of questions and then applying your responses to a template to generate a `my.ini' file that is tuned to your installation.

The MySQL Configuration Wizard is included with the MySQL server starting with MySQL version 4.1.5, but is designed to work with MySQL servers versions 4.0 and higher. The MySQL Configuration Wizard is currently available for Windows users only.

MySQL Configuration Wizard is to a large extent the result of feedback MySQL AB has received from many users over a period of several years. However, if you find it's lacking some feature important to you, or if you discover a bug, please use our MySQL Bug System to request features or report problems.

2.3.5.2 Starting the MySQL Configuration Wizard

The MySQL Configuration Wizard is typically launched from the MySQL Installation Wizard, as the MySQL Installation Wizard exits. You can also launch the MySQL Configuration Wizard by clicking the MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard entry in the MySQL section of the Start menu.

In addition, you can navigate to the bin directory of your MySQL installation and launch the `MySQLInstanceConfig.exe' file directly.

2.3.5.3 Choosing a Maintenance Option

If the MySQL Configuration Wizard detects an existing `my.ini' file, you will have the option of either re-configuring your existing server, or removing the server instance by deleting the `my.ini' file and stopping and removing the MySQL service.

To reconfigure an existing server, choose the Re-configure Instance option and click the Next button. Your existing `my.ini' file will be renamed to my timestamp.ini.bak, where timestamp is the date and time the existing `my.ini' file was created. To remove the existing server instance, choose the Remove Instance option and click the Next button.

If you choose the Remove Instance option, you advance to a confirmation window. Click the Execute button and the MySQL Configuration Wizard will stop and remove the MySQL service and delete the `my.ini' file. The server installation and its data folder will not be removed.

If you choose the Re-configure Instance option, you advance to the Configuration Type dialog where you can choose the type of installation you wish to configure.

2.3.5.4 Choosing a Configuration Type

When you start the MySQL Configuration Wizard for a new MySQL installation, or choose the Re-configure Instance option for an existing installation, you advance to the Configuration Type dialog.

There are two configuration types available: Detailed Configuration and Standard Configuration. The Standard Configuration option is intended for new users who want to get started with MySQL quickly without having to make a lot of decisions in regards to server configuration. The Detailed Configuration option is intended for advanced users who want more fine-grained control of server configuration.

If you are new to MySQL and need a server configured as a single-user developer machine the Standard Configuration will suit your needs. Choosing the Standard Configuration option causes the MySQL Configuration Wizard to automatically set all configuration options with the exception of the Service Options and Security Options.

The Standard Configuration sets options that may be incompatible with systems where there are existing MySQL installations. If you have an existing MySQL installation on your system in addition to the installation you wish to configure, the Detailed Configuration option is recommended.

To complete the Standard Configuration, please refer to the sections on Service Options and Security Options, located at section 2.3.5.11 The Service Options Dialog and section 2.3.5.12 The Security Options Dialog respectively.

2.3.5.5 The Server Type Dialog

There are three different server types available to choose from, and the server type you choose will affect the decisions the MySQL Configuration Wizard makes with regards to memory, disk, and processor usage.

2.3.5.6 The Database Usage Dialog

The Database Usage dialog allows you to indicate the table handlers you expect to use when creating MySQL tables. The option you choose will determine whether the InnoDB table handler is available and what percentage of the server resources are available to InnoDB.

2.3.5.7 The InnoDB Tablespace Dialog

Some users may want to locate the InnoDB tablespace files in a different location than the MySQL server data directory. Placing the tablespace files in a separate location can be desirable if your system has a higher capacity or higher performance storage device available, such as a RAID storage system.

To change the default location for the InnoDB tablespace files, choose a new drive from the drop-down list of drive letters and choose a new path from the drop-down list of paths. To create a custom path, click the ... button.

If you are modifying the configuration of an existing server, you must click the Modify button before you change the path. In this situation you will have to manually move the existing tablespace files to the new location before starting the server.

2.3.5.8 The Concurrent Connections Dialog

It is important to set a limit to the number of concurrent connections to the MySQL server that can be established to prevent the server from running out of resources. The Concurrent Connections dialog allows you to choose the expected usage of your server, and will set the limit for concurrent connections accordingly. It is also possible to manually set the concurrent connection limit.

2.3.5.9 The Networking Options Dialog

Use the Networking Options dialog to enable or disable TCP/IP networking and to configure the port number that is used to connect to the MySQL server.

TCP/IP networking is enabled by default. To disable TCP/IP networking, uncheck the box next to the Enable TCP/IP Networking option.

Port 3306 is used by default. To change the port used to access MySQL, choose a new port number from the drop-down box or type a new port number directly into the drop-down box. If the port number you choose is in use you will be prompted to confirm your choice of port number.

2.3.5.10 The Character Set Dialog

The MySQL server supports multiple character sets and it is possible to set a default server character set that will be applied to all tables, columns, and databases unless overridden. Use the Character Set dialog to change the default character set of the MySQL server.

2.3.5.11 The Service Options Dialog

On Windows NT based platforms, the MySQL server can be installed as a service. When installed as a service, the MySQL server can be started automatically during system startup, and even restarted automatically by Windows in the event of a service failure.

The MySQL Configuration Wizard will install the MySQL server as a service by default, using the service name MySQL. If you do not wish to install the service, un-check the box next to the Install As Windows Service option. You can changed the service name by picking a new service name from the drop-down box provided or by typing a new service name into the drop-down box.

To install the MySQL server as a service but not have it started automatically at startup, un-check the box next to the Launch the MySQL Server automatically option.

2.3.5.12 The Security Options Dialog

It is strongly recommended that you set a root password for your MySQL server, and the MySQL Configuration Wizard requires you set a root password by default. If you do not wish to set a root password, un-check the box next to the Modify Security Settings option.

To set the root password, type the desired password into both the New root password and Confirm boxes. If you are re-configuring an existing server, you will also need to enter the existing root password into the Current root password box.

To prevent root logins from across the network, check the box next to the Root may only connect from localhost option. This will increase the security of your root account.

To create an anonymous user account, check the box next to the Create An Anonymous Account option. Creating an anonymous account can decrease server security and cause login and permission difficulties and is not recommended.

2.3.5.13 The Confirmation Dialog

The final dialog in the MySQL Configuration Wizard is the Confirmation Dialog. To start the configuration process, click the Execute button. To return to a previous dialog, click the Back button. To exit the MySQL Configuration Wizard without configuring the server, click the Cancel button.

After you click the Execute button, the MySQL Configuration Wizard will perform a series of tasks with progress displayed onscreen as the tasks are performed.

The MySQL Configuration Wizard will first determine various configuration file options based on your choices using a template prepared by MySQL AB developers and engineers. This template is named `my-template.ini' and is located in your server installation directory.

The MySQL Configuration Wizard will then write these options to a `my.ini' file. The final location of the `my.ini' file will be displayed next to the Write configuration file task.

If you chose to create a service for the MySQL server the MySQL Configuration Wizard will create the service and start it. If you are re-configuring an existing service, the MySQL Configuration Wizard will restart the service to apply your configuration changes.

If you chose to set a root password, the MySQL Configuration Wizard will connect to the server and set your new root password and apply any other security setting you may have selected.

After the MySQL Configuration Wizard has completed its tasks, a summary will be shown. Click the Finish button to exit the MySQL Configuration Wizard.

2.3.5.14 The Location of the my.ini File

In MySQL installations prior to version 4.1.5 it was customary to name the server configuration file `my.cnf' or `my.ini' and locate the file either at `c:\my.cnf' or `c:\Windows\my.ini'.

The new MySQL Configuration Wizard places the `my.ini' file in the installation directory of the MySQL server. This helps associate configuration files with particular server instances.

To ensure that the MySQL server knows where to look for the `my.ini' file, an argument similar to this is passed to the MySQL server as part of the service installation: --defaults-file="C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 4.1\my.ini", where C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 4.1 is replaced with the installation path to the MySQL Server.

The --defaults-file instructs the MySQL server to read the specified file for configuration options.

2.3.5.15 Editing The my.ini File

To modify the `my.ini' file, open it with a text editor and make any necessary changes. You can also modify the server configuration with the MySQL Administrator utility.

MySQL clients and utilities such as the mysql command-line client and mysqldump will not locate the `my.ini' file located in the server installation directory. To configure the client and utility applications, create a new `my.ini' file in the `c:\Windows' directory.

2.3.6 Installing MySQL from a noinstall Zip Archive

Users who are installing from the Noinstall package, or who are installing a version of MySQL prior to 4.1.5 can use the instructions in this section to manually install MySQL. If you are installing a version prior to 4.1.5 with an install package that includes a Setup program, substitute running the Setup program for extracting the archive.

The process for installing MySQL from a Zip archive is as follows:

  1. Extract the archive to the desired install directory.
  2. Create an option file.
  3. Choose a MySQL server type.
  4. Start the MySQL server.
  5. Secure the default user accounts.

This process is described in the sections that follow.

2.3.7 Extracting the Install Archive

To install MySQL manually, do the following:

  1. If you are upgrading from a previous version please refer to section 2.3.15 Upgrading MySQL on Windows before beginning the upgrade process.
  2. If you are using a Windows NT-based operating system such as Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, or Windows Server 2003, make sure that you are logged in as a user with administrator privileges.
  3. Choose an installation location. Traditionally the MySQL server is installed at `C:\mysql', and the new MySQL Installation Wizard installs MySQL to `C:\Program Files\MySQL'. If you do not install MySQL at `C:\mysql', you must specify the path to the install directory during startup or in an option file. See section 2.3.8 Creating an Option File.
  4. Extract the install archive to the chosen installation location using your preferred Zip archive tool. Some tools may extract the archive to a folder within your chosen installation location. If this occurs you can move the contents of the subfolder into the chosen installation location.

2.3.8 Creating an Option File

If you need to specify startup options when you run the server, you can indicate them on the command line or place them in an option file. For options that will be used every time the server starts, you will find it most convenient to use an option file to specify your MySQL configuration. This is true particularly under the following circumstances:

When the MySQL server starts on Windows, it looks for options in two files: the `my.ini' file in the Windows directory, and the `C:\my.cnf' file. The Windows directory typically is named something like `C:\WINDOWS' or `C:\WinNT'. You can determine its exact location from the value of the WINDIR environment variable using the following command:

C:\> echo %WINDIR%

MySQL looks for options first in the `my.ini' file, then in the `my.cnf' file. However, to avoid confusion, it's best if you use only one file. If your PC uses a boot loader where the C: drive isn't the boot drive, your only option is to use the `my.ini' file. Whichever option file you use, it must be a plain text file.

You can also make use of the example option files included with your MySQL distribution. Look in your install directory for files such as my-small.cnf, my-medium.cnf, my-large.cnf, etc., which you can rename and copy to the appropriate location for use as a base configuration file.

An option file can be created and modified with any text editor, such as the Notepad program. For example, if MySQL is installed at `E:\mysql' and the data directory is located at `E:\mydata\data', you can create the option file and set up a [mysqld] section to specify values for the basedir and datadir parameters:

[mysqld]
# set basedir to your installation path
basedir=E:/mysql
# set datadir to the location of your data directory
datadir=E:/mydata/data

Note that Windows pathnames are specified in option files using forward slashes rather than backslashes. If you do use backslashes, you must double them:

[mysqld]
# set basedir to your installation path
basedir=E:\\mysql
# set datadir to the location of your data directory
datadir=E:\\mydata\\data

On Windows, the MySQL installer places the data directory directly under the directory where you install MySQL. If you would like to use a data directory in a different location, you should copy the entire contents of the `data' directory to the new location. For example, by default, the installer places MySQL in `C:\mysql' and the data directory in `C:\mysql\data'. If you want to use a data directory of `E:\mydata', you must do two things:

2.3.9 Selecting a MySQL Server type

Starting with MySQL 3.23.38, the Windows distribution includes both the normal and the MySQL-Max server binaries.

Up through the early releases of MySQL 4.1, the servers included in Windows distributions are named like this:

Binary Description
mysqld Compiled with full debugging and automatic memory allocation checking, symbolic links, and InnoDB and BDB tables.
mysqld-opt Optimized binary. From version 4.0 on, InnoDB is enabled. Before 4.0, this server includes no transactional table support.
mysqld-nt Optimized binary for Windows NT, 2000, and XP with support for named pipes.
mysqld-max Optimized binary with support for symbolic links, and InnoDB and BDB tables.
mysqld-max-nt Like mysqld-max, but compiled with support for named pipes.

We have found that the server with the most generic name (mysqld) is the one that many users are likely to choose by default. However, that is also the server that results in the highest memory and CPU use due to the inclusion of full debugging support. The server named mysqld-opt is a better general-use server choice to make instead if you don't need debugging support and don't want the maximal feature set offered by the -max servers or named pipe support offered by the -nt servers.

To make it less likely that the debugging server would be chosen inadvertently, some name changes were made from MySQL 4.1.2 to 4.1.4: mysqld has been renamed to mysqld-debug and mysqld-opt has been renamed to mysqld. Thus, the server that includes debugging support indicates that in its name, and the server named mysqld is an efficient default choice. The other servers still have their same names. The resulting servers are named like this:

Binary Description
mysqld-debug Compiled with full debugging and automatic memory allocation checking, symbolic links, and InnoDB and BDB tables.
mysqld Optimized binary with InnoDB support.
mysqld-nt Optimized binary for Windows NT, 2000, and XP with support for named pipes.
mysqld-max Optimized binary with support for symbolic links, and InnoDB and BDB tables.
mysqld-max-nt Like mysqld-max, but compiled with support for named pipes.

The name changes were not both instituted at the same time. If you have MySQL 4.1.2 or 4.1.3, it might be that you have a server named mysqld-debug but not one named mysqld. In this case, you should have a server mysqld-opt, which you should choose as your default server unless you need maximal features, named pipes, or debugging support.

All of the preceding binaries are optimized for modern Intel processors, but should work on any Intel i386-class or higher processor.

MySQL supports TCP/IP on all Windows platforms. The mysqld-nt and mysql-max-nt servers support named pipes on Windows NT, 2000, XP, and 2003. However, the default is to use TCP/IP regardless of the platform. (Named pipes are slower than TCP/IP in many Windows configurations.) Named pipe use is subject to these conditions:

Note: Most of the examples in reference manual use mysqld as the server name. If you choose to use a different server, such as mysqld-nt, make the appropriate substitutions in the commands that are shown in the examples.

2.3.10 Starting the Server for the First Time

On Windows 95, 98, or Me, MySQL clients always connect to the server using TCP/IP. (This allows any machine on your network to connect to your MySQL server.) Because of this, you must make sure that TCP/IP support is installed on your machine before starting MySQL. You can find TCP/IP on your Windows CD-ROM.

Note that if you are using an old Windows 95 release (for example, OSR2), it's likely that you have an old Winsock package; MySQL requires Winsock 2! You can get the newest Winsock from http://www.microsoft.com/. Windows 98 has the new Winsock 2 library, so it is unnecessary to update the library.

On NT-based systems such as Windows NT, 2000, XP, or 2003, clients have two options. They can use TCP/IP, or they can use a named pipe if the server supports named pipe connections.

In MySQL versions 4.1 and higher, Windows servers also support shared-memory connections if started with the --shared-memory option. Clients can connect through shared memory by using the --protocol=memory option.

For information about which server binary to run, see section 2.3.9 Selecting a MySQL Server type.

This section gives a general overview of starting the MySQL server. The following sections provide more specific information for starting the MySQL server from the command line or as a Windows service.

The examples in these sections assume that MySQL is installed under the default location of `C:\mysql'. Adjust the pathnames shown in the examples if you have MySQL installed in a different location.

Testing is best done from a command prompt in a console window (a ``DOS window''). This way you can have the server display status messages in the window where they are easy to see. If something is wrong with your configuration, these messages make it easier for you to identify and fix any problems.

To start the server, enter this command:

C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld --console

For servers that include InnoDB support, you should see the following messages as the server starts:

InnoDB: The first specified datafile c:\ibdata\ibdata1 did not exist:
InnoDB: a new database to be created!
InnoDB: Setting file c:\ibdata\ibdata1 size to 209715200
InnoDB: Database physically writes the file full: wait...
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile0 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile0 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile1 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile1 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile2 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile2 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer not found: creating new
InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer created
InnoDB: creating foreign key constraint system tables
InnoDB: foreign key constraint system tables created
011024 10:58:25  InnoDB: Started

When the server finishes its startup sequence, you should see something like this, which indicates that the server is ready to service client connections:

mysqld: ready for connections
Version: '4.0.14-log'  socket: ''  port: 3306

The server will continue to write to the console any further diagnostic output it produces. You can open a new console window in which to run client programs.

If you omit the --console option, the server writes diagnostic output to the error log in the data directory (`C:\mysql\data' by default). The error log is the file with the `.err' extension.

Note: The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially have no passwords. After starting the server, you should set up passwords for them using the instructions in section 2.9 Post-Installation Setup and Testing.

2.3.11 Starting MySQL from the Windows Command Line

The MySQL server can be started manually from the command line. This can be done on any version of Windows.

To start the mysqld server from the command line, you should start a console window (a ``DOS window'') and enter this command:

C:\> C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 4.1\bin\mysqld

The path used in the preceding example may vary depending on the install location of MySQL on your system.

On non-NT versions of Windows, this will start mysqld in the background. That is, after the server starts, you should see another command prompt. If you start the server this way on Windows NT, 2000, or XP, the server will run in the foreground and no command prompt will appear until the server exits. Because of this, you should open another console window to run client programs while the server is running.

You can stop the MySQL server by executing this command:

C:\> C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 4.1\bin\mysqladmin -u root shutdown

This invokes the MySQL administrative utility mysqladmin to connect to the server and tell it to shut down. The command connects as root, which is the default administrative account in the MySQL grant system. Note that users in the MySQL grant system are wholly independent from any login users under Windows.

If mysqld doesn't start, check the error log to see whether the server wrote any messages there to indicate the cause of the problem. The error log is located in the `C:\mysql\data' directory. It is the file with a suffix of `.err'. You can also try to start the server as mysqld --console; in this case, you may get some useful information on the screen that may help solve the problem.

The last option is to start mysqld with --standalone --debug. In this case, mysqld writes a log file `C:\mysqld.trace' that should contain the reason why mysqld doesn't start. See section E.1.2 Creating Trace Files.

Use mysqld --verbose --help to display all the options that mysqld understands. (Prior to MySQL 4.1, omit the --verbose option.)

2.3.12 Starting MySQL as a Windows Service

On the NT family (Windows NT, 2000, XP, 2003), the recommended way to run MySQL is to install it as a Windows service. When MySQL is installed as a service, Windows starts and stops the MySQL server automatically when Windows starts and stops. A server installed as a service can also be controlled from the command line using NET commands, or with the graphical Services utility.

The Services utility (the Windows Service Control Manager) can be found in the Windows Control Panel (under Administrative Tools on Windows 2000, XP, and Server 2003). It is advisable to close the Services utility while performing server installation or removal operations from this command line. This prevents some odd errors.

To get MySQL to work with TCP/IP on Windows NT 4, you must install service pack 3 (or newer).

Before installing MySQL as a Windows service, you should first stop the current server if it is running by using the following command:

C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqladmin -u root shutdown

This invokes the MySQL administrative utility mysqladmin to connect to the server and tell it to shut down. The command connects as root, which is the default administrative account in the MySQL grant system. Note that users in the MySQL grant system are wholly independent from any login users under Windows.

Install the server as a service:

C:\> mysqld --install

If you have problems installing mysqld as a service using just the server name, try installing it using its full pathname:

C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld --install

As of MySQL 4.0.2, you can specify a specific service name after the --install option. As of MySQL 4.0.3, you can in addition specify a --defaults-file option after the service name to indicate where the server should obtain options when it starts. The rules that determine the service name and option files the server uses are as follows:

Note: Prior to MySQL 4.0.17, a server installed as a Windows service has problems starting if its pathname or the service name contains spaces. For this reason, with older versions, avoid installing MySQL in a directory such as `C:\Program Files' or using a service name containing spaces.

As a more complex example, consider the following command:

C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld --install MySQL --defaults-file=C:\my-opts.cnf

Here, the default service name (MySQL) is given after the --install option. If no --defaults-file option had been given, this command would have the effect of causing the server to read the [mysqld] group from the standard option files. However, because the --defaults-file option is present, the server reads options from the [mysqld] option group, but only from the named file.

You can also specify options as ``Start parameters'' in the Windows Services utility before you start the MySQL service.

Once a MySQL server is installed as a service, Windows will start the service automatically whenever Windows starts. The service also can be started immediately from the Services utility, or by using the command NET START MySQL. The NET command is not case sensitive.

When run as a service, mysqld has no access to a console window, so no messages can be seen there. If mysqld doesn't start, check the error log to see whether the server wrote any messages there to indicate the cause of the problem. The error log is located in the `C:\mysql\data' directory. It is the file with a suffix of `.err'.

When mysqld is running as a service, it can be stopped by using the Services utility, the command NET STOP MySQL, or the command mysqladmin shutdown. If the service is running when Windows shuts down, Windows will stop the server automatically.

From MySQL 3.23.44 on, you have the choice of installing the server as a Manual service if you don't wish the service to be started automatically during the boot process. To do this, use the --install-manual option rather than the --install option:

C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld --install-manual

To remove a server that is installed as a service, first stop it if it is running. Then use the --remove option to remove it:

C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld --remove

For MySQL versions older than 3.23.49, one problem with automatic MySQL service shutdown is that Windows waited only for a few seconds for the shutdown to complete, then killed the database server process if the time limit was exceeded. This had the potential to cause problems. (For example, the InnoDB storage engine had to perform crash recovery at the next startup.) Starting from MySQL 3.23.49, Windows waits longer for the MySQL server shutdown to complete. If you notice this still is not enough for your installation, it is safest not to run the MySQL server as a service. Instead, start it from the command-line prompt, and stop it with mysqladmin shutdown.

This change to tell Windows to wait longer when stopping the MySQL server works for Windows 2000 and XP. It does not work for Windows NT, where Windows waits only 20 seconds for a service to shut down, and after that kills the service process. You can increase this default by opening the Registry Editor `\winnt\system32\regedt32.exe' and editing the value of WaitToKillServiceTimeout at HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control in the Registry tree. Specify the new larger value in milliseconds. For example, the value 120000 tells Windows NT to wait up to 120 seconds.

If you don't want to start mysqld as a service, you can start it from the command line. For instructions, see section 2.3.11 Starting MySQL from the Windows Command Line.

Please see section 2.3.14 Troubleshooting a MySQL Installation Under Windows if you encounter difficulties during installation.

2.3.13 Testing The MySQL Installation

You can test whether the MySQL server is working by executing any of the following commands:

C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqlshow
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqlshow -u root mysql
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqladmin version status proc
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysql test

If mysqld is slow to respond to TCP/IP connections from client programs on Windows 9x/Me, there is probably a problem with your DNS. In this case, start mysqld with the --skip-name-resolve option and use only localhost and IP numbers in the Host column of the MySQL grant tables.

You can force a MySQL client to use a named pipe connection rather than TCP/IP by specifying the --pipe option or by specifying . (period) as the host name. Use the --socket option to specify the name of the pipe. As of MySQL 4.1, you should use the --protocol=PIPE option.

There are two versions of the MySQL command-line tool:
Binary Description
mysql Compiled on native Windows, offering limited text editing capabilities.
mysqlc Compiled with the Cygnus GNU compiler and libraries, which offers readline editing. mysqlc was intended for use primarily with Windows 9x/Me. It does not support the updated authentication protocol used beginning with MySQL 4.1, and is not supported in MySQL 4.1 and above. Beginning with MySQL 4.1.8, it is no longer included in MySQL Windows distributions.

If you want to use mysqlc, you must have a copy of the `cygwinb19.dll' library installed somewhere that mysqlc can find it. Current distributions of MySQL include this library in the same directory as mysqlc (the `bin' directory under the base directory of your MySQL installation). If your distribution does not have the cygwinb19.dll library in the `bin' directory, look for it in the lib directory and copy it to your Windows system directory (`\Windows\system' or a similar place).

2.3.14 Troubleshooting a MySQL Installation Under Windows

When installing and running MySQL for the first time, you may encounter certain errors that prevent the MySQL server from starting. The purpose of this section is to help you diagnose and correct some of these errors.

Your first resource when troubleshooting server issues is the error log. The MySQL server uses the error log to record information relevant to the error that is preventing the server from starting. The error log is located in the data directory specified in your `my.ini' file. The default data directory location is `C:\mysql\data'. See section 5.9.1 The Error Log.

Another source of information regarding possible errors is the console messages displayed when the MySQL service is starting. Use the NET START mysql command from the command line after installing mysqld as a service to see any error messages regarding the starting of the MySQL server as a service. See section 2.3.12 Starting MySQL as a Windows Service.

The following are examples of some of the more common error messages you may encounter when installing MySQL and starting the server for the first time:

System error 1067 has occurred.
Fatal error: Can't open privilege tables: Table 'mysql.host' doesn't exist

These messages occur when the MySQL server cannot find the mysql privileges database or other critical files. This error is often encountered when the MySQL base or data directories are installed in different locations than the default locations (`C:\mysql' and `C:\mysql\data', respectively).

If you have installed MySQL to a directory other than `C:\mysql' you need to ensure that the MySQL server is aware of this through the use of a configuration (my.ini) file. The my.ini file needs to be located in your Windows directory, typically located at `C:\WinNT' or `C:\WINDOWS'. You can determine its exact location from the value of the WINDIR environment variable by issuing the following command from the command prompt:

C:\> echo %WINDIR%

An option file can be created and modified with any text editor, such as the Notepad program. For example, if MySQL is installed at `E:\mysql' and the data directory is located at `D:\MySQLdata', you can create the option file and set up a [mysqld] section to specify values for the basedir and datadir parameters:

[mysqld]
# set basedir to your installation path
basedir=E:/mysql
# set datadir to the location of your data directory
datadir=D:/MySQLdata

Note that Windows pathnames are specified in option files using forward slashes rather than backslashes. If you do use backslashes, you must double them:

[mysqld]
# set basedir to your installation path
basedir=C:\\Program Files\\mysql
# set datadir to the location of your data directory
datadir=D:\\MySQLdata

See section 2.3.8 Creating an Option File.

2.3.15 Upgrading MySQL on Windows

This section lists some of the steps you should take when upgrading MySQL on Windows.

  1. You should always back up your current MySQL installation before performing an upgrade. See section 5.7.1 Database Backups.
  2. Download the latest Windows distribution of MySQL from http://dev.mysql.com.
  3. Before upgrading MySQL, you must stop the server. If the server is installed as a service, stop the service with the following command from the command prompt:
    C:\> NET STOP MySQL
    
    If you are not running the MySQL server as a service, use the following command to stop the server:
    C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqladmin -u root shutdown
    
  4. Exit the WinMySQLAdmin program if it is running.
  5. When upgrading to MySQL 4.1.5 or higher from a previous version, or when upgrading from a version of MySQL installed from a Zip archive to a version of MySQL installed with the MySQL Installation Wizard, you must manually remove the previous installation and MySQL service (if the server is installed as a service). To remove the MySQL service, use the following command:
    C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld --remove
    
    If you do not remove the existing service, the MySQL Installation Wizard may fail to properly install the new MySQL service.
  6. If you are using the MySQL Installation Wizard, start the wizard as described in section 2.3.4 Using the MySQL Installation Wizard.
  7. If you are installing MySQL from a Zip archive, extract the archive. You may either overwrite your existing MySQL installation (usually located at `C:\mysql'), or install it into a different directory, such as C:\mysql4. Overwriting the existing installation is recommended.
  8. Restart the server. For example, use NET START MySQL if you run MySQL as a service, or invoke mysqld directly otherwise.
  9. Refer to section 2.10 Upgrading MySQL for additional information on upgrading MySQL that is not specific to Windows.
  10. If you encounter errors, see section 2.3.14 Troubleshooting a MySQL Installation Under Windows.

2.3.16 MySQL on Windows Compared to MySQL on Unix

MySQL for Windows has proven itself to be very stable. The Windows version of MySQL has the same features as the corresponding Unix version, with the following exceptions:

Windows 95 and threads
Windows 95 leaks about 200 bytes of main memory for each thread creation. Each connection in MySQL creates a new thread, so you shouldn't run mysqld for an extended time on Windows 95 if your server handles many connections! Other versions of Windows don't suffer from this bug.
Limited number of ports
Windows systems have about 4,000 ports available for client connections, and after a connection on a port closes, it takes two to four minutes before the port can be reused. In situations where clients connect to and disconnect from the server at a high rate, it is possible for all available ports to be used up before closed ports become available again. If this happens, the MySQL server will appear to have become unresponsive even though it is running. Note that ports may be used by other applications running on the machine as well, in which case the number of ports available to MySQL is lower. For more information, see http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;196271.
Concurrent reads
MySQL depends on the pread() and pwrite() calls to be able to mix INSERT and SELECT. Currently we use mutexes to emulate pread()/pwrite(). We will, in the long run, replace the file level interface with a virtual interface so that we can use the readfile()/writefile() interface on NT, 2000, and XP to get more speed. The current implementation limits the number of open files MySQL can use to 2,048 (1,024 before MySQL 4.0.19), which means that you will not be able to run as many concurrent threads on NT, 2000, and XP as on Unix.
Blocking read
MySQL uses a blocking read for each connection, which has the following implications if named pipe connections are enabled: We plan to fix this problem when our Windows developers have figured out a nice workaround.
ALTER TABLE
While you are executing an ALTER TABLE statement, the table is locked from being used by other threads. This has to do with the fact that on Windows, you can't delete a file that is in use by another thread. In the future, we may find some way to work around this problem.
DROP TABLE
DROP TABLE on a table that is in use by a MERGE table will not work on Windows because the MERGE handler does the table mapping hidden from the upper layer of MySQL. Because Windows doesn't allow you to drop files that are open, you first must flush all MERGE tables (with FLUSH TABLES) or drop the MERGE table before dropping the table. We will fix this at the same time we introduce views.
DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY
The DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY options for CREATE TABLE are ignored on Windows, because Windows doesn't support symbolic links. These options also are ignored on systems that have a non-functional realpath() call.
DROP DATABASE
You cannot drop a database that is in use by some thread.
Killing MySQL from the Task Manager
You cannot kill MySQL from the Task Manager or with the shutdown utility in Windows 95. You must stop it with mysqladmin shutdown.
Case-insensitive names
Filenames are not case sensitive on Windows, so MySQL database and table names are also not case sensitive on Windows. The only restriction is that database and table names must be specified using the same case throughout a given statement. See section 9.2.2 Identifier Case Sensitivity.
The `\' pathname separator character
Pathname components in Windows are separated by the `\' character, which is also the escape character in MySQL. If you are using LOAD DATA INFILE or SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE, use Unix-style filenames with `/' characters:
mysql> LOAD DATA INFILE 'C:/tmp/skr.txt' INTO TABLE skr;
mysql> SELECT * INTO OUTFILE 'C:/tmp/skr.txt' FROM skr;
Alternatively, you must double the `\' character:
mysql> LOAD DATA INFILE 'C:\\tmp\\skr.txt' INTO TABLE skr;
mysql> SELECT * INTO OUTFILE 'C:\\tmp\\skr.txt' FROM skr;
Problems with pipes.
Pipes do not work reliably from the Windows command-line prompt. If the pipe includes the character ^Z / CHAR(24), Windows will think it has encountered end-of-file and abort the program. This is mainly a problem when you try to apply a binary log as follows:
C:\> mysqlbinlog binary-log-name | mysql --user=root
If you have a problem applying the log and suspect that it is because of a ^Z / CHAR(24) character, you can use the following workaround:
C:\> mysqlbinlog binary-log-file --result-file=/tmp/bin.sql
C:\> mysql --user=root --execute "source /tmp/bin.sql"
The latter command also can be used to reliably read in any SQL file that may contain binary data.
Access denied for user error
If you attempt to run a MySQL client program to connect to a server running on the same machine, but get the error Access denied for user 'some-user'@'unknown' to database 'mysql', this means that MySQL cannot resolve your hostname properly. To fix this, you should create a file named `\windows\hosts' containing the following information:
127.0.0.1       localhost

Here are some open issues for anyone who might want to help us improve MySQL on Windows:

2.4 Installing MySQL on Linux

The recommended way to install MySQL on Linux is by using the RPM packages. The MySQL RPMs are currently built on a SuSE Linux 7.3 system, but should work on most versions of Linux that support rpm and use glibc. To obtain RPM packages, see section 2.1.3 How to Get MySQL.

Note: RPM distributions of MySQL often are provided by other vendors. Be aware that they may differ in features and capabilities from those built by MySQL AB, and that the instructions in this manual do not necessarily apply to installing them. The vendor's instructions should be consulted instead.

If you have problems with an RPM file (for example, if you receive the error ``Sorry, the host 'xxxx' could not be looked up''), see section 2.12.1.2 Linux Binary Distribution Notes.

In most cases, you only need to install the MySQL-server and MySQL-client packages to get a functional MySQL installation. The other packages are not required for a standard installation. If you want to run a MySQL-Max server that has additional capabilities, you should also install the MySQL-Max RPM. However, you should do so only after installing the MySQL-server RPM. See section 5.1.2 The mysqld-max Extended MySQL Server.

If you get a dependency failure when trying to install the MySQL 4.0 packages (for example, ``error: removing these packages would break dependencies: libmysqlclient.so.10 is needed by ...''), you should also install the package MySQL-shared-compat, which includes both the shared libraries for backward compatibility (libmysqlclient.so.12 for MySQL 4.0 and libmysqlclient.so.10 for MySQL 3.23).

Many Linux distributions still ship with MySQL 3.23 and they usually link applications dynamically to save disk space. If these shared libraries are in a separate package (for example, MySQL-shared), it is sufficient to simply leave this package installed and just upgrade the MySQL server and client packages (which are statically linked and do not depend on the shared libraries). For distributions that include the shared libraries in the same package as the MySQL server (for example, Red Hat Linux), you could either install our 3.23 MySQL-shared RPM, or use the MySQL-shared-compat package instead.

The following RPM packages are available:

To see all files in an RPM package (for example, a MySQL-server RPM), run:

shell> rpm -qpl MySQL-server-VERSION.i386.rpm

To perform a standard minimal installation, run:

shell> rpm -i MySQL-server-VERSION.i386.rpm
shell> rpm -i MySQL-client-VERSION.i386.rpm

To install just the client package, run:

shell> rpm -i MySQL-client-VERSION.i386.rpm

RPM provides a feature to verify the integrity and authenticity of packages before installing them. If you would like to learn more about this feature, see section 2.1.4 Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG.

The server RPM places data under the `/var/lib/mysql' directory. The RPM also creates a login account for a user named mysql (if one does not exist) to use for running the MySQL server, and creates the appropriate entries in `/etc/init.d/' to start the server automatically at boot time. (This means that if you have performed a previous installation and have made changes to its startup script, you may want to make a copy of the script so that you don't lose it when you install a newer RPM.) See section 2.9.2.2 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically for more information on how MySQL can be started automatically on system startup.

If you want to install the MySQL RPM on older Linux distributions that do not support initialization scripts in `/etc/init.d' (directly or via a symlink), you should create a symbolic link that points to the location where your initialization scripts actually are installed. For example, if that location is `/etc/rc.d/init.d', use these commands before installing the RPM to create `/etc/init.d' as a symbolic link that points there:

shell> cd /etc
shell> ln -s rc.d/init.d .

However, all current major Linux distributions should support the new directory layout that uses `/etc/init.d', because it is required for LSB (Linux Standard Base) compliance.

If the RPM files that you install include MySQL-server, the mysqld server should be up and running after installation. You should be able to start using MySQL.

If something goes wrong, you can find more information in the binary installation section. See section 2.7 Installing MySQL on Other Unix-Like Systems.

Note: The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially have no passwords. After starting the server, you should set up passwords for them using the instructions in section 2.9 Post-Installation Setup and Testing.

2.5 Installing MySQL on Mac OS X

Beginning with MySQL 4.0.11, you can install MySQL on Mac OS X 10.2.x (``Jaguar'') and up using a Mac OS X binary package in PKG format instead of the binary tarball distribution. Please note that older versions of Mac OS X (for example, 10.1.x) are not supported by this package.

The package is located inside a disk image (.dmg) file that you first need to mount by double-clicking its icon in the Finder. It should then mount the image and display its contents.

To obtain MySQL, see section 2.1.3 How to Get MySQL.

Note: Before proceeding with the installation, be sure to shut down all running MySQL server instances by either using the MySQL Manager Application (on Mac OS X Server) or via mysqladmin shutdown on the command line.

To actually install the MySQL PKG file, double-click on the package icon. This launches the Mac OS X Package Installer, which will guide you through the installation of MySQL.

Due to a bug in the Mac OS X package installer, you may see this error message in the destination disk selection dialog:

You cannot install this software on this disk. (null)

If this error occurs, simply click the Go Back button once to return to the previous screen. Then click Continue to advance to the destination disk selection again, and you should be able to choose the destination disk correctly. We have reported this bug to Apple and it is investigating this problem.

The Mac OS X PKG of MySQL will install itself into `/usr/local/mysql-VERSION' and will also install a symbolic link, `/usr/local/mysql', pointing to the new location. If a directory named `/usr/local/mysql' exists, it will be renamed to `/usr/local/mysql.bak' first. Additionally, the installer will create the grant tables in the mysql database by executing mysql_install_db after the installation.

The installation layout is similar to that of a tar file binary distribution; all MySQL binaries are located in the directory `/usr/local/mysql/bin'. The MySQL socket file is created as `/tmp/mysql.sock' by default. See section 2.1.5 Installation Layouts.

MySQL installation requires a Mac OS X user account named mysql. A user account with this name should exist by default on Mac OS X 10.2 and up.

If you are running Mac OS X Server, you have a version of MySQL installed. The versions of MySQL that ship with Mac OS X Server versions are shown in the following table:

Mac OS X Server Version MySQL Version
10.2-10.2.2 3.23.51
10.2.3-10.2.6 3.23.53
10.3 4.0.14
10.3.2 4.0.16

This manual section covers the installation of the official MySQL Mac OS X PKG only. Make sure to read Apple's help information about installing MySQL: Run the ``Help View'' application, select ``Mac OS X Server'' help, do a search for ``MySQL,'' and read the item entitled ``Installing MySQL.''

For pre-installed versions of MySQL on Mac OS X Server, note especially that you should start mysqld with safe_mysqld instead of mysqld_safe if MySQL is older than version 4.0.

If you previously used Marc Liyanage's MySQL packages for Mac OS X from http://www.entropy.ch, you can simply follow the update instructions for packages using the binary installation layout as given on his pages.

If you are upgrading from Marc's 3.23.xx versions or from the Mac OS X Server version of MySQL to the official MySQL PKG, you also need to convert the existing MySQL privilege tables to the current format, because some new security privileges have been added. See section 2.10.7 Upgrading the Grant Tables.

If you would like to automatically start up MySQL during system startup, you also need to install the MySQL Startup Item. Starting with MySQL 4.0.15, it is part of the Mac OS X installation disk images as a separate installation package. Simply double-click the MySQLStartupItem.pkg icon and follow the instructions to install it.

Note that the Startup Item need be installed only once! There is no need to install it each time you upgrade the MySQL package later.

The Startup Item will be installed into `/Library/StartupItems/MySQLCOM'. (Before MySQL 4.1.2, the location was `/Library/StartupItems/MySQL', but that collided with the MySQL Startup Item installed by Mac OS X Server.) Startup Item installation adds a variable MYSQLCOM=-YES- to the system configuration file `/etc/hostconfig'. If you would like to disable the automatic startup of MySQL, simply change this variable to MYSQLCOM=-NO-.

On Mac OS X Server, the default MySQL installation uses the variable MYSQL in the `/etc/hostconfig' file. The MySQL AB Startup Item installer disables this variable by setting it to MYSQL=-NO-. This avoids boot time conflicts with the MYSQLCOM variable used by the MySQL AB Startup Item. However, it does not shut down a running MySQL server. You should do that yourself.

After the installation, you can start up MySQL by running the following commands in a terminal window. You must have administrator privileges to perform this task.

If you have installed the Startup Item:

shell> sudo /Library/StartupItems/MySQLCOM/MySQLCOM start
(Enter your password, if necessary)
(Press Control-D or enter "exit" to exit the shell)

For versions of MySQL older than 4.1.3, substitute /Library/StartupItems/MySQLCOM/MySQLCOM with /Library/StartupItems/MySQL/MySQL above.

If you don't use the Startup Item, enter the following command sequence:

shell> cd /usr/local/mysql
shell> sudo ./bin/mysqld_safe
(Enter your password, if necessary)
(Press Control-Z)
shell> bg
(Press Control-D or enter "exit" to exit the shell)

You should be able to connect to the MySQL server, for example, by running `/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql'.

Note: The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially have no passwords. After starting the server, you should set up passwords for them using the instructions in section 2.9 Post-Installation Setup and Testing.

You might want to add aliases to your shell's resource file to make it easier to access commonly used programs such as mysql and mysqladmin from the command line. The syntax for tcsh is:

alias mysql /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql
alias mysqladmin /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin

For bash, use:

alias mysql=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql
alias mysqladmin=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin

Even better, add /usr/local/mysql/bin to your PATH environment variable. For example, add the following line to your `$HOME/.tcshrc' file if your shell is tcsh:

setenv PATH ${PATH}:/usr/local/mysql/bin

If no `.tcshrc' file exists in your home directory, create it with a text editor.

If you are upgrading an existing installation, please note that installing a new MySQL PKG does not remove the directory of an older installation. Unfortunately, the Mac OS X Installer does not yet offer the functionality required to properly upgrade previously installed packages.

To use your existing databases with the new installation, you'll need to copy the contents of the old data directory to the new data directory. Make sure that neither the old server nor the new one is running when you do this. After you have copied over the MySQL database files from the previous installation and have successfully started the new server, you should consider removing the old installation files to save disk space. Additionally, you should also remove older versions of the Package Receipt directories located in `/Library/Receipts/mysql-VERSION.pkg'.

2.6 Installing MySQL on NetWare

Porting MySQL to NetWare was an effort spearheaded by Novell. Novell customers will be pleased to note that NetWare 6.5 ships with bundled MySQL binaries, complete with an automatic commercial use license for all servers running that version of NetWare.

MySQL for NetWare is compiled using a combination of Metrowerks CodeWarrior for NetWare and special cross-compilation versions of the GNU autotools.

The latest binary packages for NetWare can be obtained at http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/. See section 2.1.3 How to Get MySQL.

In order to host MySQL, the NetWare server must meet these requirements:

To install MySQL for NetWare, use the following procedure:

  1. If you are upgrading from a prior installation, stop the MySQL server. This is done from the server console, using the following command:
    SERVER:  mysqladmin -u root shutdown
    
  2. Log on to the target server from a client machine with access to the location where you will install MySQL.
  3. Extract the binary package Zip file onto the server. Be sure to allow the paths in the Zip file to be used. It is safe to simply extract the file to `SYS:\'. If you are upgrading from a prior installation, you may need to copy the data directory (for example, `SYS:MYSQL\DATA'), as well as `my.cnf', if you have customized it. You can then delete the old copy of MySQL.
  4. You might want to rename the directory to something more consistent and easy to use. We recommend using `SYS:MYSQL'; examples in this manual use this name to refer to the installation directory in general.
  5. At the server console, add a search path for the directory containing the MySQL NLMs. For example:
    SERVER:  SEARCH ADD SYS:MYSQL\BIN
    
  6. Initialize the data directory and the grant tables, if needed, by executing mysql_install_db at the server console.
  7. Start the MySQL server using mysqld_safe at the server console.
  8. To finish the installation, you should also add the following commands to autoexec.ncf. For example, if your MySQL installation is in `SYS:MYSQL' and you want MySQL to start automatically, you could add these lines:
    #Starts the MySQL 4.0.x database server
    SEARCH ADD SYS:MYSQL\BIN
    MYSQLD_SAFE
    
    If you are running MySQL on NetWare 6.0, we strongly suggest that you use the --skip-external-locking option on the command line:
    #Starts the MySQL 4.0.x database server
    SEARCH ADD SYS:MYSQL\BIN
    MYSQLD_SAFE --skip-external-locking
    
    It will also be necessary to use CHECK TABLE and REPAIR TABLE instead of myisamchk, because myisamchk makes use of external locking. External locking is known to have problems on NetWare 6.0; the problem has been eliminated in NetWare 6.5. mysqld_safe on NetWare provides a screen presence. When you unload (shut down) the mysqld_safe NLM, the screen does not by default go away. Instead, it prompts for user input:
    *<NLM has terminated; Press any key to close the screen>*
    
    If you want NetWare to close the screen automatically instead, use the --autoclose option to mysqld_safe. For example:
    #Starts the MySQL 4.0.x database server
    SEARCH ADD SYS:MYSQL\BIN
    MYSQLD_SAFE --autoclose
    
  9. When installing the 4.1.x version either for the first time or upgrading the 4.0.x version to 4.1.x, download and install Perl module for MySQL 4.1 from http://forge.novell.com/modules/xfmod/project/showfiles.php?group_id=1126 and PHP Extension for MySQL 4.1 from http://forge.novell.com/modules/xfmod/project/showfiles.php?group_id=1078

The behavior of mysqld_safe on NetWare is described further in section 5.1.3 The mysqld_safe Server Startup Script.

If there was an existing installation of MySQL on the server, be sure to check for existing MySQL startup commands in autoexec.ncf, and edit or delete them as necessary.

Note: The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially have no passwords. After starting the server, you should set up passwords for them using the instructions in section 2.9 Post-Installation Setup and Testing.

2.7 Installing MySQL on Other Unix-Like Systems

This section covers the installation of MySQL binary distributions that are provided for various platforms in the form of compressed tar files (files with a .tar.gz extension). See section 2.1.2.5 MySQL Binaries Compiled by MySQL AB for a detailed list.

To obtain MySQL, see section 2.1.3 How to Get MySQL.

MySQL tar file binary distributions have names of the form `mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz', where VERSION is a number (for example, 4.0.17), and OS indicates the type of operating system for which the distribution is intended (for example, pc-linux-i686).

In addition to these generic packages, we also offer binaries in platform-specific package formats for selected platforms. See section 2.2 Standard MySQL Installation Using a Binary Distribution for more information on how to install these.

You need the following tools to install a MySQL tar file binary distribution:

If you run into problems, please always use mysqlbug when posting questions to a MySQL mailing list. Even if the problem isn't a bug, mysqlbug gathers system information that will help others solve your problem. By not using mysqlbug, you lessen the likelihood of getting a solution to your problem. You will find mysqlbug in the `bin' directory after you unpack the distribution. See section 1.4.1.3 How to Report Bugs or Problems.

The basic commands you must execute to install and use a MySQL binary distribution are:

shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -g mysql mysql
shell> cd /usr/local
shell> gunzip < /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz | tar xvf -
shell> ln -s full-path-to-mysql-VERSION-OS mysql
shell> cd mysql
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
shell> chown -R root  .
shell> chown -R mysql data
shell> chgrp -R mysql .
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &

For versions of MySQL older than 4.0, substitute bin/safe_mysqld for bin/mysqld_safe in the final command.

Note: This procedure does not set up any passwords for MySQL accounts. After following the procedure, proceed to section 2.9 Post-Installation Setup and Testing.

A more detailed version of the preceding description for installing a binary distribution follows:

  1. Add a login user and group for mysqld to run as:
    shell> groupadd mysql
    shell> useradd -g mysql mysql
    
    These commands add the mysql group and the mysql user. The syntax for useradd and groupadd may differ slightly on different versions of Unix. They may also be called adduser and addgroup. You might want to call the user and group something else instead of mysql. If so, substitute the appropriate name in the following steps.
  2. Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution, and change location into it. In the following example, we unpack the distribution under `/usr/local'. (The instructions, therefore, assume that you have permission to create files and directories in `/usr/local'. If that directory is protected, you will need to perform the installation as root.)
    shell> cd /usr/local
    
  3. Obtain a distribution file from one of the sites listed in section 2.1.3 How to Get MySQL. For a given release, binary distributions for all platforms are built from the same MySQL source distribution.
  4. Unpack the distribution, which will create the installation directory. Then create a symbolic link to that directory:
    shell> gunzip < /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz | tar xvf -
    shell> ln -s full-path-to-mysql-VERSION-OS mysql
    
    The tar command creates a directory named `mysql-VERSION-OS'. The ln command makes a symbolic link to that directory. This lets you refer more easily to the installation directory as `/usr/local/mysql'. With GNU tar, no separate invocation of gunzip is necessary. You can replace the first line with the following alternative command to uncompress and extract the distribution:
    shell> tar zxvf /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz
    
  5. Change location into the installation directory:
    shell> cd mysql
    
    You will find several files and subdirectories in the mysql directory. The most important for installation purposes are the `bin' and `scripts' subdirectories.
    `bin'
    This directory contains client programs and the server. You should add the full pathname of this directory to your PATH environment variable so that your shell finds the MySQL programs properly. See section F Environment Variables.
    `scripts'
    This directory contains the mysql_install_db script used to initialize the mysql database containing the grant tables that store the server access permissions.
  6. If you haven't installed MySQL before, you must create the MySQL grant tables:
    shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
    
    If you run the command as root, you should use the --user option as shown. The value of the option should be the name of the login account that you created in the first step to use for running the server. If you run the command while logged in as that user, you can omit the --user option. Note that for MySQL versions older than 3.22.10, mysql_install_db left the server running after creating the grant tables. This is no longer true; you will need to restart the server after performing the remaining steps in this procedure.
  7. Change the ownership of program binaries to root and ownership of the data directory to the user that you will run mysqld as. Assuming that you are located in the installation directory (`/usr/local/mysql'), the commands look like this:
    shell> chown -R root  .
    shell> chown -R mysql data
    shell> chgrp -R mysql .
    
    The first command changes the owner attribute of the files to the root user. The second changes the owner attribute of the data directory to the mysql user. The third changes the group attribute to the mysql group.
  8. If you would like MySQL to start automatically when you boot your machine, you can copy support-files/mysql.server to the location where your system has its startup files. More information can be found in the support-files/mysql.server script itself and in section 2.9.2.2 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically.
  9. You can set up new accounts using the bin/mysql_setpermission script if you install the DBI and DBD::mysql Perl modules. For instructions, see section 2.13 Perl Installation Notes.
  10. If you would like to use mysqlaccess and have the MySQL distribution in some non-standard place, you must change the location where mysqlaccess expects to find the mysql client. Edit the `bin/mysqlaccess' script at approximately line 18. Search for a line that looks like this:
    $MYSQL     = '/usr/local/bin/mysql';    # path to mysql executable
    
    Change the path to reflect the location where mysql actually is stored on your system. If you do not do this, you will get a Broken pipe error when you run mysqlaccess.

After everything has been unpacked and installed, you should test your distribution.

You can start the MySQL server with the following command:

shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &

For versions of MySQL older than 4.0, substitute bin/safe_mysqld for bin/mysqld_safe in the command.

More information about mysqld_safe is given in section 5.1.3 The mysqld_safe Server Startup Script.

Note: The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially have no passwords. After starting the server, you should set up passwords for them using the instructions in section 2.9 Post-Installation Setup and Testing.

2.8 MySQL Installation Using a Source Distribution

Before you proceed with the source installation, check first to see whether our binary is available for your platform and whether it will work for you. We put a lot of effort into making sure that our binaries are built with the best possible options.

To obtain a source distribution for MySQL, section 2.1.3 How to Get MySQL.

MySQL source distributions are provided as compressed tar archives and have names of the form `mysql-VERSION.tar.gz', where VERSION is a number like 4.1.10a.

You need the following tools to build and install MySQL from source:

If you are using a version of gcc recent enough to understand the -fno-exceptions option, it is very important that you use this option. Otherwise, you may compile a binary that crashes randomly. We also recommend that you use -felide-constructors and -fno-rtti along with -fno-exceptions. When in doubt, do the following:

CFLAGS="-O3" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors \
       -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure \
       --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler \
       --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static

On most systems, this will give you a fast and stable binary.

If you run into problems, please always use mysqlbug when posting questions to a MySQL mailing list. Even if the problem isn't a bug, mysqlbug gathers system information that will help others solve your problem. By not using mysqlbug, you lessen the likelihood of getting a solution to your problem. You will find mysqlbug in the `scripts' directory after you unpack the distribution. See section 1.4.1.3 How to Report Bugs or Problems.

2.8.1 Source Installation Overview

The basic commands you must execute to install a MySQL source distribution are:

shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -g mysql mysql
shell> gunzip < mysql-VERSION.tar.gz | tar -xvf -
shell> cd mysql-VERSION
shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
shell> make
shell> make install
shell> cp support-files/my-medium.cnf /etc/my.cnf
shell> cd /usr/local/mysql
shell> bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
shell> chown -R root  .
shell> chown -R mysql var
shell> chgrp -R mysql .
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &

For versions of MySQL older than 4.0, substitute bin/safe_mysqld for bin/mysqld_safe in the final command.

If you start from a source RPM, do the following:

shell> rpmbuild --rebuild --clean MySQL-VERSION.src.rpm

This will make a binary RPM that you can install. For older versions of RPM, you may have to replace the command rpmbuild with rpm instead.

Note: This procedure does not set up any passwords for MySQL accounts. After following the procedure, proceed to section 2.9 Post-Installation Setup and Testing, for post-installation setup and testing.

A more detailed version of the preceding description for installing MySQL from a source distribution follows:

  1. Add a login user and group for mysqld to run as:
    shell> groupadd mysql
    shell> useradd -g mysql mysql
    
    These commands add the mysql group and the mysql user. The syntax for useradd and groupadd may differ slightly on different versions of Unix. They may also be called adduser and addgroup. You might want to call the user and group something else instead of mysql. If so, substitute the appropriate name in the following steps.
  2. Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution, and change location into it.
  3. Obtain a distribution file from one of the sites listed in section 2.1.3 How to Get MySQL.
  4. Unpack the distribution into the current directory:
    shell> gunzip < /path/to/mysql-VERSION.tar.gz | tar xvf -
    
    This command creates a directory named `mysql-VERSION'. With GNU tar, no separate invocation of gunzip is necessary. You can use the following alternative command to uncompress and extract the distribution:
    shell> tar zxvf /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz
    
  5. Change location into the top-level directory of the unpacked distribution:
    shell> cd mysql-VERSION
    
    Note that currently you must configure and build MySQL from this top-level directory. You cannot build it in a different directory.
  6. Configure the release and compile everything:
    shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
    shell> make
    
    When you run configure, you might want to specify some options. Run ./configure --help for a list of options. section 2.8.2 Typical configure Options, discusses some of the more useful options. If configure fails and you are going to send mail to a MySQL mailing list to ask for assistance, please include any lines from `config.log' that you think can help solve the problem. Also include the last couple of lines of output from configure. Post the bug report using the mysqlbug script. See section 1.4.1.3 How to Report Bugs or Problems. If the compile fails, see section 2.8.4 Dealing with Problems Compiling MySQL for help.
  7. Install the distribution:
    shell> make install
    
    If you want to set up an option file, use one of those present in the `support-files' directory as a template. For example:
    shell> cp support-files/my-medium.cnf /etc/my.cnf
    
    You might need to run these commands as root. If you want to configure support for InnoDB tables, you should edit the /etc/my.cnf file, remove the # character before the option lines that start with innodb_..., and modify the option values to be what you want. See section 4.3.2 Using Option Files and section 15.4 InnoDB Configuration.
  8. Change location into the installation directory:
    shell> cd /usr/local/mysql
    
  9. If you haven't installed MySQL before, you must create the MySQL grant tables:
    shell> bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
    
    If you run the command as root, you should use the --user option as shown. The value of the option should be the name of the login account that you created in the first step to use for running the server. If you run the command while logged in as that user, you can omit the --user option. Note that for MySQL versions older than 3.22.10, mysql_install_db left the server running after creating the grant tables. This is no longer true; you will need to restart the server after performing the remaining steps in this procedure.
  10. Change the ownership of program binaries to root and ownership of the data directory to the user that you will run mysqld as. Assuming that you are located in the installation directory (`/usr/local/mysql'), the commands look like this:
    shell> chown -R root  .
    shell> chown -R mysql var
    shell> chgrp -R mysql .
    
    The first command changes the owner attribute of the files to the root user. The second changes the owner attribute of the data directory to the mysql user. The third changes the group attribute to the mysql group.
  11. If you would like MySQL to start automatically when you boot your machine, you can copy support-files/mysql.server to the location where your system has its startup files. More information can be found in the support-files/mysql.server script itself and in section 2.9.2.2 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically.
  12. You can set up new accounts using the bin/mysql_setpermission script if you install the DBI and DBD::mysql Perl modules. For instructions, see section 2.13 Perl Installation Notes.

After everything has been installed, you should initialize and test your distribution using this command:

shell> /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &

For versions of MySQL older than 4.0, substitute safe_mysqld for mysqld_safe in the command.

If that command fails immediately and prints mysqld ended, you can find some information in the `host_name.err' file in the data directory.

More information about mysqld_safe is given in section 5.1.3 The mysqld_safe Server Startup Script.

Note: The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially have no passwords. After starting the server, you should set up passwords for them using the instructions in section 2.9 Post-Installation Setup and Testing.

2.8.2 Typical configure Options

The configure script gives you a great deal of control over how you configure a MySQL source distribution. Typically you do this using options on the configure command line. You can also affect configure using certain environment variables. See section F Environment Variables. For a list of options supported by configure, run this command:

shell> ./configure --help

Some of the more commonly used configure options are described here:

2.8.3 Installing from the Development Source Tree

Caution: You should read this section only if you are interested in helping us test our new code. If you just want to get MySQL up and running on your system, you should use a standard release distribution (either a binary or source distribution will do).

To obtain our most recent development source tree, use these instructions:

  1. Download BitKeeper from http://www.bitmover.com/cgi-bin/download.cgi. You will need Bitkeeper 3.0 or newer to access our repository.
  2. Follow the instructions to install it.
  3. After BitKeeper has been installed, first go to the directory you want to work from, and then use one of the following commands to clone the MySQL version branch of your choice: To clone the old 3.23 branch, use this command:
    shell> bk clone bk://mysql.bkbits.net/mysql-3.23 mysql-3.23
    
    To clone the 4.0 stable (production) branch, use this command:
    shell> bk clone bk://mysql.bkbits.net/mysql-4.0 mysql-4.0
    
    To clone the 4.1 stable (production) branch, use this command:
    shell> bk clone bk://mysql.bkbits.net/mysql-4.1 mysql-4.1
    
    To clone the 5.0 development branch, use this command:
    shell> bk clone bk://mysql.bkbits.net/mysql-5.0 mysql-5.0
    
    In the preceding examples, the source tree will be set up in the `mysql-3.23/', `mysql-4.0/', `mysql-4.1/', or `mysql-5.0/' subdirectory of your current directory. If you are behind a firewall and can only initiate HTTP connections, you can also use BitKeeper via HTTP. If you are required to use a proxy server, set the environment variable http_proxy to point to your proxy:
    shell> export http_proxy="http://your.proxy.server:8080/"
    
    Replace the bk:// with http:// when doing a clone. Example:
    shell> bk clone http://mysql.bkbits.net/mysql-4.1 mysql-4.1
    
    The initial download of the source tree may take a while, depending on the speed of your connection. Please be patient.
  4. You will need GNU make, autoconf 2.58 (or newer), automake 1.8, libtool 1.5, and m4 to run the next set of commands. Even though many operating systems come with their own implementation of make, chances are high that the compilation will fail with strange error messages. Therefore, it is highly recommended that you use GNU make (sometimes named gmake) instead. Fortunately, a large number of operating systems ship with the GNU toolchain preinstalled or supply installable packages of these. In any case, they can also be downloaded from the following locations: If you are trying to configure MySQL 4.1 or later, you will also need GNU bison 1.75 or later. Older versions of bison may report this error:
    sql_yacc.yy:#####: fatal error: maximum table size (32767) exceeded
    
    Note: The maximum table size is not actually exceeded; the error is caused by bugs in older versions of bison. Versions of MySQL before version 4.1 may also compile with other yacc implementations (for example, BSD yacc 91.7.30). For later versions, GNU bison is required. The following example shows the typical commands required to configure a source tree. The first cd command changes location into the top-level directory of the tree; replace `mysql-4.0' with the appropriate directory name.
    shell> cd mysql-4.0
    shell> bk -r edit
    shell> aclocal; autoheader; autoconf; automake
    shell> (cd innobase; aclocal; autoheader; autoconf; automake)
    shell> (cd bdb/dist; sh s_all)
    shell> ./configure  # Add your favorite options here
    make
    
    The command lines that change directory into the `innobase' and `bdb/dist' directories are used to configure the InnoDB and Berkeley DB (BDB) storage engines. You can omit these command lines if you to not require InnoDB or BDB support. If you get some strange errors during this stage, verify that you really have libtool installed. A collection of our standard configuration scripts is located in the `BUILD/' subdirectory. You may find it more convenient to use the `BUILD/compile-pentium-debug' script than the preceding set of shell commands. To compile on a different architecture, modify the script by removing flags that are Pentium-specific.
  5. When the build is done, run make install. Be careful with this on a production machine; the command may overwrite your live release installation. If you have another installation of MySQL, we recommend that you run ./configure with different values for the --prefix, --with-tcp-port, and --unix-socket-path options than those used for your production server.
  6. Play hard with your new installation and try to make the new features crash. Start by running make test. See section 25.1.2 MySQL Test Suite.
  7. If you have gotten to the make stage and the distribution does not compile, please report it in our bugs database at http://bugs.mysql.com/. If you have installed the latest versions of the required GNU tools, and they crash trying to process our configuration files, please report that also. However, if you execute aclocal and get a command not found error or a similar problem, do not report it. Instead, make sure that all the necessary tools are installed and that your PATH variable is set correctly so that your shell can find them.
  8. After the initial bk clone operation to obtain the source tree, you should run bk pull periodically to get updates.
  9. You can examine the change history for the tree with all the diffs by using bk revtool. If you see some funny diffs or code that you have a question about, do not hesitate to send email to the MySQL internals mailing list. See section 1.4.1.1 The MySQL Mailing Lists. Also, if you think you have a better idea on how to do something, send an email message to the same address with a patch. bk diffs will produce a patch for you after you have made changes to the source. If you do not have the time to code your idea, just send a description.
  10. BitKeeper has a nice help utility that you can access via bk helptool.
  11. Please note that any commits (made via bk ci or bk citool) will trigger the posting of a message with the changeset to our internals mailing list, as well as the usual openlogging.org submission with just the changeset comments. Generally, you wouldn't need to use commit (since the public tree will not allow bk push), but rather use the bk diffs method described previously.

You can also browse changesets, comments, and source code online. For example, to browse this information for MySQL 4.1, go to http://mysql.bkbits.net:8080/mysql-4.1.

The manual is in a separate tree that can be cloned with:

shell> bk clone bk://mysql.bkbits.net/mysqldoc mysqldoc

There are also public BitKeeper trees for MySQL Control Center and MyODBC. They can be cloned respectively as follows.

To clone MySQL Control center, use this command:

shell> bk clone http://mysql.bkbits.net/mysqlcc mysqlcc

To clone MyODBC, use this command:

shell> bk clone http://mysql.bkbits.net/myodbc3 myodbc3

To clone Connector/NET, use this command:

shell> bk clone http://mysql.bkbits.net/connector-net connector-net

2.8.4 Dealing with Problems Compiling MySQL

All MySQL programs compile cleanly for us with no warnings on Solaris or Linux using gcc. On other systems, warnings may occur due to differences in system include files. See section 2.8.5 MIT-pthreads Notes for warnings that may occur when using MIT-pthreads. For other problems, check the following list.

The solution to many problems involves reconfiguring. If you do need to reconfigure, take note of the following:

To prevent old configuration information or object files from being used, run these commands before re-running configure:

shell> rm config.cache
shell> make clean

Alternatively, you can run make distclean.

The following list describes some of the problems when compiling MySQL that have been found to occur most often:

2.8.5 MIT-pthreads Notes

This section describes some of the issues involved in using MIT-pthreads.

On Linux, you should not use MIT-pthreads. Use the installed LinuxThreads implementation instead. See section 2.12.1 Linux Notes.

If your system does not provide native thread support, you will need to build MySQL using the MIT-pthreads package. This includes older FreeBSD systems, SunOS 4.x, Solaris 2.4 and earlier, and some others. See section 2.1.1 Operating Systems Supported by MySQL.

Beginning with MySQL 4.0.2, MIT-pthreads is no longer part of the source distribution. If you require this package, you need to download it separately from http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Contrib/pthreads-1_60_beta6-mysql.tar.gz

After downloading, extract this source archive into the top level of the MySQL source directory. It will create a new subdirectory named mit-pthreads.

2.8.6 Installing MySQL from Source on Windows

These instructions describe how to build MySQL binaries from source for versions 4.1 and above on Windows. Instructions are provided for building binaries from a standard source distribution or from the BitKeeper tree that contains the latest development source.

Note: The instructions in this document are strictly for users who want to test MySQL on Windows from the latest source distribution or from the BitKeeper tree. For production use, MySQL AB does not advise using a MySQL server built by yourself from source. Normally, it is best to use precompiled binary distributions of MySQL that are built specifically for optimal performance on Windows by MySQL AB. Instructions for installing a binary distributions are available at section 2.3 Installing MySQL on Windows.

To build MySQL on Windows from source, you need the following compiler and resources available on your Windows system:

You'll also need a MySQL source distribution for Windows. There are two ways you can get a source distribution for MySQL version 4.1 and above:

  1. Obtain a source distribution packaged by MySQL AB for the particular version of MySQL in which you are interested. Prepackaged source distributions are available for released versions of MySQL and can be obtained from http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/.
  2. You can package a source distribution yourself from the latest BitKeeper developer source tree. If you plan to do this, you must create the package on a Unix system and then transfer it to your Windows system. (The reason for this is that some of the configuration and build steps require tools that work only on Unix.) The BitKeeper approach thus requires:

If you are using a Windows source distribution, you can go directly to section 2.8.6.1 Building MySQL Using VC++. To build from the BitKeeper tree, proceed to section 2.8.6.2 Creating a Windows Source Package from the Latest Development Source.

If you find something not working as expected, or you have suggestions about ways to improve the current build process on Windows, please send a message to the win32 mailing list. See section 1.4.1.1 The MySQL Mailing Lists.

2.8.6.1 Building MySQL Using VC++

Note: VC++ workspace files for MySQL 4.1 and above are compatible with Microsoft Visual Studio 6.0 and above (7.0/.NET) editions and tested by MySQL AB staff before each release.

Follow this procedure to build MySQL:

  1. Create a work directory (for example, `C:\workdir').
  2. Unpack the source distribution in the aforementioned directory using WinZip or other Windows tool that can read `.zip' files.
  3. Start the VC++ 6.0 compiler.
  4. In the File menu, select Open Workspace.
  5. Open the `mysql.dsw' workspace you find in the work directory.
  6. From the Build menu, select the Set Active Configuration menu.
  7. Click over the screen selecting mysqld - Win32 Debug and click OK.
  8. Press F7 to begin the build of the debug server, libraries, and some client applications.
  9. Compile the release versions that you want in the same way.
  10. Debug versions of the programs and libraries are placed in the `client_debug' and `lib_debug' directories. Release versions of the programs and libraries are placed in the `client_release' and `lib_release' directories. Note that if you want to build both debug and release versions, you can select the Build All option from the Build menu.
  11. Test the server. The server built using the preceding instructions will expect that the MySQL base directory and data directory are `C:\mysql' and `C:\mysql\data' by default. If you want to test your server using the source tree root directory and its data directory as the base directory and data directory, you will need to tell the server their pathnames. You can either do this on the command line with the --basedir and --datadir options, or place appropriate options in an option file (the `my.ini' file in your Windows directory or `C:\my.cnf'). If you have an existing data directory elsewhere that you want to use, you can specify its pathname instead.
  12. Start your server from the `client_release' or `client_debug' directory, depending on which server you want to use. The general server startup instructions are at section 2.3 Installing MySQL on Windows. You'll need to adapt the instructions appropriately if you want to use a different base directory or data directory.
  13. When the server is running in standalone fashion or as a service based on your configuration, try to connect to it from the mysql interactive command-line utility that exists in your `client_release' or `client_debug' directory.

When you are satisfied that the programs you have built are working correctly, stop the server. Then install MySQL as follows:

  1. Create the directories where you want to install MySQL. For example, to install into `C:\mysql', use these commands:
    C:\> mkdir C:\mysql
    C:\> mkdir C:\mysql\bin
    C:\> mkdir C:\mysql\data
    C:\> mkdir C:\mysql\share
    C:\> mkdir C:\mysql\scripts
    
    If you want to compile other clients and link them to MySQL, you should also create several additional directories:
    C:\> mkdir C:\mysql\include
    C:\> mkdir C:\mysql\lib
    C:\> mkdir C:\mysql\lib\debug
    C:\> mkdir C:\mysql\lib\opt
    
    If you want to benchmark MySQL, create this directory:
    C:\> mkdir C:\mysql\sql-bench
    
    Benchmarking requires Perl support.
  2. From the `workdir' directory, copy into the C:\mysql directory the following directories:
    C:\> cd \workdir
    C:\workdir> copy client_release\*.exe C:\mysql\bin
    C:\workdir> copy client_debug\mysqld.exe C:\mysql\bin\mysqld-debug.exe
    C:\workdir> xcopy scripts\*.* C:\mysql\scripts /E
    C:\workdir> xcopy share\*.* C:\mysql\share /E
    
    If you want to compile other clients and link them to MySQL, you should also copy several libraries and header files:
    C:\workdir> copy lib_debug\mysqlclient.lib C:\mysql\lib\debug
    C:\workdir> copy lib_debug\libmysql.* C:\mysql\lib\debug
    C:\workdir> copy lib_debug\zlib.* C:\mysql\lib\debug
    C:\workdir> copy lib_release\mysqlclient.lib C:\mysql\lib\opt
    C:\workdir> copy lib_release\libmysql.* C:\mysql\lib\opt
    C:\workdir> copy lib_release\zlib.* C:\mysql\lib\opt
    C:\workdir> copy include\*.h C:\mysql\include
    C:\workdir> copy libmysql\libmysql.def C:\mysql\include
    
    If you want to benchmark MySQL, you should also do this:
    C:\workdir> xcopy sql-bench\*.* C:\mysql\bench /E
    

Set up and start the server in the same way as for the binary Windows distribution. See section 2.3 Installing MySQL on Windows.

2.8.6.2 Creating a Windows Source Package from the Latest Development Source

To create a Windows source package from the current BitKeeper source tree, use the following instructions. Please note that this procedure must be performed on a system running a Unix or Unix-like operating system. For example, the procedure is known to work well on Linux.

  1. Clone the BitKeeper source tree for MySQL (version 4.1 or above, as desired). For more information on how to clone the source tree, see the instructions at section 2.8.3 Installing from the Development Source Tree.
  2. Configure and build the distribution so that you have a server binary to work with. One way to do this is to run the following command in the top-level directory of your source tree:
    shell> ./BUILD/compile-pentium-max
    
  3. After making sure that the build process completed successfully, run the following utility script from top-level directory of your source tree:
    shell> ./scripts/make_win_src_distribution
    
    This script creates a Windows source package to be used on your Windows system. You can supply different options to the script based on your needs. It accepts the following options:
    --help
    Display a help message.
    --debug
    Print information about script operations, do not create package.
    --tmp
    Specify the temporary location.
    --suffix
    Suffix name for the package.
    --dirname
    Directory name to copy files (intermediate).
    --silent
    Do not print verbose list of files processed.
    --tar
    Create `tar.gz' package instead of `.zip' package.
    By default, make_win_src_distribution creates a Zip-format archive with the name `mysql-VERSION-win-src.zip', where VERSION represents the version of your MySQL source tree.
  4. Copy or upload to your Windows machine the Windows source package that you have just created. To compile it, use the instructions in section 2.8.6.1 Building MySQL Using VC++.

2.8.7 Compiling MySQL Clients on Windows

In your source files, you should include `my_global.h' before `mysql.h':

#include <my_global.h>
#include <mysql.h>

`my_global.h' includes any other files needed for Windows compatibility (such as `windows.h') if you compile your program on Windows.

You can either link your code with the dynamic `libmysql.lib' library, which is just a wrapper to load in `libmysql.dll' on demand, or link with the static `mysqlclient.lib' library.

The MySQL client libraries are compiled as threaded libraries, so you should also compile your code to be multi-threaded.

2.9 Post-Installation Setup and Testing

After installing MySQL, there are some issues you should address. For example, on Unix, you should initialize the data directory and create the MySQL grant tables. On all platforms, an important security concern is that the initial accounts in the grant tables have no passwords. You should assign passwords to prevent unauthorized access to the MySQL server. For MySQL 4.1.3 and up, you can create time zone tables to enable recognition of named time zones. (Currently, these tables can be populated only on Unix. This problem will be addressed soon for Windows.)

The following sections include post-installation procedures that are specific to Windows systems and to Unix systems. Another section, section 2.9.2.3 Starting and Troubleshooting the MySQL Server, applies to all platforms; it describes what to do if you have trouble getting the server to start. section 2.9.3 Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts also applies to all platforms. You should follow its instructions to make sure that you have properly protected your MySQL accounts by assigning passwords to them.

When you are ready to create additional user accounts, you can find information on the MySQL access control system and account management in section 5.5 The MySQL Access Privilege System and section 5.6 MySQL User Account Management.

2.9.1 Windows Post-Installation Procedures

On Windows, the data directory and the grant tables do not have to be created. MySQL Windows distributions include the grant tables with a set of preinitialized accounts in the mysql database under the data directory. You do not run the mysql_install_db script that is used on Unix. However, if you did not install MySQL using the Windows Installation Wizard, you should assign passwords to the accounts. See section 2.3.4.1 Introduction. The procedure for this is given in section 2.9.3 Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts.

Before setting up passwords, you might want to try running some client programs to make sure that you can connect to the server and that it is operating properly. Make sure the server is running (see section 2.3.10 Starting the Server for the First Time), then issue the following commands to verify that you can retrieve information from the server. The output should be similar to what is shown here:

C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqlshow
+-----------+
| Databases |
+-----------+
| mysql     |
| test      |
+-----------+

C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqlshow mysql
Database: mysql
+--------------+
|    Tables    |
+--------------+
| columns_priv |
| db           |
| func         |
| host         |
| tables_priv  |
| user         |
+--------------+

C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysql -e "SELECT Host,Db,User FROM db" mysql
+------+-------+------+
| host | db    | user |
+------+-------+------+
| %    | test% |      |
+------+-------+------+

If you are running a version of Windows that supports services and you want the MySQL server to run automatically when Windows starts, see section 2.3.12 Starting MySQL as a Windows Service.

2.9.2 Unix Post-Installation Procedures

After installing MySQL on Unix, you need to initialize the grant tables, start the server, and make sure that the server works okay. You may also wish to arrange for the server to be started and stopped automatically when your system starts and stops. You should also assign passwords to the accounts in the grant tables.

On Unix, the grant tables are set up by the mysql_install_db program. For some installation methods, this program is run for you automatically:

Otherwise, you'll need to run mysql_install_db yourself.

The following procedure describes how to initialize the grant tables (if that has not previously been done) and then start the server. It also suggests some commands that you can use to test whether the server is accessible and working properly. For information about starting and stopping the server automatically, see section 2.9.2.2 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically.

After you complete the procedure and have the server running, you should assign passwords to the accounts created by mysql_install_db. Instructions for doing so are given in section 2.9.3 Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts.

In the examples shown here, the server runs under the user ID of the mysql login account. This assumes that such an account exists. Either create the account if it does not exist, or substitute the name of a different existing login account that you plan to use for running the server.

  1. Change location into the top-level directory of your MySQL installation, represented here by BASEDIR:
    shell> cd BASEDIR
    
    BASEDIR is likely to be something like `/usr/local/mysql' or `/usr/local'. The following steps assume that you are located in this directory.
  2. If necessary, run the mysql_install_db program to set up the initial MySQL grant tables containing the privileges that determine how users are allowed to connect to the server. You'll need to do this if you used a distribution type that doesn't run the program for you. Typically, mysql_install_db needs to be run only the first time you install MySQL, so you can skip this step if you are upgrading an existing installation, However, mysql_install_db does not overwrite any existing privilege tables, so it should be safe to run in any circumstances. To initialize the grant tables, use one of the following commands, depending on whether mysql_install_db is located in the bin or scripts directory:
    shell> bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
    shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
    
    The mysql_install_db script creates the data directory, the mysql database that holds all database privileges, and the test database that you can use to test MySQL. The script also creates privilege table entries for root accounts and anonymous-user accounts. The accounts have no passwords initially. A description of their initial privileges is given in section 2.9.3 Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts. Briefly, these privileges allow the MySQL root user to do anything, and allow anybody to create or use databases with a name of test or starting with test_. It is important to make sure that the database directories and files are owned by the mysql login account so that the server has read and write access to them when you run it later. To ensure this, the --user option should be used as shown if you run mysql_install_db as root. Otherwise, you should execute the script while logged in as mysql, in which case you can omit the --user option from the command. mysql_install_db creates several tables in the mysql database: user, db, host, tables_priv, columns_priv, func, and possibly others depending on your version of MySQL. If you don't want to have the test database, you can remove it with mysqladmin -u root drop test after starting the server. If you have problems with mysql_install_db, see section 2.9.2.1 Problems Running mysql_install_db. There are some alternatives to running the mysql_install_db script as it is provided in the MySQL distribution:
  3. Start the MySQL server:
    shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
    
    For versions of MySQL older than 4.0, substitute bin/safe_mysqld for bin/mysqld_safe in this command. It is important that the MySQL server be run using an unprivileged (non-root) login account. To ensure this, the --user option should be used as shown if you run mysql_safe as root. Otherwise, you should execute the script while logged in as mysql, in which case you can omit the --user option from the command. Further instructions for running MySQL as an unprivileged user are given in section A.3.2 How to Run MySQL as a Normal User. If you neglected to create the grant tables before proceeding to this step, the following message will appear in the error log file when you start the server:
    mysqld: Can't find file: 'host.frm'
    
    If you have other problems starting the server, see section 2.9.2.3 Starting and Troubleshooting the MySQL Server.
  4. Use mysqladmin to verify that the server is running. The following commands provide simple tests to check whether the server is up and responding to connections:
    shell> bin/mysqladmin version
    shell> bin/mysqladmin variables
    
    The output from mysqladmin version varies slightly depending on your platform and version of MySQL, but should be similar to that shown here:
    shell> bin/mysqladmin version
    mysqladmin  Ver 8.40 Distrib 4.0.18, for linux on i586
    Copyright (C) 2000 MySQL AB & MySQL Finland AB & TCX DataKonsult AB
    This software comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. This is free software,
    and you are welcome to modify and redistribute it under the GPL license
    
    Server version          4.0.18-log
    Protocol version        10
    Connection              Localhost via Unix socket
    TCP port                3306
    UNIX socket             /tmp/mysql.sock
    Uptime:                 16 sec
    
    Threads: 1  Questions: 9  Slow queries: 0
    Opens: 7  Flush tables: 2  Open tables: 0
    Queries per second avg: 0.000
    Memory in use: 132K  Max memory used: 16773K
    
    To see what else you can do with mysqladmin, invoke it with the --help option.
  5. Verify that you can shut down the server:
    shell> bin/mysqladmin -u root shutdown
    
  6. Verify that you can restart the server. Do this by using mysqld_safe or by invoking mysqld directly. For example:
    shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql --log &
    
    If mysqld_safe fails, see section 2.9.2.3 Starting and Troubleshooting the MySQL Server.
  7. Run some simple tests to verify that you can retrieve information from the server. The output should be similar to what is shown here:
    shell> bin/mysqlshow
    +-----------+
    | Databases |
    +-----------+
    | mysql     |
    | test      |
    +-----------+
    
    shell> bin/mysqlshow mysql
    Database: mysql
    +--------------+
    |    Tables    |
    +--------------+
    | columns_priv |
    | db           |
    | func         |
    | host         |
    | tables_priv  |
    | user         |
    +--------------+
    
    shell> bin/mysql -e "SELECT Host,Db,User FROM db" mysql
    +------+--------+------+
    | host | db     | user |
    +------+--------+------+
    | %    | test   |      |
    | %    | test_% |      |
    +------+--------+------+
    
  8. There is a benchmark suite in the `sql-bench' directory (under the MySQL installation directory) that you can use to compare how MySQL performs on different platforms. The benchmark suite is written in Perl. It uses the Perl DBI module to provide a database-independent interface to the various databases, and some other additional Perl modules are required to run the benchmark suite. You must have the following modules installed:
    DBI
    DBD::mysql
    Data::Dumper
    Data::ShowTable
    
    These modules can be obtained from CPAN (http://www.cpan.org/). See section 2.13.1 Installing Perl on Unix. The `sql-bench/Results' directory contains the results from many runs against different databases and platforms. To run all tests, execute these commands:
    shell> cd sql-bench
    shell> perl run-all-tests
    
    If you don't have the `sql-bench' directory, you probably installed MySQL using RPM files other than the source RPM. (The source RPM includes the `sql-bench' benchmark directory.) In this case, you must first install the benchmark suite before you can use it. Beginning with MySQL 3.22, there are separate benchmark RPM files named `mysql-bench-VERSION-i386.rpm' that contain benchmark code and data. If you have a source distribution, there are also tests in its `tests' subdirectory that you can run. For example, to run `auto_increment.tst', execute this command from the top-level directory of your source distribution:
    shell> mysql -vvf test < ./tests/auto_increment.tst
    
    The expected result of the test can be found in the `./tests/auto_increment.res' file.
  9. At this point, you should have the server running. However, none of the initial MySQL accounts have a password, so you should assign passwords using the instructions in section 2.9.3 Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts.

As of MySQL 4.1.3, the installation procedure creates time zone tables in the mysql database. However, you must populate the tables manually. Instructions to do this are given in section 5.8.8 MySQL Server Time Zone Support.

2.9.2.1 Problems Running mysql_install_db

The purpose of the mysql_install_db script is to generate new MySQL privilege tables. It will not overwrite existing MySQL privilege tables, and it will not affect any other data.

If you want to re-create your privilege tables, first stop the mysqld server if it's running. Then rename the `mysql' directory under the data directory to save it, and then run mysql_install_db. For example:

shell> mv mysql-data-directory/mysql mysql-data-directory/mysql-old
shell> mysql_install_db --user=mysql

This section lists problems you might encounter when you run mysql_install_db:

mysql_install_db doesn't install the grant tables
You may find that mysql_install_db fails to install the grant tables and terminates after displaying the following messages:
Starting mysqld daemon with databases from XXXXXX
mysqld ended
In this case, you should examine the error log file very carefully. The log should be located in the directory `XXXXXX' named by the error message, and should indicate why mysqld didn't start. If you don't understand what happened, include the log when you post a bug report. See section 1.4.1.3 How to Report Bugs or Problems.
There is a mysqld process running
This indicates that the server is running, in which case the grant tables have probably been created. If so, you don't have to run mysql_install_db at all because it need be run only once (when you install MySQL the first time).
Installing a second mysqld server doesn't work when one server is running
This can happen when you have an existing MySQL installation, but want to put a new installation in a different location. For example, you might have a production installation, but you want to create a second installation for testing purposes. Generally the problem that occurs when you try to run a second server is that it tries to use a network interface that is in use by the first server. In this case, you will see one of the following error messages:
Can't start server: Bind on TCP/IP port:
Address already in use
Can't start server: Bind on unix socket...
For instructions on setting up multiple servers, see section 5.10 Running Multiple MySQL Servers on the Same Machine.
You don't have write access to `/tmp'
If you don't have write access to create temporary files or a Unix socket file in the default location (the `/tmp' directory), an error will occur when you run mysql_install_db or the mysqld server. You can specify different temporary directory and Unix socket file locations by executing these commands prior to starting mysql_install_db or mysqld:
shell> TMPDIR=/some_tmp_dir/
shell> MYSQL_UNIX_PORT=/some_tmp_dir/mysql.sock
shell> export TMPDIR MYSQL_UNIX_PORT
`some_tmp_dir' should be the full pathname to some directory for which you have write permission. After this, you should be able to run mysql_install_db and start the server with these commands:
shell> bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
If mysql_install_db is located in the `scripts' directory, modify the first command to use scripts/mysql_install_db. See section A.4.5 How to Protect or Change the MySQL Socket File `/tmp/mysql.sock'. See section F Environment Variables.

2.9.2.2 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically

Generally, you start the mysqld server in one of these ways:

The mysql.server and mysqld_safe scripts and the Mac OS X Startup Item can be used to start the server manually, or automatically at system startup time. mysql.server and the Startup Item also can be used to stop the server.

To start or stop the server manually using the mysql.server script, invoke it with start or stop arguments:

shell> mysql.server start
shell> mysql.server stop

Before mysql.server starts the server, it changes location to the MySQL installation directory, and then invokes mysqld_safe. If you want the server to run as some specific user, add an appropriate user option to the [mysqld] group of the `/etc/my.cnf' option file, as shown later in this section. (It is possible that you'll need to edit mysql.server if you've installed a binary distribution of MySQL in a non-standard location. Modify it to cd into the proper directory before it runs mysqld_safe. If you do this, your modified version of mysql.server may be overwritten if you upgrade MySQL in the future, so you should make a copy of your edited version that you can reinstall.)

mysql.server stop brings down the server by sending a signal to it. You can also stop the server manually by executing mysqladmin shutdown.

To start and stop MySQL automatically on your server, you need to add start and stop commands to the appropriate places in your `/etc/rc*' files.

If you use the Linux server RPM package (MySQL-server-VERSION.rpm), the mysql.server script will have been installed in the `/etc/init.d' directory with the name `mysql'. You need not install it manually. See section 2.4 Installing MySQL on Linux for more information on the Linux RPM packages.

Some vendors provide RPM packages that install a startup script under a different name such as mysqld.

If you install MySQL from a source distribution or using a binary distribution format that does not install mysql.server automatically, you can install it manually. The script can be found in the `support-files' directory under the MySQL installation directory or in a MySQL source tree.

To install mysql.server manually, copy it to the `/etc/init.d' directory with the name mysql, and then make it executable. Do this by changing location into the appropriate directory where mysql.server is located and executing these commands:

shell> cp mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql
shell> chmod +x /etc/init.d/mysql

Older Red Hat systems use the `/etc/rc.d/init.d' directory rather than `/etc/init.d'. Adjust the preceding commands accordingly. Alternatively, first create `/etc/init.d' as a symbolic link that points to `/etc/rc.d/init.d':

shell> cd /etc
shell> ln -s rc.d/init.d .

After installing the script, the commands needed to activate it to run at system startup depend on your operating system. On Linux, you can use chkconfig:

shell> chkconfig --add mysql

On some Linux systems, the following command also seems to be necessary to fully enable the mysql script:

shell> chkconfig --level 345 mysql on

On FreeBSD, startup scripts generally should go in `/usr/local/etc/rc.d/'. The rc(8) manual page states that scripts in this directory are executed only if their basename matches the *.sh shell filename pattern. Any other files or directories present within the directory are silently ignored. In other words, on FreeBSD, you should install the `mysql.server' script as `/usr/local/etc/rc.d/mysql.server.sh' to enable automatic startup.

As an alternative to the preceding setup, some operating systems also use `/etc/rc.local' or `/etc/init.d/boot.local' to start additional services on startup. To start up MySQL using this method, you could append a command like the one following to the appropriate startup file:

/bin/sh -c 'cd /usr/local/mysql; ./bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &'

For other systems, consult your operating system documentation to see how to install startup scripts.

You can add options for mysql.server in a global `/etc/my.cnf' file. A typical `/etc/my.cnf' file might look like this:

[mysqld]
datadir=/usr/local/mysql/var
socket=/var/tmp/mysql.sock
port=3306
user=mysql

[mysql.server]
basedir=/usr/local/mysql

The mysql.server script understands the following options: basedir, datadir, and pid-file. If specified, they must be placed in an option file, not on the command line. mysql.server understands only start and stop as command-line arguments.

The following table shows which option groups the server and each startup script read from option files:

Script Option Groups
mysqld [mysqld], [server], [mysqld-major-version]
mysql.server [mysqld], [mysql.server]
mysqld_safe [mysqld], [server], [mysqld_safe]

[mysqld-major-version] means that groups with names like [mysqld-4.0], [mysqld-4.1], and [mysqld-5.0] will be read by servers having versions 4.0.x, 4.1.x, 5.0.x, and so forth. This feature was added in MySQL 4.0.14. It can be used to specify options that will be read only by servers within a given release series.

For backward compatibility, mysql.server also reads the [mysql_server] group and mysqld_safe also reads the [safe_mysqld] group. However, you should update your option files to use the [mysql.server] and [mysqld_safe] groups instead when you begin using MySQL 4.0 or later.

See section 4.3.2 Using Option Files.

2.9.2.3 Starting and Troubleshooting the MySQL Server

If you have problems starting the server, here are some things you can try:

Some storage engines have options that control their behavior. You can create a `my.cnf' file and set startup options for the engines you plan to use. If you are going to use storage engines that support transactional tables (InnoDB, BDB), be sure that you have them configured the way you want before starting the server:

When the mysqld server starts, it changes location to the data directory. This is where it expects to find databases and where it expects to write log files. On Unix, the server also writes the pid (process ID) file in the data directory.

The data directory location is hardwired in when the server is compiled. This is where the server looks for the data directory by default. If the data directory is located somewhere else on your system, the server will not work properly. You can find out what the default path settings are by invoking mysqld with the --verbose and --help options. (Prior to MySQL 4.1, omit the --verbose option.)

If the defaults don't match the MySQL installation layout on your system, you can override them by specifying options on the command line to mysqld or mysqld_safe. You can also list the options in an option file.

To specify the location of the data directory explicitly, use the --datadir option. However, normally you can tell mysqld the location of the base directory under which MySQL is installed and it will look for the data directory there. You can do this with the --basedir option.

To check the effect of specifying path options, invoke mysqld with those options followed by the --verbose and --help options. For example, if you change location into the directory where mysqld is installed, and then run the following command, it will show the effect of starting the server with a base directory of `/usr/local':

shell> ./mysqld --basedir=/usr/local --verbose --help

You can specify other options such as --datadir as well, but note that --verbose and --help must be the last options. (Prior to MySQL 4.1, omit the --verbose option.)

Once you determine the path settings you want, start the server without --verbose and --help.

If mysqld is currently running, you can find out what path settings it is using by executing this command:

shell> mysqladmin variables

Or:

shell> mysqladmin -h host_name variables

host_name is the name of the MySQL server host.

If you get Errcode 13 (which means Permission denied) when starting mysqld, this means that the access privileges of the data directory or its contents do not allow the server access. In this case, you change the permissions for the involved files and directories so that the server has the right to use them. You can also start the server as root, but this can raise security issues and should be avoided.

On Unix, change location into the data directory and check the ownership of the data directory and its contents to make sure the server has access. For example, if the data directory is `/usr/local/mysql/var', use this command:

shell> ls -la /usr/local/mysql/var

If the data directory or its files or subdirectories are not owned by the account that you use for running the server, change their ownership to that account:

shell> chown -R mysql /usr/local/mysql/var
shell> chgrp -R mysql /usr/local/mysql/var

If the server fails to start up correctly, check the error log file to see if you can find out why. Log files are located in the data directory (typically `C:\mysql\data' on Windows, `/usr/local/mysql/data' for a Unix binary distribution, and `/usr/local/var' for a Unix source distribution). Look in the data directory for files with names of the form `host_name.err' and `host_name.log', where host_name is the name of your server host. (Older servers on Windows use `mysql.err' as the error log name.) Then check the last few lines of these files. On Unix, you can use tail to display the last few lines:

shell> tail host_name.err
shell> tail host_name.log

The error log contains information that indicates why the server couldn't start. For example, you might see something like this in the log:

000729 14:50:10  bdb:  Recovery function for LSN 1 27595 failed
000729 14:50:10  bdb:  warning: ./test/t1.db: No such file or directory
000729 14:50:10  Can't init databases

This means that you didn't start mysqld with the --bdb-no-recover option and Berkeley DB found something wrong with its own log files when it tried to recover your databases. To be able to continue, you should move away the old Berkeley DB log files from the database directory to some other place, where you can later examine them. The BDB log files are named in sequence beginning with `log.0000000001', where the number increases over time.

If you are running mysqld with BDB table support and mysqld dumps core at startup, this could be due to problems with the BDB recovery log. In this case, you can try starting mysqld with --bdb-no-recover. If that helps, then you should remove all BDB log files from the data directory and try starting mysqld again without the --bdb-no-recover option.

If either of the following errors occur, it means that some other program (perhaps another mysqld server) is using the TCP/IP port or Unix socket file that mysqld is trying to use:

Can't start server: Bind on TCP/IP port: Address already in use
Can't start server: Bind on unix socket...

Use ps to determine whether you have another mysqld server running. If so, shut down the server before starting mysqld again. (If another server is running, and you really want to run multiple servers, you can find information about how to do so in section 5.10 Running Multiple MySQL Servers on the Same Machine.)

If no other server is running, try to execute the command telnet your-host-name tcp-ip-port-number. (The default MySQL port number is 3306.) Then press Enter a couple of times. If you don't get an error message like telnet: Unable to connect to remote host: Connection refused, some other program is using the TCP/IP port that mysqld is trying to use. You'll need to track down what program this is and disable it, or else tell mysqld to listen to a different port with the --port option. In this case, you'll also need to specify the port number for client programs when connecting to the server via TCP/IP.

Another reason the port might be inaccessible is that you have a firewall running that blocks connections to it. If so, modify the firewall settings to allow access to the port.

If the server starts but you can't connect to it, you should make sure that you have an entry in `/etc/hosts' that looks like this:

127.0.0.1       localhost

This problem occurs only on systems that don't have a working thread library and for which MySQL must be configured to use MIT-pthreads.

If you can't get mysqld to start, you can try to make a trace file to find the problem by using the --debug option. See section E.1.2 Creating Trace Files.

See section 2.3.14 Troubleshooting a MySQL Installation Under Windows, for more information on troubleshooting Windows installations.

2.9.3 Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts

Part of the MySQL installation process is to set up the mysql database containing the grant tables:

The grant tables define the initial MySQL user accounts and their access privileges. These accounts are set up as follows:

As noted, none of the initial accounts have passwords. This means that your MySQL installation is unprotected until you do something about it:

The following instructions describe how to set up passwords for the initial MySQL accounts, first for the anonymous accounts and then for the root accounts. Replace ``newpwd'' in the examples with the actual password that you want to use. The instructions also cover how to remove the anonymous accounts, should you prefer not to allow anonymous access at all.

You might want to defer setting the passwords until later, so that you don't need to specify them while you perform additional setup or testing. However, be sure to set them before using your installation for any real production work.

To assign passwords to the anonymous accounts, you can use either SET PASSWORD or UPDATE. In both cases, be sure to encrypt the password using the PASSWORD() function.

To use SET PASSWORD on Windows, do this:

shell> mysql -u root
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR ''@'localhost' = PASSWORD('newpwd');
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR ''@'%' = PASSWORD('newpwd');

To use SET PASSWORD on Unix, do this:

shell> mysql -u root
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR ''@'localhost' = PASSWORD('newpwd');
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR ''@'host_name' = PASSWORD('newpwd');

In the second SET PASSWORD statement, replace host_name with the name of the server host. This is the name that is specified in the Host column of the non-localhost record for root in the user table. If you don't know what hostname this is, issue the following statement before using SET PASSWORD:

mysql> SELECT Host, User FROM mysql.user;

Look for the record that has root in the User column and something other than localhost in the Host column. Then use that Host value in the second SET PASSWORD statement.

The other way to assign passwords to the anonymous accounts is by using UPDATE to modify the user table directly. Connect to the server as root and issue an UPDATE statement that assigns a value to the Password column of the appropriate user table records. The procedure is the same for Windows and Unix. The following UPDATE statement assigns a password to both anonymous accounts at once:

shell> mysql -u root
mysql> UPDATE mysql.user SET Password = PASSWORD('newpwd')
    ->     WHERE User = '';
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

After you update the passwords in the user table directly using UPDATE, you must tell the server to re-read the grant tables with FLUSH PRIVILEGES. Otherwise, the change will go unnoticed until you restart the server.

If you prefer to remove the anonymous accounts instead, do so as follows:

shell> mysql -u root
mysql> DELETE FROM mysql.user WHERE User = '';
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

The DELETE statement applies both to Windows and to Unix. On Windows, if you want to remove only the anonymous account that has the same privileges as root, do this instead:

shell> mysql -u root
mysql> DELETE FROM mysql.user WHERE Host='localhost' AND User='';
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

This account allows anonymous access but has full privileges, so removing it improves security.

You can assign passwords to the root accounts in several ways. The following discussion demonstrates three methods:

To assign passwords using SET PASSWORD, connect to the server as root and issue two SET PASSWORD statements. Be sure to encrypt the password using the PASSWORD() function.

For Windows, do this:

shell> mysql -u root
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR 'root'@'localhost' = PASSWORD('newpwd');
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR 'root'@'%' = PASSWORD('newpwd');

For Unix, do this:

shell> mysql -u root
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR 'root'@'localhost' = PASSWORD('newpwd');
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR 'root'@'host_name' = PASSWORD('newpwd');

In the second SET PASSWORD statement, replace host_name with the name of the server host. This is the same hostname that you used when you assigned the anonymous account passwords.

To assign passwords to the root accounts using mysqladmin, execute the following commands:

shell> mysqladmin -u root password "newpwd"
shell> mysqladmin -u root -h host_name password "newpwd"

These commands apply both to Windows and to Unix. In the second command, replace host_name with the name of the server host. The double quotes around the password are not always necessary, but you should use them if the password contains spaces or other characters that are special to your command interpreter.

If you are using a server from a very old version of MySQL, the mysqladmin commands to set the password will fail with the message parse error near 'SET password'. The solution to this problem is to upgrade the server to a newer version of MySQL.

You can also use UPDATE to modify the user table directly. The following UPDATE statement assigns a password to both root accounts at once:

shell> mysql -u root
mysql> UPDATE mysql.user SET Password = PASSWORD('newpwd')
    ->     WHERE User = 'root';
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

The UPDATE statement applies both to Windows and to Unix.

After the passwords have been set, you must supply the appropriate password whenever you connect to the server. For example, if you want to use mysqladmin to shut down the server, you can do so using this command:

shell> mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown
Enter password: (enter root password here)

Note: If you forget your root password after setting it up, the procedure for resetting it is covered in section A.4.1 How to Reset the Root Password.

To set up new accounts, you can use the GRANT statement. For instructions, see section 5.6.2 Adding New User Accounts to MySQL.

2.10 Upgrading MySQL

As a general rule, we recommend that when upgrading from one release series to another, you should go to the next series rather than skipping a series. For example, if you currently are running MySQL 3.23 and wish to upgrade to a newer series, upgrade to MySQL 4.0 rather than to 4.1 or 5.0.

The following items form a checklist of things you should do whenever you perform an upgrade:

You can always move the MySQL format files and data files between different versions on the same architecture as long as you stay within versions for the same release series of MySQL. The current production release series is 4.1. If you change the character set when running MySQL, you must run myisamchk -r -q --set-character-set=charset on all MyISAM tables. Otherwise, your indexes may not be ordered correctly, because changing the character set may also change the sort order.

Normally you can upgrade MySQL to a newer MySQL version without having to do any changes to your tables. Please confirm if the upgrade notes to the particular version you are upgrading to tells you anything about this. If there would be any incompatibilities you can use mysqldump to dump your tables before upgrading. After upgrading, reload the dump file using mysql or mysqlimport to re-create your tables.

If you are cautious about using new versions, you can always rename your old mysqld before installing a newer one. For example, if you are using MySQL 4.0.18 and want to upgrade to 4.1.1, rename your current server from mysqld to mysqld-4.0.18. If your new mysqld then does something unexpected, you can simply shut it down and restart with your old mysqld.

If, after an upgrade, you experience problems with recompiled client programs, such as Commands out of sync or unexpected core dumps, you probably have used old header or library files when compiling your programs. In this case, you should check the date for your `mysql.h' file and `libmysqlclient.a' library to verify that they are from the new MySQL distribution. If not, recompile your programs with the new headers and libraries.

If problems occur, such as that the new mysqld server doesn't want to start or that you can't connect without a password, verify that you don't have some old `my.cnf' file from your previous installation. You can check this with the --print-defaults option (for example, mysqld --print-defaults). If this displays anything other than the program name, you have an active `my.cnf' file that affects server or client operation.

It is a good idea to rebuild and reinstall the Perl DBD::mysql module whenever you install a new release of MySQL. The same applies to other MySQL interfaces as well, such as the PHP mysql extension and the Python MySQLdb module.

2.10.1 Upgrading from Version 4.1 to 5.0

In general, you should do the following when upgrading to MySQL 5.0 from 4.1:

The following list describes changes that may affect applications and that you should watch out for when upgrading to version 5.0:

2.10.2 Upgrading from Version 4.0 to 4.1

In general, you should do the following when upgrading to MySQL 4.1 from 4.0:

Several visible behaviors have changed between MySQL 4.0 and MySQL 4.1 to fix some critical bugs and make MySQL more compatible with standard SQL. These changes may affect your applications.

Some of the 4.1 behaviors can be tested in 4.0 before performing a full upgrade to 4.1. We have added to later MySQL 4.0 releases (from 4.0.12 on) a --new startup option for mysqld. See section 5.2.1 mysqld Command-Line Options.

This option gives you the 4.1 behavior for the most critical changes. You can also enable these behaviors for a given client connection with the SET @@new=1 command, or turn them off if they are on with SET @@new=0.

If you believe that some of the 4.1 changes will affect you, we recommend that before upgrading to 4.1, you download the latest MySQL 4.0 version and run it with the --new option by adding the following to your config file:

[mysqld-4.0]
new

That way you can test the new behaviors in 4.0 to make sure that your applications work with them. This will help you have a smooth, painless transition when you perform a full upgrade to 4.1 later. Putting the --new option in the [mysqld-4.0] option group ensures that you don't accidentally later run the 4.1 version with the --new option.

The following lists describe changes that may affect applications and that you should watch out for when upgrading to version 4.1:

Server Changes:

Client Changes:

SQL Changes:

C API Changes:

Password-Handling Changes:

The password hashing mechanism has changed in 4.1 to provide better security, but this may cause compatibility problems if you still have clients that use the client library from 4.0 or earlier. (It is very likely that you will have 4.0 clients in situations where clients connect from remote hosts that have not yet upgraded to 4.1.) The following list indicates some possible upgrade strategies. They represent various tradeoffs between the goal of compatibility with old clients and the goal of security.

Further background on password hashing with respect to client authentication and password-changing operations may be found in section 5.5.9 Password Hashing in MySQL 4.1 and section A.2.3 Client does not support authentication protocol.

2.10.3 Upgrading from Version 3.23 to 4.0

In general, you should do the following when upgrading to MySQL 4.0 from 3.23:

MySQL 4.0 will work even if you don't perform the preceding actions, but you will not be able to use the new security privileges in MySQL 4.0 and you may run into problems when upgrading later to MySQL 4.1 or newer. The ISAM file format still works in MySQL 4.0, but is deprecated and is not compiled in by default as of MySQL 4.1. MyISAM tables should be used instead.

Old clients should work with a MySQL 4.0 server without any problems.

Even if you perform the preceding actions, you can still downgrade to MySQL 3.23.52 or newer if you run into problems with the MySQL 4.0 series. In this case, you must use mysqldump to dump any tables that use full-text indexes and reload the dump file into the 3.23 server. This is necessary because 4.0 uses a new format for full-text indexing.

The following lists describe changes that may affect applications and that you should watch out for when upgrading to version 4.0:

Server Changes:

SQL Changes:

C API Changes:

Other Changes:

2.10.4 Upgrading from Version 3.22 to 3.23

MySQL 3.22 and 3.21 clients will work without any problems with a MySQL 3.23 server.

When upgrading to MySQL 3.23 from an earlier version, note the following changes:

Table Changes:

Client Program Changes:

SQL Changes:

C API Changes:

2.10.5 Upgrading from Version 3.21 to 3.22

Nothing that affects compatibility has changed between versions 3.21 and 3.22. The only pitfall is that new tables that are created with DATE type columns will use the new way to store the date. You can't access these new columns from an old version of mysqld.

When upgrading to MySQL 3.23 from an earlier version, note the following changes:

2.10.6 Upgrading from Version 3.20 to 3.21

If you are running a version older than Version 3.20.28 and want to switch to Version 3.21, you need to do the following:

You can start the mysqld Version 3.21 server with the --old-protocol option to use it with clients from a Version 3.20 distribution. In this case, the server uses the old pre-3.21 password() checking rather than the new method. Also, the new client function mysql_errno() will not return any server error, only CR_UNKNOWN_ERROR. The function does work for client errors.

If you are not using the --old-protocol option to mysqld, you will need to make the following changes:

MySQL 3.20.28 and above can handle the new user table format without affecting clients. If you have a MySQL version earlier than 3.20.28, passwords will no longer work with it if you convert the user table. So to be safe, you should first upgrade to at least Version 3.20.28 and then upgrade to Version 3.21.

The new client code works with a 3.20.x mysqld server, so if you experience problems with 3.21.x, you can use the old 3.20.x server without having to recompile the clients again.

If you are not using the --old-protocol option to mysqld, old clients will be unable to connect and will issue the following error message:

ERROR: Protocol mismatch. Server Version = 10 Client Version = 9

The Perl DBI interface also supports the old mysqlperl interface. The only change you have to make if you use mysqlperl is to change the arguments to the connect() function. The new arguments are: host, database, user, and password (note that the user and password arguments have changed places).

The following changes may affect queries in old applications:

2.10.7 Upgrading the Grant Tables

Some releases introduce changes to the structure of the grant tables (the tables in the mysql database) to add new privileges or features. To make sure that your grant tables are current when you update to a new version of MySQL, you should update your grant tables as well.

On Unix or Unix-like systems, update the grant tables by running the mysql_fix_privilege_tables script:

shell> mysql_fix_privilege_tables

You must run this script while the server is running. It attempts to connect to the server running on the local host as root. If your root account requires a password, indicate the password on the command line. For MySQL 4.1 and up, specify the password like this:

shell> mysql_fix_privilege_tables --password=root_password

Prior to MySQL 4.1, specify the password like this:

shell> mysql_fix_privilege_tables root_password

The mysql_fix_privilege_tables script performs any actions necessary to convert your grant tables to the current format. You might see some Duplicate column name warnings as it runs; you can ignore them.

After running the script, stop the server and restart it.

On Windows systems, there isn't an easy way to update the grant tables until MySQL 4.0.15. From version 4.0.15 on, MySQL distributions include a `mysql_fix_privilege_tables.sql' SQL script that you can run using the mysql client. If your MySQL installation is located at `C:\mysql', the commands look like this:

C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysql -u root -p mysql
mysql> SOURCE C:\mysql\scripts\mysql_fix_privilege_tables.sql

If your installation is located in some other directory, adjust the pathnames appropriately.

The mysql command will prompt you for the root password; enter it when prompted.

As with the Unix procedure, you might see some Duplicate column name warnings as mysql processes the statements in the `mysql_fix_privilege_tables.sql' script; you can ignore them.

After running the script, stop the server and restart it.

If you are upgrading to MySQL 5.0.1 or later, the grant table upgrade procedure just described will add view-related columns for the CREATE VIEW and SHOW VIEW privileges. These privileges exist at the global and database levels. Their initial values are assigned as follows:

2.10.8 Copying MySQL Databases to Another Machine

If you are using MySQL 3.23 or later, you can copy the `.frm', `.MYI', and `.MYD' files for MyISAM tables between different architectures that support the same floating-point format. (MySQL takes care of any byte-swapping issues.) See section 14.1 The MyISAM Storage Engine.

The MySQL ISAM data and index files (`.ISD' and `*.ISM', respectively) are architecture dependent and in some cases operating system dependent. If you want to move your applications to another machine that has a different architecture or operating system than your current machine, you should not try to move a database by simply copying the files to the other machine. Use mysqldump instead.

By default, mysqldump will create a file containing SQL statements. You can then transfer the file to the other machine and feed it as input to the mysql client.

Try mysqldump --help to see what options are available. If you are moving the data to a newer version of MySQL, you should use mysqldump --opt to take advantage of any optimizations that result in a dump file that is smaller and can be processed faster.

The easiest (although not the fastest) way to move a database between two machines is to run the following commands on the machine on which the database is located:

shell> mysqladmin -h 'other_hostname' create db_name
shell> mysqldump --opt db_name | mysql -h 'other_hostname' db_name

If you want to copy a database from a remote machine over a slow network, you can use:

shell> mysqladmin create db_name
shell> mysqldump -h 'other_hostname' --opt --compress db_name | mysql db_name

You can also store the result in a file, then transfer the file to the target machine and load the file into the database there. For example, you can dump a database to a file on the source machine like this:

shell> mysqldump --quick db_name | gzip > db_name.contents.gz

(The file created in this example is compressed.) Transfer the file containing the database contents to the target machine and run these commands there:

shell> mysqladmin create db_name
shell> gunzip < db_name.contents.gz | mysql db_name

You can also use mysqldump and mysqlimport to transfer the database. For big tables, this is much faster than simply using mysqldump. In the following commands, DUMPDIR represents the full pathname of the directory you use to store the output from mysqldump.

First, create the directory for the output files and dump the database:

shell> mkdir DUMPDIR
shell> mysqldump --tab=DUMPDIR db_name

Then transfer the files in the DUMPDIR directory to some corresponding directory on the target machine and load the files into MySQL there:

shell> mysqladmin create db_name           # create database
shell> cat DUMPDIR/*.sql | mysql db_name   # create tables in database
shell> mysqlimport db_name DUMPDIR/*.txt   # load data into tables

Also, don't forget to copy the mysql database because that is where the user, db, and host grant tables are stored. You might have to run commands as the MySQL root user on the new machine until you have the mysql database in place.

After you import the mysql database on the new machine, execute mysqladmin flush-privileges so that the server reloads the grant table information.

2.11 Downgrading MySQL

This section describes what you should do if you are downgrading to an older MySQL version in the unlikely case that the previous version worked better than the new one.

If you are downgrading within the same release series (for example, from 4.0.20 to 4.0.19) the general rule is that you just have to install the new binaries on top of the old ones. There is no need to do anything with the databases. As always, however, it's always a good idea to make a backup.

The following items form a checklist of things you should do whenever you perform an downgrade:

You can always move the MySQL format files and data files between different versions on the same architecture as long as you stay within versions for the same release series of MySQL. The current production release series is 4.1.

If you downgrade from one release series to another, there may be incompatibilities in table storage formats. In this case, you can use mysqldump to dump your tables before dowgnrading. After downgrading, reload the dump file using mysql or mysqlimport to re-create your tables. See section 2.10.8 Copying MySQL Databases to Another Machine for examples.

The normal symptom of a downward-incompatible table format change when you downgrade is that you can't open tables. In that case, use the following procedure:

  1. Stop the older MySQL server that you are trying to downgrade to.
  2. Restart the newer MySQL server you are trying to downgrade from.
  3. Dump any tables that were inaccessible to the older server by using mysqldump to create a dump file.
  4. Stop the newer MySQL server and restart the older one.
  5. Reload the dump file into the older server. Your tables should be accessible.

2.11.1 Downgrading to 4.0

The table format in 4.1 changed to include more and new character set information. Because of this, you must use mysqldump to dump any tables you have created with the newer MySQL server. For example, if all the tables in a particular database need to be dumped to be reverted back to MySQL 4.0 format, use this command:

shell> mysqldump --create-options --compatible=mysql40 db_name > dump_file

Then stop the newer server, restart the older server, and read in the dump file:

shell> mysql db_name < dump_file

In the special case that you're downgrading MyISAM tables, no special treatment is necessary if all columns in the tables contain only numeric columns or string columns (CHAR, VARCHAR, TEXT, and so forth) that contain only latin1 data. Your 4.1 tables should be directly usable with a 4.0 server.

If you used the mysql_fix_privilege_tables script to upgrade the grant tables, you can either use the preceding method to convert them to back to MySQL 4.0 or do the following in MySQL 4.1 (or above):

ALTER TABLE mysql.user CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET latin1 COLLATE latin1_swedish_ci;
ALTER TABLE mysql.db CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET latin1 COLLATE latin1_swedish_ci;
ALTER TABLE mysql.host CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET latin1 COLLATE latin1_swedish_ci;
ALTER TABLE mysql.tables_priv CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET latin1 COLLATE latin1_swedish_ci;
ALTER TABLE mysql.columns_priv CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET latin1 COLLATE latin1_swedish_ci;
ALTER TABLE mysql.func CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET latin1 COLLATE latin1_swedish_ci;

2.12 Operating System-Specific Notes

2.12.1 Linux Notes

This section discusses issues that have been found to occur on Linux. The first few subsections describe general operating system-related issues, problems that can occur when using binary or source distributions, and post-installation issues. The remaining subsections discuss problems that occur with Linux on specific platforms.

Note that most of these problems occur on older versions of Linux. If you are running a recent version, you likely will see none of them.

2.12.1.1 Linux Operating System Notes

MySQL needs at least Linux Version 2.0.

Warning: We have seen some strange problems with Linux 2.2.14 and MySQL on SMP systems. We also have reports from some MySQL users that they have encountered serious stability problems using MySQL with kernel 2.2.14. If you are using this kernel, you should upgrade to 2.2.19 (or newer) or to a 2.4 kernel. If you have a multiple-CPU box, then you should seriously consider using 2.4 because it will give you a significant speed boost. Your system also will be more stable.

When using LinuxThreads, you will see a minimum of three mysqld processes running. These are in fact threads. There will be one thread for the LinuxThreads manager, one thread to handle connections, and one thread to handle alarms and signals.

2.12.1.2 Linux Binary Distribution Notes

The Linux-Intel binary and RPM releases of MySQL are configured for the highest possible speed. We are always trying to use the fastest stable compiler available.

The binary release is linked with -static, which means you do not normally need to worry about which version of the system libraries you have. You need not install LinuxThreads, either. A program linked with -static is slightly larger than a dynamically linked program, but also slightly faster (3-5%). However, one problem with a statically linked program is that you can't use user-defined functions (UDFs). If you are going to write or use UDFs (this is something for C or C++ programmers only), you must compile MySQL yourself using dynamic linking.

A known issue with binary distributions is that on older Linux systems that use libc (such as Red Hat 4.x or Slackware), you will get some non-fatal problems with hostname resolution. If your system uses libc rather than glibc2, you probably will encounter some difficulties with hostname resolution and getpwnam(). This happens because glibc unfortunately depends on some external libraries to implement hostname resolution and getpwent(), even when compiled with -static. These problems manifest themselves in two ways:

Another solution, which solves both problems, is to not use a binary distribution. Get a MySQL source distribution (in RPM or tar.gz format) and install that instead.

On some Linux 2.2 versions, you may get the error Resource temporarily unavailable when clients make a lot of new connections to a mysqld server over TCP/IP. The problem is that Linux has a delay between the time that you close a TCP/IP socket and the time that the system actually frees it. There is room for only a finite number of TCP/IP slots, so you will encounter the resource-unavailable error if clients attempt too many new TCP/IP connections during a short time. For example, you may see the error when you run the MySQL `test-connect' benchmark over TCP/IP.

We have inquired about this problem a few times on different Linux mailing lists but have never been able to find a suitable resolution. The only known ``fix'' is for the clients to use persistent connections, or, if you are running the database server and clients on the same machine, to use Unix socket file connections rather than TCP/IP connections.

2.12.1.3 Linux Source Distribution Notes

The following notes regarding glibc apply only to the situation when you build MySQL yourself. If you are running Linux on an x86 machine, in most cases it is much better for you to just use our binary. We link our binaries against the best patched version of glibc we can come up with and with the best compiler options, in an attempt to make it suitable for a high-load server. For a typical user, even for setups with a lot of concurrent connections or tables exceeding the 2GB limit, our binary is the best choice in most cases. After reading the following text, if you are in doubt about what to do, try our binary first to see whether it meets your needs. If you discover that it is not good enough, then you may want to try your own build. In that case, we would appreciate a note about it so that we can build a better binary next time.

MySQL uses LinuxThreads on Linux. If you are using an old Linux version that doesn't have glibc2, you must install LinuxThreads before trying to compile MySQL. You can get LinuxThreads at http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/os-linux.html.

Note that glibc versions before and including Version 2.1.1 have a fatal bug in pthread_mutex_timedwait() handling, which is used when you issue INSERT DELAYED statements. We recommend that you not use INSERT DELAYED before upgrading glibc.

Note that Linux kernel and the LinuxThread library can by default only have 1,024 threads. If you plan to have more than 1,000 concurrent connections, you will need to make some changes to LinuxThreads:

The page http://www.volano.com/linuxnotes.html contains additional information about circumventing thread limits in LinuxThreads.

There is another issue that greatly hurts MySQL performance, especially on SMP systems. The mutex implementation in LinuxThreads in glibc 2.1 is very bad for programs with many threads that hold the mutex only for a short time. This produces a paradoxical result: If you link MySQL against an unmodified LinuxThreads, removing processors from an SMP actually improves MySQL performance in many cases. We have made a patch available for glibc 2.1.3 to correct this behavior (http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Linux/linuxthreads-2.1-patch).

With glibc 2.2.2, MySQL 3.23.36 will use the adaptive mutex, which is much better than even the patched one in glibc 2.1.3. Be warned, however, that under some conditions, the current mutex code in glibc 2.2.2 overspins, which hurts MySQL performance. The likelihood that this condition will occur can be reduced by renicing the mysqld process to the highest priority. We have also been able to correct the overspin behavior with a patch, available at http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Linux/linuxthreads-2.2.2.patch. It combines the correction of overspin, maximum number of threads, and stack spacing all in one. You will need to apply it in the linuxthreads directory with patch -p0 </tmp/linuxthreads-2.2.2.patch. We hope it will be included in some form in future releases of glibc 2.2. In any case, if you link against glibc 2.2.2, you still need to correct STACK_SIZE and PTHREAD_THREADS_MAX. We hope that the defaults will be corrected to some more acceptable values for high-load MySQL setup in the future, so that the commands needed to produce your own build can be reduced to ./configure; make; make install.

We recommend that you use these patches to build a special static version of libpthread.a and use it only for statically linking against MySQL. We know that the patches are safe for MySQL and significantly improve its performance, but we cannot say anything about other applications. If you link other applications that require LinuxThreads against the patched static version of the library, or build a patched shared version and install it on your system, you do so at your own risk.

If you experience any strange problems during the installation of MySQL, or with some common utilities hanging, it is very likely that they are either library or compiler related. If this is the case, using our binary will resolve them.

If you link your own MySQL client programs, you may see the following error at runtime:

ld.so.1: fatal: libmysqlclient.so.#:
open failed: No such file or directory

This problem can be avoided by one of the following methods:

If you are using the Fujitsu compiler (fcc/FCC), you will have some problems compiling MySQL because the Linux header files are very gcc oriented. The following configure line should work with fcc/FCC:

CC=fcc CFLAGS="-O -K fast -K lib -K omitfp -Kpreex -D_GNU_SOURCE \
    -DCONST=const -DNO_STRTOLL_PROTO" \
CXX=FCC CXXFLAGS="-O -K fast -K lib \
    -K omitfp -K preex --no_exceptions --no_rtti -D_GNU_SOURCE \
    -DCONST=const -Dalloca=__builtin_alloca -DNO_STRTOLL_PROTO \
    '-D_EXTERN_INLINE=static __inline'" \
./configure \
    --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler \
    --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static --disable-shared \
    --with-low-memory

2.12.1.4 Linux Post-Installation Notes

mysql.server can be found in the `support-files' directory under the MySQL installation directory or in a MySQL source tree. You can install it as `/etc/init.d/mysql' for automatic MySQL startup and shutdown. See section 2.9.2.2 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically.

If MySQL can't open enough files or connections, it may be that you haven't configured Linux to handle enough files.

In Linux 2.2 and onward, you can check the number of allocated file handles as follows:

shell> cat /proc/sys/fs/file-max
shell> cat /proc/sys/fs/dquot-max
shell> cat /proc/sys/fs/super-max

If you have more than 16MB of memory, you should add something like the following to your init scripts (for example, `/etc/init.d/boot.local' on SuSE Linux):

echo 65536 > /proc/sys/fs/file-max
echo 8192 > /proc/sys/fs/dquot-max
echo 1024 > /proc/sys/fs/super-max

You can also run the echo commands from the command line as root, but these settings will be lost the next time your computer restarts.

Alternatively, you can set these parameters on startup by using the sysctl tool, which is used by many Linux distributions (SuSE has added it as well, beginning with SuSE Linux 8.0). Just put the following values into a file named `/etc/sysctl.conf':

# Increase some values for MySQL
fs.file-max = 65536
fs.dquot-max = 8192
fs.super-max = 1024

You should also add the following to `/etc/my.cnf':

[mysqld_safe]
open-files-limit=8192

This should allow the server a limit of 8,192 for the combined number of connections and open files.

The STACK_SIZE constant in LinuxThreads controls the spacing of thread stacks in the address space. It needs to be large enough so that there will be plenty of room for each individual thread stack, but small enough to keep the stack of some threads from running into the global mysqld data. Unfortunately, as we have experimentally discovered, the Linux implementation of mmap() will successfully unmap a mapped region if you ask it to map out an address currently in use, zeroing out the data on the entire page instead of returning an error. So, the safety of mysqld or any other threaded application depends on ``gentlemanly'' behavior of the code that creates threads. The user must take measures to make sure that the number of running threads at any time is sufficiently low for thread stacks to stay away from the global heap. With mysqld, you should enforce this behavior by setting a reasonable value for the max_connections variable.

If you build MySQL yourself, you can patch LinuxThreads for better stack use. See section 2.12.1.3 Linux Source Distribution Notes. If you do not want to patch LinuxThreads, you should set max_connections to a value no higher than 500. It should be even less if you have a large key buffer, large heap tables, or some other things that make mysqld allocate a lot of memory, or if you are running a 2.2 kernel with a 2GB patch. If you are using our binary or RPM version 3.23.25 or later, you can safely set max_connections at 1500, assuming no large key buffer or heap tables with lots of data. The more you reduce STACK_SIZE in LinuxThreads the more threads you can safely create. We recommend values between 128KB and 256KB.

If you use a lot of concurrent connections, you may suffer from a ``feature'' in the 2.2 kernel that attempts to prevent fork bomb attacks by penalizing a process for forking or cloning a child. This causes MySQL not to scale well as you increase the number of concurrent clients. On single-CPU systems, we have seen this manifested as very slow thread creation: It may take a long time to connect to MySQL (as long as one minute), and it may take just as long to shut it down. On multiple-CPU systems, we have observed a gradual drop in query speed as the number of clients increases. In the process of trying to find a solution, we have received a kernel patch from one of our users who claimed it made a lot of difference for his site. The patch is available at http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Patches/linux-fork.patch. We have done rather extensive testing of this patch on both development and production systems. It has significantly improved MySQL performance without causing any problems and we recommend it to our users who still run high-load servers on 2.2 kernels.

This issue has been fixed in the 2.4 kernel, so if you are not satisfied with the current performance of your system, rather than patching your 2.2 kernel, it might be easier to upgrade to 2.4. On SMP systems, upgrading also will give you a nice SMP boost in addition to fixing the fairness bug.

We have tested MySQL on the 2.4 kernel on a two-CPU machine and found MySQL scales much better. There was virtually no slowdown on query throughput all the way up to 1,000 clients, and the MySQL scaling factor (computed as the ratio of maximum throughput to the throughput for one client) was 180%. We have observed similar results on a four-CPU system: Virtually no slowdown as the number of clients was increased up to 1,000, and a 300% scaling factor. Based on these results, for a high-load SMP server using a 2.2 kernel, we definitely recommend upgrading to the 2.4 kernel at this point.

We have discovered that it is essential to run the mysqld process with the highest possible priority on the 2.4 kernel to achieve maximum performance. This can be done by adding a renice -20 $$ command to mysqld_safe. In our testing on a four-CPU machine, increasing the priority resulted in a 60% throughput increase with 400 clients.

We are currently also trying to collect more information on how well MySQL performs with a 2.4 kernel on four-way and eight-way systems. If you have access such a system and have done some benchmarks, please send an email message to benchmarks@mysql.com with the results. We will review them for inclusion in the manual.

If you see a dead mysqld server process with ps, this usually means that you have found a bug in MySQL or you have a corrupted table. See section A.4.2 What to Do If MySQL Keeps Crashing.

To get a core dump on Linux if mysqld dies with a SIGSEGV signal, you can start mysqld with the --core-file option. Note that you also probably need to raise the core file size by adding ulimit -c 1000000 to mysqld_safe or starting mysqld_safe with --core-file-size=1000000. See section 5.1.3 The mysqld_safe Server Startup Script.

2.12.1.5 Linux x86 Notes

MySQL requires libc Version 5.4.12 or newer. It's known to work with libc 5.4.46. glibc Version 2.0.6 and later should also work. There have been some problems with the glibc RPMs from Red Hat, so if you have problems, check whether there are any updates. The glibc 2.0.7-19 and 2.0.7-29 RPMs are known to work.

If you are using Red Hat 8.0 or a new glibc 2.2.x library, you may see mysqld die in gethostbyaddr(). This happens because the new glibc library requires a stack size greater than 128KB for this call. To fix the problem, start mysqld with the --thread-stack=192K option. (Use -O thread_stack=192K before MySQL 4.) This stack size is the default on MySQL 4.0.10 and above, so you should not see the problem.

If you are using gcc 3.0 and above to compile MySQL, you must install the libstdc++v3 library before compiling MySQL; if you don't do this, you will get an error about a missing __cxa_pure_virtual symbol during linking.

On some older Linux distributions, configure may produce an error like this:

Syntax error in sched.h. Change _P to __P in the
/usr/include/sched.h file.
See the Installation chapter in the Reference Manual.

Just do what the error message says. Add an extra underscore to the _P macro name that has only one underscore, then try again.

You may get some warnings when compiling. Those shown here can be ignored:

mysqld.cc -o objs-thread/mysqld.o
mysqld.cc: In function `void init_signals()':
mysqld.cc:315: warning: assignment of negative value `-1' to
`long unsigned int'
mysqld.cc: In function `void * signal_hand(void *)':
mysqld.cc:346: warning: assignment of negative value `-1' to
`long unsigned int'

If mysqld always dumps core when it starts, the problem may be that you have an old `/lib/libc.a'. Try renaming it, then remove `sql/mysqld' and do a new make install and try again. This problem has been reported on some Slackware installations.

If you get the following error when linking mysqld, it means that your `libg++.a' is not installed correctly:

/usr/lib/libc.a(putc.o): In function `_IO_putc':
putc.o(.text+0x0): multiple definition of `_IO_putc'

You can avoid using `libg++.a' by running configure like this:

shell> CXX=gcc ./configure

If mysqld crashes immediately and you are running Red Hat Version 5.0 with a version of glibc older than 2.0.7-5, you should make sure that you have installed all glibc patches. There is a lot of information about this in the MySQL mail archives, available online at http://lists.mysql.com/.

2.12.1.6 Linux SPARC Notes

In some implementations, readdir_r() is broken. The symptom is that the SHOW DATABASES statement always returns an empty set. This can be fixed by removing HAVE_READDIR_R from `config.h' after configuring and before compiling.

2.12.1.7 Linux Alpha Notes

MySQL 3.23.12 is the first MySQL version that is tested on Linux-Alpha. If you plan to use MySQL on Linux-Alpha, you should ensure that you have this version or newer.

We have tested MySQL on Alpha with our benchmarks and test suite, and it appears to work nicely.

We currently build the MySQL binary packages on SuSE Linux 7.0 for AXP, kernel 2.4.4-SMP, Compaq C compiler (V6.2-505) and Compaq C++ compiler (V6.3-006) on a Compaq DS20 machine with an Alpha EV6 processor.

You can find the preceding compilers at http://www.support.compaq.com/alpha-tools/. By using these compilers rather than gcc, we get about 9-14% better MySQL performance.

Note that until MySQL version 3.23.52 and 4.0.2, we optimized the binary for the current CPU only (by using the -fast compile option). This means that for older versions, you can use our Alpha binaries only if you have an Alpha EV6 processor.

For all following releases, we added the -arch generic flag to our compile options, which makes sure that the binary runs on all Alpha processors. We also compile statically to avoid library problems. The configure command looks like this:

CC=ccc CFLAGS="-fast -arch generic" CXX=cxx \
CXXFLAGS="-fast -arch generic -noexceptions -nortti" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --disable-shared \
    --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client \
    --with-mysqld-ldflags=-non_shared --with-client-ldflags=-non_shared

If you want to use egcs, the following configure line worked for us:

CFLAGS="-O3 -fomit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fomit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors \
    -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --disable-shared

Some known problems when running MySQL on Linux-Alpha:

2.12.1.8 Linux PowerPC Notes

MySQL should work on MkLinux with the newest glibc package (tested with glibc 2.0.7).

2.12.1.9 Linux MIPS Notes

To get MySQL to work on Qube2 (Linux Mips), you need the newest glibc libraries. glibc-2.0.7-29C2 is known to work. You must also use the egcs C++ compiler (egcs 1.0.2-9, gcc 2.95.2 or newer).

2.12.1.10 Linux IA-64 Notes

To get MySQL to compile on Linux IA-64, we use the following configure command for building with gcc 2.96:

CC=gcc \
CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" \
CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors \
    -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" \
    ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
    "--with-comment=Official MySQL binary" \
    --with-extra-charsets=complex

On IA-64, the MySQL client binaries use shared libraries. This means that if you install our binary distribution at a location other than `/usr/local/mysql', you need to add the path of the directory where you have `libmysqlclient.so' installed either to the `/etc/ld.so.conf' file or to the value of your LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable.

See section A.3.1 Problems Linking to the MySQL Client Library.

2.12.2 Mac OS X Notes

On Mac OS X, tar cannot handle long filenames. If you need to unpack a `.tar.gz' distribution, use gnutar instead.

2.12.2.1 Mac OS X 10.x (Darwin)

MySQL should work without any problems on Mac OS X 10.x (Darwin).

Our binary for Mac OS X is compiled on Darwin 6.3 with the following configure line:

CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors \
    -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" \
    ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
    --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client \
    --enable-local-infile --disable-shared

See section 2.5 Installing MySQL on Mac OS X.

2.12.2.2 Mac OS X Server 1.2 (Rhapsody)

For current versions of Mac OS X Server, no operating system changes are necessary before compiling MySQL. Compiling for the Server platform is the same as for the client version of Mac OS X. (However, note that MySQL comes preinstalled on Mac OS X Server, so you need not build it yourself.)

For older versions (Mac OS X Server 1.2, a.k.a. Rhapsody), you must first install a pthread package before trying to configure MySQL.

See section 2.5 Installing MySQL on Mac OS X.

2.12.3 Solaris Notes

On Solaris, you may run into trouble even before you get the MySQL distribution unpacked! Solaris tar can't handle long filenames, so you may see an error like this when you unpack MySQL:

x mysql-3.22.12-beta/bench/Results/ATIS-mysql_odbc-NT_4.0-cmp-db2,
informix,ms-sql,mysql,oracle,solid,sybase, 0 bytes, 0 tape blocks
tar: directory checksum error

In this case, you must use GNU tar (gtar) to unpack the distribution. You can find a precompiled copy for Solaris at http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/os-solaris.html.

Sun native threads work only on Solaris 2.5 and higher. For Version 2.4 and earlier, MySQL automatically uses MIT-pthreads. See section 2.8.5 MIT-pthreads Notes.

If you get the following error from configure, it means that you have something wrong with your compiler installation:

checking for restartable system calls... configure: error can not
run test programs while cross compiling

In this case, you should upgrade your compiler to a newer version. You may also be able to solve this problem by inserting the following row into the `config.cache' file:

ac_cv_sys_restartable_syscalls=${ac_cv_sys_restartable_syscalls='no'}

If you are using Solaris on a SPARC, the recommended compiler is gcc 2.95.2 or 3.2. You can find this at http://gcc.gnu.org/. Note that egcs 1.1.1 and gcc 2.8.1 don't work reliably on SPARC!

The recommended configure line when using gcc 2.95.2 is:

CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3" \
CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-low-memory \
    --enable-assembler

If you have an UltraSPARC system, you can get 4% better performance by adding -mcpu=v8 -Wa,-xarch=v8plusa to the CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS environment variables.

If you have Sun's Forte 5.0 (or newer) compiler, you can run configure like this:

CC=cc CFLAGS="-Xa -fast -native -xstrconst -mt" \
CXX=CC CXXFLAGS="-noex -mt" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler

To create a 64-bit binary with Sun's Forte compiler, use the following configuration options:

CC=cc CFLAGS="-Xa -fast -native -xstrconst -mt -xarch=v9" \
CXX=CC CXXFLAGS="-noex -mt -xarch=v9" ASFLAGS="-xarch=v9" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler

To create a 64-bit Solaris binary using gcc, add -m64 to CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS and remove --enable-assembler from the configure line. This works only with MySQL 4.0 and up; MySQL 3.23 does not include the required modifications to support this.

In the MySQL benchmarks, we got a 4% speedup on an UltraSPARC when using Forte 5.0 in 32-bit mode compared to using gcc 3.2 with the -mcpu flag.

If you create a 64-bit mysqld binary, it is 4% slower than the 32-bit binary, but can handle more threads and memory.

If you get a problem with fdatasync or sched_yield, you can fix this by adding LIBS=-lrt to the configure line

For compilers older than WorkShop 5.3, you might have to edit the configure script. Change this line:

#if !defined(__STDC__) || __STDC__ != 1

To this:

#if !defined(__STDC__)

If you turn on __STDC__ with the -Xc option, the Sun compiler can't compile with the Solaris `pthread.h' header file. This is a Sun bug (broken compiler or broken include file).

If mysqld issues the following error message when you run it, you have tried to compile MySQL with the Sun compiler without enabling the -mt multi-thread option:

libc internal error: _rmutex_unlock: rmutex not held

Add -mt to CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS and recompile.

If you are using the SFW version of gcc (which comes with Solaris 8), you must add `/opt/sfw/lib' to the environment variable LD_LIBRARY_PATH before running configure.

If you are using the gcc available from sunfreeware.com, you may have many problems. To avoid this, you should recompile gcc and GNU binutils on the machine where you will be running them.

If you get the following error when compiling MySQL with gcc, it means that your gcc is not configured for your version of Solaris:

shell> gcc -O3 -g -O2 -DDBUG_OFF  -o thr_alarm ...
./thr_alarm.c: In function `signal_hand':
./thr_alarm.c:556: too many arguments to function `sigwait'

The proper thing to do in this case is to get the newest version of gcc and compile it with your current gcc compiler. At least for Solaris 2.5, almost all binary versions of gcc have old, unusable include files that will break all programs that use threads, and possibly other programs!

Solaris doesn't provide static versions of all system libraries (libpthreads and libdl), so you can't compile MySQL with --static. If you try to do so, you will get one of the following errors:

ld: fatal: library -ldl: not found
undefined reference to `dlopen'
cannot find -lrt

If you link your own MySQL client programs, you may see the following error at runtime:

ld.so.1: fatal: libmysqlclient.so.#:
open failed: No such file or directory

This problem can be avoided by one of the following methods:

If you have problems with configure trying to link with -lz when you don't have zlib installed, you have two options:

If you are using gcc and have problems with loading user-defined functions (UDFs) into MySQL, try adding -lgcc to the link line for the UDF.

If you would like MySQL to start automatically, you can copy `support-files/mysql.server' to `/etc/init.d' and create a symbolic link to it named `/etc/rc3.d/S99mysql.server'.

If too many processes try to connect very rapidly to mysqld, you will see this error in the MySQL log:

Error in accept: Protocol error

You might try starting the server with the --back_log=50 option as a workaround for this. (Use -O back_log=50 before MySQL 4.)

Solaris doesn't support core files for setuid() applications, so you can't get a core file from mysqld if you are using the --user option.

2.12.3.1 Solaris 2.7/2.8 Notes

Normally, you can use a Solaris 2.6 binary on Solaris 2.7 and 2.8. Most of the Solaris 2.6 issues also apply for Solaris 2.7 and 2.8.

MySQL 3.23.4 and above should be able to detect new versions of Solaris automatically and enable workarounds for the following problems.

Solaris 2.7 / 2.8 has some bugs in the include files. You may see the following error when you use gcc:

/usr/include/widec.h:42: warning: `getwc' redefined
/usr/include/wchar.h:326: warning: this is the location of the previous
definition

If this occurs, you can fix the problem by copying /usr/include/widec.h to .../lib/gcc-lib/os/gcc-version/include and changing line 41 from this:

#if     !defined(lint) && !defined(__lint)

To this:

#if     !defined(lint) && !defined(__lint) && !defined(getwc)

Alternatively, you can edit `/usr/include/widec.h' directly. Either way, after you make the fix, you should remove `config.cache' and run configure again.

If you get the following errors when you run make, it's because configure didn't detect the `curses.h' file (probably because of the error in `/usr/include/widec.h'):

In file included from mysql.cc:50:
/usr/include/term.h:1060: syntax error before `,'
/usr/include/term.h:1081: syntax error before `;'

The solution to this problem is to do one of the following:

If your linker can't find -lz when linking client programs, the problem is probably that your `libz.so' file is installed in `/usr/local/lib'. You can fix this problem by one of the following methods:

2.12.3.2 Solaris x86 Notes

On Solaris 8 on x86, mysqld will dump core if you remove the debug symbols using strip.

If you are using gcc or egcs on Solaris x86 and you experience problems with core dumps under load, you should use the following configure command:

CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fomit-frame-pointer -DHAVE_CURSES_H" \
CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fomit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors \
    -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti -DHAVE_CURSES_H" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql

This will avoid problems with the libstdc++ library and with C++ exceptions.

If this doesn't help, you should compile a debug version and run it with a trace file or under gdb. See section E.1.3 Debugging mysqld under gdb.

2.12.4 BSD Notes

This section provides information about using MySQL on variants of BSD Unix.

2.12.4.1 FreeBSD Notes

FreeBSD 4.x or newer is recommended for running MySQL, because the thread package is much more integrated. To get a secure and stable system, you should use only FreeBSD kernels that are marked -RELEASE.

The easiest (and preferred) way to install MySQL is to use the mysql-server and mysql-client ports available at http://www.freebsd.org/. Using these ports gives you the following benefits:

It is recommended you use MIT-pthreads on FreeBSD 2.x, and native threads on Versions 3 and up. It is possible to run with native threads on some late 2.2.x versions, but you may encounter problems shutting down mysqld.

Unfortunately, certain function calls on FreeBSD are not yet fully thread-safe. Most notably, this includes the gethostbyname() function, which is used by MySQL to convert hostnames into IP addresses. Under certain circumstances, the mysqld process will suddenly cause 100% CPU load and will be unresponsive. If you encounter this problem, try to start MySQL using the --skip-name-resolve option.

Alternatively, you can link MySQL on FreeBSD 4.x against the LinuxThreads library, which avoids a few of the problems that the native FreeBSD thread implementation has. For a very good comparison of LinuxThreads versus native threads, see Jeremy Zawodny's article FreeBSD or Linux for your MySQL Server? at http://jeremy.zawodny.com/blog/archives/000697.html.

A known problem when using LinuxThreads on FreeBSD is that the wait_timeout value is not honored (probably a signal handling problem in FreeBSD/LinuxThreads). This is supposed to be fixed in FreeBSD 5.0. The symptom is that persistent connections can hang for a very long time without getting closed down.

The MySQL build process requires GNU make (gmake) to work. If GNU make is not available, you must install it first before compiling MySQL.

The recommended way to compile and install MySQL on FreeBSD with gcc (2.95.2 and up) is:

CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O2 -fno-strength-reduce" \
    CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O2 -fno-rtti -fno-exceptions \
    -felide-constructors -fno-strength-reduce" \
    ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler
gmake
gmake install
cd /usr/local/mysql
bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
bin/mysqld_safe &

If you notice that configure will use MIT-pthreads, you should read the MIT-pthreads notes. See section 2.8.5 MIT-pthreads Notes.

If you get an error from make install that it can't find `/usr/include/pthreads', configure didn't detect that you need MIT-pthreads. To fix this problem, remove `config.cache', then re-run configure with the --with-mit-threads option.

Be sure that your name resolver setup is correct. Otherwise, you may experience resolver delays or failures when connecting to mysqld. Also make sure that the localhost entry in the `/etc/hosts' file is correct. The file should start with a line similar to this:

127.0.0.1       localhost localhost.your.domain

FreeBSD is known to have a very low default file handle limit. See section A.2.17 File Not Found. Start the server by using the --open-files-limit option for mysqld_safe, or raise the limits for the mysqld user in `/etc/login.conf' and rebuild it with cap_mkdb /etc/login.conf. Also be sure that you set the appropriate class for this user in the password file if you are not using the default (use chpass mysqld-user-name). See section 5.1.3 The mysqld_safe Server Startup Script.

If you have a lot of memory, you should consider rebuilding the kernel to allow MySQL to use more than 512MB of RAM. Take a look at option MAXDSIZ in the LINT config file for more information.

If you get problems with the current date in MySQL, setting the TZ variable will probably help. See section F Environment Variables.

2.12.4.2 NetBSD Notes

To compile on NetBSD, you need GNU make. Otherwise, the build process will fail when make tries to run lint on C++ files.

2.12.4.3 OpenBSD 2.5 Notes

On OpenBSD Version 2.5, you can compile MySQL with native threads with the following options:

CFLAGS=-pthread CXXFLAGS=-pthread ./configure --with-mit-threads=no

2.12.4.4 OpenBSD 2.8 Notes

Our users have reported that OpenBSD 2.8 has a threading bug that causes problems with MySQL. The OpenBSD Developers have fixed the problem, but as of January 25, 2001, it's only available in the ``-current'' branch. The symptoms of this threading bug are slow response, high load, high CPU usage, and crashes.

If you get an error like Error in accept:: Bad file descriptor or error 9 when trying to open tables or directories, the problem is probably that you have not allocated enough file descriptors for MySQL.

In this case, try starting mysqld_safe as root with the following options:

mysqld_safe --user=mysql --open-files-limit=2048 &

2.12.4.5 BSD/OS Version 2.x Notes

If you get the following error when compiling MySQL, your ulimit value for virtual memory is too low:

item_func.h: In method
`Item_func_ge::Item_func_ge(const Item_func_ge &)':
item_func.h:28: virtual memory exhausted
make[2]: *** [item_func.o] Error 1

Try using ulimit -v 80000 and run make again. If this doesn't work and you are using bash, try switching to csh or sh; some BSDI users have reported problems with bash and ulimit.

If you are using gcc, you may also use have to use the --with-low-memory flag for configure to be able to compile `sql_yacc.cc'.

If you get problems with the current date in MySQL, setting the TZ variable will probably help. See section F Environment Variables.

2.12.4.6 BSD/OS Version 3.x Notes

Upgrade to BSD/OS Version 3.1. If that is not possible, install BSDIpatch M300-038.

Use the following command when configuring MySQL:

env CXX=shlicc++ CC=shlicc2 \
./configure \
    --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
    --localstatedir=/var/mysql \
    --without-perl \
    --with-unix-socket-path=/var/mysql/mysql.sock

The following is also known to work:

env CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 \
./configure \
    --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
    --with-unix-socket-path=/var/mysql/mysql.sock

You can change the directory locations if you wish, or just use the defaults by not specifying any locations.

If you have problems with performance under heavy load, try using the --skip-thread-priority option to mysqld! This will run all threads with the same priority. On BSDI Version 3.1, this gives better performance, at least until BSDI fixes its thread scheduler.

If you get the error virtual memory exhausted while compiling, you should try using ulimit -v 80000 and running make again. If this doesn't work and you are using bash, try switching to csh or sh; some BSDI users have reported problems with bash and ulimit.

2.12.4.7 BSD/OS Version 4.x Notes

BSDI Version 4.x has some thread-related bugs. If you want to use MySQL on this, you should install all thread-related patches. At least M400-023 should be installed.

On some BSDI Version 4.x systems, you may get problems with shared libraries. The symptom is that you can't execute any client programs, for example, mysqladmin. In this case, you need to reconfigure not to use shared libraries with the --disable-shared option to configure.

Some customers have had problems on BSDI 4.0.1 that the mysqld binary after a while can't open tables. This is because some library/system-related bug causes mysqld to change current directory without having asked for that to happen.

The fix is to either upgrade MySQL to at least version 3.23.34 or, after running configure, remove the line #define HAVE_REALPATH from config.h before running make.

Note that this means that you can't symbolically link a database directories to another database directory or symbolic link a table to another database on BSDI. (Making a symbolic link to another disk is okay).

2.12.5 Other Unix Notes

2.12.5.1 HP-UX Version 10.20 Notes

There are a couple of small problems when compiling MySQL on HP-UX. We recommend that you use gcc instead of the HP-UX native compiler, because gcc produces better code.

We recommend using gcc 2.95 on HP-UX. Don't use high optimization flags (such as -O6) because they may not be safe on HP-UX.

The following configure line should work with gcc 2.95:

CFLAGS="-I/opt/dce/include -fpic" \
CXXFLAGS="-I/opt/dce/include -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions \
-fno-rtti" \
CXX=gcc \
./configure --with-pthread \
    --with-named-thread-libs='-ldce' \
    --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --disable-shared

The following configure line should work with gcc 3.1:

CFLAGS="-DHPUX -I/opt/dce/include -O3 -fPIC" CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-DHPUX -I/opt/dce/include -felide-constructors \
    -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti -O3 -fPIC" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
    --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client \
    --enable-local-infile  --with-pthread \
    --with-named-thread-libs=-ldce --with-lib-ccflags=-fPIC
    --disable-shared

2.12.5.2 HP-UX Version 11.x Notes

For HP-UX Version 11.x, we recommend MySQL 3.23.15 or later.

Because of some critical bugs in the standard HP-UX libraries, you should install the following patches before trying to run MySQL on HP-UX 11.0:

PHKL_22840 Streams cumulative
PHNE_22397 ARPA cumulative

This will solve the problem of getting EWOULDBLOCK from recv() and EBADF from accept() in threaded applications.

If you are using gcc 2.95.1 on an unpatched HP-UX 11.x system, you will get the error:

In file included from /usr/include/unistd.h:11,
                 from ../include/global.h:125,
                 from mysql_priv.h:15,
                 from item.cc:19:
/usr/include/sys/unistd.h:184: declaration of C function ...
/usr/include/sys/pthread.h:440: previous declaration ...
In file included from item.h:306,
                 from mysql_priv.h:158,
                 from item.cc:19:

The problem is that HP-UX doesn't define pthreads_atfork() consistently. It has conflicting prototypes in `/usr/include/sys/unistd.h':184 and `/usr/include/sys/pthread.h':440.

One solution is to copy `/usr/include/sys/unistd.h' into `mysql/include' and edit `unistd.h' and change it to match the definition in `pthread.h'. Look for this line:

extern int pthread_atfork(void (*prepare)(), void (*parent)(),
                                          void (*child)());

Change it to look like this:

extern int pthread_atfork(void (*prepare)(void), void (*parent)(void),
                                          void (*child)(void));

After making the change, the following configure line should work:

CFLAGS="-fomit-frame-pointer -O3 -fpic" CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti -O3" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --disable-shared

If you are using MySQL 4.0.5 with the HP-UX compiler, you can use the following command (which has been tested with cc B.11.11.04):

CC=cc CXX=aCC CFLAGS=+DD64 CXXFLAGS=+DD64 ./configure \
    --with-extra-character-set=complex

You can ignore any errors of the following type:

aCC: warning 901: unknown option: `-3': use +help for online
documentation

If you get the following error from configure, verify that you don't have the path to the K&R compiler before the path to the HP-UX C and C++ compiler:

checking for cc option to accept ANSI C... no
configure: error: MySQL requires an ANSI C compiler (and a C++ compiler).
Try gcc. See the Installation chapter in the Reference Manual.

Another reason for not being able to compile is that you didn't define the +DD64 flags as just described.

Another possibility for HP-UX 11 is to use MySQL binaries for HP-UX 10.20. We have received reports from some users that these binaries work fine on HP-UX 11.00. If you encounter problems, be sure to check your HP-UX patch level.

2.12.5.3 IBM-AIX notes

Automatic detection of xlC is missing from Autoconf, so a number of variables need to be set before running configure. The following example uses the IBM compiler:

export CC="xlc_r -ma -O3 -qstrict -qoptimize=3 -qmaxmem=8192 "
export CXX="xlC_r -ma -O3 -qstrict -qoptimize=3 -qmaxmem=8192"
export CFLAGS="-I /usr/local/include"
export LDFLAGS="-L /usr/local/lib"
export CPPFLAGS=$CFLAGS
export CXXFLAGS=$CFLAGS

./configure --prefix=/usr/local \
                --localstatedir=/var/mysql \
                --sbindir='/usr/local/bin' \
                --libexecdir='/usr/local/bin' \
                --enable-thread-safe-client \
                --enable-large-files

The preceding options are used to compile the MySQL distribution that can be found at http://www-frec.bull.com/.

If you change the -O3 to -O2 in the preceding configure line, you must also remove the -qstrict option. This is a limitation in the IBM C compiler.

If you are using gcc or egcs to compile MySQL, you must use the -fno-exceptions flag, because the exception handling in gcc/egcs is not thread-safe! (This is tested with egcs 1.1.) There are also some known problems with IBM's assembler that may cause it to generate bad code when used with gcc.

We recommend the following configure line with egcs and gcc 2.95 on AIX:

CC="gcc -pipe -mcpu=power -Wa,-many" \
CXX="gcc -pipe -mcpu=power -Wa,-many" \
CXXFLAGS="-felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-low-memory

The -Wa,-many option is necessary for the compile to be successful. IBM is aware of this problem but is in no hurry to fix it because of the workaround that is available. We don't know if the -fno-exceptions is required with gcc 2.95, but because MySQL doesn't use exceptions and the option generates faster code, we recommend that you should always use it with egcs / gcc.

If you get a problem with assembler code, try changing the -mcpu=xxx option to match your CPU. Typically power2, power, or powerpc may need to be used. Alternatively, you might need to use 604 or 604e. We are not positive but suspect that power would likely be safe most of the time, even on a power2 machine.

If you don't know what your CPU is, execute a uname -m command. It will produce a string that looks like 000514676700, with a format of xxyyyyyymmss where xx and ss are always 00, yyyyyy is a unique system ID and mm is the ID of the CPU Planar. A chart of these values can be found at http://www16.boulder.ibm.com/pseries/en_US/cmds/aixcmds5/uname.htm. This will give you a machine type and a machine model you can use to determine what type of CPU you have.

If you have problems with signals (MySQL dies unexpectedly under high load), you may have found an OS bug with threads and signals. In this case, you can tell MySQL not to use signals by configuring as follows:

CFLAGS=-DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti \
-DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-debug \
    --with-low-memory

This doesn't affect the performance of MySQL, but has the side effect that you can't kill clients that are ``sleeping'' on a connection with mysqladmin kill or mysqladmin shutdown. Instead, the client will die when it issues its next command.

On some versions of AIX, linking with libbind.a makes getservbyname() dump core. This is an AIX bug and should be reported to IBM.

For AIX 4.2.1 and gcc, you have to make the following changes.

After configuring, edit `config.h' and `include/my_config.h' and change the line that says this:

#define HAVE_SNPRINTF 1

to this:

#undef HAVE_SNPRINTF

And finally, in `mysqld.cc', you need to add a prototype for initgroups().

#ifdef _AIX41
extern "C" int initgroups(const char *,int);
#endif

If you need to allocate a lot of memory to the mysqld process, it's not enough to just use ulimit -d unlimited. You may also have to modify mysqld_safe to add a line something like this:

export LDR_CNTRL='MAXDATA=0x80000000'

You can find more information about using a lot of memory at http://publib16.boulder.ibm.com/pseries/en_US/aixprggd/genprogc/lrg_prg_support.htm.

2.12.5.4 SunOS 4 Notes

On SunOS 4, MIT-pthreads is needed to compile MySQL. This in turn means you will need GNU make.

Some SunOS 4 systems have problems with dynamic libraries and libtool. You can use the following configure line to avoid this problem:

./configure --disable-shared --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static

When compiling readline, you may get warnings about duplicate defines. These can be ignored.

When compiling mysqld, there will be some implicit declaration of function warnings. These can be ignored.

2.12.5.5 Alpha-DEC-UNIX Notes (Tru64)

If you are using egcs 1.1.2 on Digital Unix, you should upgrade to gcc 2.95.2, because egcs on DEC has some serious bugs!

When compiling threaded programs under Digital Unix, the documentation recommends using the -pthread option for cc and cxx and the -lmach -lexc libraries (in addition to -lpthread). You should run configure something like this:

CC="cc -pthread" CXX="cxx -pthread -O" \
./configure --with-named-thread-libs="-lpthread -lmach -lexc -lc"

When compiling mysqld, you may see a couple of warnings like this:

mysqld.cc: In function void handle_connections()':
mysqld.cc:626: passing long unsigned int *' as argument 3 of
accept(int,sockadddr *, int *)'

You can safely ignore these warnings. They occur because configure can detect only errors, not warnings.

If you start the server directly from the command line, you may have problems with it dying when you log out. (When you log out, your outstanding processes receive a SIGHUP signal.) If so, try starting the server like this:

nohup mysqld [options] &

nohup causes the command following it to ignore any SIGHUP signal sent from the terminal. Alternatively, start the server by running mysqld_safe, which invokes mysqld using nohup for you. See section 5.1.3 The mysqld_safe Server Startup Script.

If you get a problem when compiling `mysys/get_opt.c', just remove the #define _NO_PROTO line from the start of that file.

If you are using Compaq's CC compiler, the following configure line should work:

CC="cc -pthread"
CFLAGS="-O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed all -arch host"
CXX="cxx -pthread"
CXXFLAGS="-O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed all \
    -arch host -noexceptions -nortti"
export CC CFLAGS CXX CXXFLAGS
./configure \
    --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
    --with-low-memory \
    --enable-large-files \
    --enable-shared=yes \
    --with-named-thread-libs="-lpthread -lmach -lexc -lc"
gnumake

If you get a problem with libtool when compiling with shared libraries as just shown, when linking mysql, you should be able to get around this by issuing these commands:

cd mysql
/bin/sh ../libtool --mode=link cxx -pthread  -O3 -DDBUG_OFF \
    -O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed \
    -speculate all \ -arch host  -DUNDEF_HAVE_GETHOSTBYNAME_R \
    -o mysql  mysql.o readline.o sql_string.o completion_hash.o \
    ../readline/libreadline.a -lcurses \
    ../libmysql/.libs/libmysqlclient.so  -lm
cd ..
gnumake
gnumake install
scripts/mysql_install_db

2.12.5.6 Alpha-DEC-OSF/1 Notes

If you have problems compiling and have DEC CC and gcc installed, try running configure like this:

CC=cc CFLAGS=-O CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql

If you get problems with the `c_asm.h' file, you can create and use a 'dummy' `c_asm.h' file with:

touch include/c_asm.h
CC=gcc CFLAGS=-I./include \
CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql

Note that the following problems with the ld program can be fixed by downloading the latest DEC (Compaq) patch kit from: http://ftp.support.compaq.com/public/unix/.

On OSF/1 V4.0D and compiler "DEC C V5.6-071 on Digital Unix V4.0 (Rev. 878)," the compiler had some strange behavior (undefined asm symbols). /bin/ld also appears to be broken (problems with _exit undefined errors occurring while linking mysqld). On this system, we have managed to compile MySQL with the following configure line, after replacing /bin/ld with the version from OSF 4.0C:

CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql

With the Digital compiler "C++ V6.1-029," the following should work:

CC=cc -pthread
CFLAGS=-O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed \
       -speculate all -arch host
CXX=cxx -pthread
CXXFLAGS=-O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed \
         -speculate all -arch host -noexceptions -nortti
export CC CFLAGS CXX CXXFLAGS
./configure --prefix=/usr/mysql/mysql \
            --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static --disable-shared \
            --with-named-thread-libs="-lmach -lexc -lc"

In some versions of OSF/1, the alloca() function is broken. Fix this by removing the line in `config.h' that defines 'HAVE_ALLOCA'.

The alloca() function also may have an incorrect prototype in /usr/include/alloca.h. This warning resulting from this can be ignored.

configure will use the following thread libraries automatically: --with-named-thread-libs="-lpthread -lmach -lexc -lc".

When using gcc, you can also try running configure like this:

CFLAGS=-D_PTHREAD_USE_D4 CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure ...

If you have problems with signals (MySQL dies unexpectedly under high load), you may have found an OS bug with threads and signals. In this case, you can tell MySQL not to use signals by configuring with:

CFLAGS=-DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM \
CXXFLAGS=-DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM \
./configure ...

This doesn't affect the performance of MySQL, but has the side effect that you can't kill clients that are ``sleeping'' on a connection with mysqladmin kill or mysqladmin shutdown. Instead, the client will die when it issues its next command.

With gcc 2.95.2, you will probably run into the following compile error:

sql_acl.cc:1456: Internal compiler error in `scan_region',
at except.c:2566
Please submit a full bug report.

To fix this, you should change to the sql directory and do a cut-and-paste of the last gcc line, but change -O3 to -O0 (or add -O0 immediately after gcc if you don't have any -O option on your compile line). After this is done, you can just change back to the top-level directory and run make again.

2.12.5.7 SGI Irix Notes

If you are using Irix Version 6.5.3 or newer, mysqld will be able to create threads only if you run it as a user that has CAP_SCHED_MGT privileges (such as root) or give the mysqld server this privilege with the following shell command:

chcap "CAP_SCHED_MGT+epi" /opt/mysql/libexec/mysqld

You may have to undefine some symbols in `config.h' after running configure and before compiling.

In some Irix implementations, the alloca() function is broken. If the mysqld server dies on some SELECT statements, remove the lines from `config.h' that define HAVE_ALLOC and HAVE_ALLOCA_H. If mysqladmin create doesn't work, remove the line from `config.h' that defines HAVE_READDIR_R. You may have to remove the HAVE_TERM_H line as well.

SGI recommends that you install all the patches on this page as a set: http://support.sgi.com/surfzone/patches/patchset/6.2_indigo.rps.html

At the very minimum, you should install the latest kernel rollup, the latest rld rollup, and the latest libc rollup.

You definitely need all the POSIX patches on this page, for pthreads support:

http://support.sgi.com/surfzone/patches/patchset/6.2_posix.rps.html

If you get the something like the following error when compiling `mysql.cc':

"/usr/include/curses.h", line 82: error(1084):
invalid combination of type

Type the following in the top-level directory of your MySQL source tree:

extra/replace bool curses_bool < /usr/include/curses.h > include/curses.h
make

There have also been reports of scheduling problems. If only one thread is running, performance is slow. Avoid this by starting another client. This may lead to a two-to-tenfold increase in execution speed thereafter for the other thread. This is a poorly understood problem with Irix threads; you may have to improvise to find solutions until this can be fixed.

If you are compiling with gcc, you can use the following configure command:

CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-thread-safe-client \
    --with-named-thread-libs=-lpthread

On Irix 6.5.11 with native Irix C and C++ compilers ver. 7.3.1.2, the following is reported to work

CC=cc CXX=CC CFLAGS='-O3 -n32 -TARG:platform=IP22 -I/usr/local/include \
-L/usr/local/lib' CXXFLAGS='-O3 -n32 -TARG:platform=IP22 \
-I/usr/local/include -L/usr/local/lib' \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-innodb --with-berkeley-db \
    --with-libwrap=/usr/local \
    --with-named-curses-libs=/usr/local/lib/libncurses.a

2.12.5.8 SCO Notes

The current port is tested only on ``sco3.2v5.0.5,'' ``sco3.2v5.0.6,'' and ``sco3.2v5.0.7'' systems. There has also been a lot of progress on a port to ``sco 3.2v4.2.'' Open Server 5.0.8(Legend) will have native threads and allow files greater than 2GB. The current maximum file size is 2GB.

We have been able to compile MySQL with the following configure command on OpenServer with gcc 2.95.3.

CC=gcc CXX=gcc ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
    --enable-thread-safe-client --with-innodb \
    --with-openssl --with-vio --with-extra-charsets=complex

gcc is available at ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/openserver5/opensrc/gnutools-5.0.7Kj.

This development system requires the OpenServer Execution Environment Supplement oss646B on OpenServer 5.0.6 and oss656B and The OpenSource libraries found in gwxlibs. All OpenSource tools are in the `opensrc' directory. They are available at ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/openserver5/opensrc/.

We recommend using the latest production release of MySQL.

SCO provides operating system patches at ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/openserver5 for OpenServer 5.0.[0-6] and ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/openserverv5/507 for OpenServer 5.0.7.

SCO provides information about security fixes at ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/security/OpenServer for OpenServer 5.0.x.

The maximum file size on an OpenSever 5.0.x system is 2GB.

The total memory which could be allocated for streams buffers, clists and lock records cannot exceed 60MB on OpenServer 5.0.x.

Streams buffers are allocated in units of 4096 byte pages, clists are 70 bytes each, and lock records are 64 bytes each, so:

(NSTRPAGES * 4096) + (NCLIST * 70) + (MAX_FLCKREC * 64) <= 62914560 

Follow this procedure to configure the Database Services option. If you are unsure whether an application requires this, see the documentation provided with the application.

  1. Log in as root.
  2. Enable the SUDS driver by editing the `/etc/conf/sdevice.d/suds' file. Change the N in the second field to a Y.
  3. Use mkdev aio or the Hardware/Kernel Manager to enable support for asynchronous I/O and relink the kernel. To allow users to lock down memory for use with this type of I/O, update the aiomemlock(F) file. This file should be updated to include the names of users that can use AIO and the maximum amounts of memory they can lock down.
  4. Many applications use setuid binaries so that you need to specify only a single user. See the documentation provided with the application to see if this is the case for your application.

After you complete this process, reboot the system to create a new kernel incorporating these changes.

By default, the entries in `/etc/conf/cf.d/mtune' are set as follows:

Value           Default         Min             Max
-----           -------         --             ---
NBUF            0               24              450000
NHBUF           0               32              524288
NMPBUF          0               12              512
MAX_INODE       0               100             64000
MAX_FILE        0               100             64000
CTBUFSIZE       128             0               256
MAX_PROC        0               50              16000
MAX_REGION      0               500             160000
NCLIST          170             120             16640
MAXUP           100             15              16000
NOFILES         110             60              11000
NHINODE         128             64              8192
NAUTOUP         10              0               60
NGROUPS         8               0               128
BDFLUSHR        30              1               300
MAX_FLCKREC     0               50              16000
PUTBUFSZ        8000            2000            20000
MAXSLICE        100             25              100
ULIMIT          4194303         2048            4194303
* Streams Parameters
NSTREAM         64              1               32768
NSTRPUSH        9               9               9
NMUXLINK        192             1               4096
STRMSGSZ        16384           4096            524288
STRCTLSZ        1024            1024            1024
STRMAXBLK       524288          4096            524288
NSTRPAGES       500             0               8000
STRSPLITFRAC    80              50              100
NLOG            3               3               3
NUMSP           64              1               256
NUMTIM          16              1               8192
NUMTRW          16              1               8192
* Semaphore Parameters
SEMMAP          10              10              8192
SEMMNI          10              10              8192
SEMMNS          60              60              8192
SEMMNU          30              10              8192
SEMMSL          25              25              150
SEMOPM          10              10              1024
SEMUME          10              10              25
SEMVMX          32767           32767           32767
SEMAEM          16384           16384           16384
* Shared Memory Parameters
SHMMAX          524288          131072          2147483647
SHMMIN          1               1               1
SHMMNI          100             100             2000
FILE            0               100             64000
NMOUNT          0               4               256
NPROC           0               50              16000
NREGION         0               500             160000

We recommend setting these values as follows:

NOFILES should be 4096 or 2048.

MAXUP should be 2048.

To make changes to the kernel, cd to `/etc/conf/bin' and use ./idtune name parameter to make the changes. For example, to change SEMMS to 200, execute these commands as root:

# cd /etc/conf/bin
# ./idtune SEMMNS 200

We recommend tuning the system, but the proper parameter values to use depend on the number of users accessing the application or database and size the of the database (that is, the used buffer pool). The following will affect the following kernel parameters defined in `/etc/conf/cf.d/stune':

SHMMAX (recommended setting: 128MB) and SHMSEG (recommended setting: 15). These parameters have influence on the MySQL database engine to create user buffer pools.

NOFILES and MAXUP should be at to at least 2048.

MAXPROC should be set to at least 3000/4000 (depends on number of users) or more.

Also is recommended to use following formula to count value for SEMMSL, SEMMNS and SEMMNU:

SEMMSL = 13

The 13 is what has been found to be the best for both Progress and MySQL.

SEMMNS = SEMMSL * number of db servers to be run on the system.

Set SEMMNS to the value of SEMMSL multiplied by the number of db servers (maximum) that you will be running on the system at one time.

SEMMNU = SEMMNS

Set the value of SEMMNU to equal the value of SEMMNS. You could probably set this to 75% of SEMMNS, but this is a conservative estimate.

You need to at least install the "SCO OpenServer Linker and Application Development Libraries" or the OpenServer Development System to use gcc. You cannot just use the GCC Dev system without installing one of these.

You should get the FSU Pthreads package and install it first. This can be found at http://moss.csc.ncsu.edu/~mueller/ftp/pub/PART/pthreads.tar.gz. You can also get a precompiled package from ftp://ftp.zenez.com/pub/zenez/prgms/FSU-threads-3.14.tar.gz.

FSU Pthreads can be compiled with SCO Unix 4.2 with tcpip, or using OpenServer 3.0 or Open Desktop 3.0 (OS 3.0 ODT 3.0) with the SCO Development System installed using a good port of GCC 2.5.x. For ODT or OS 3.0, you will need a good port of GCC 2.5.x. There are a lot of problems without a good port. The port for this product requires the SCO Unix Development system. Without it, you are missing the libraries and the linker that is needed. You will also need `SCO-3.2v4.2-includes.tar.gz'. This file contains the changes to the SCO Development include files that are needed to get MySQL to build. You need to replace the existing system include files with these modified header files. They can be obtained from ftp://ftp.zenez.com/pub/zenez/prgms/SCO-3.2v4.2-includes.tar.gz.

To build FSU Pthreads on your system, all you should need to do is run GNU make. The `Makefile' in FSU-threads-3.14.tar.gz is set up to make FSU-threads.

You can run ./configure in the `threads/src' directory and select the SCO OpenServer option. This command copies `Makefile.SCO5' to `Makefile'. Then run make.

To install in the default `/usr/include' directory, log in as root, then cd to the `thread/src' directory and run make install.

Remember that you must use GNU make when making MySQL.

Note: If you don't start mysqld_safe as root, you probably will get only the default 110 open files per process. mysqld will write a note about this in the log file.

With SCO 3.2V4.2, you should use FSU Pthreads version 3.14 or newer. The following configure command should work:

CFLAGS="-D_XOPEN_XPG4" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-D_XOPEN_XPG4" \
./configure \
    --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
    --with-named-thread-libs="-lgthreads -lsocket -lgen -lgthreads" \
    --with-named-curses-libs="-lcurses"

You may get some problems with some include files. In this case, you can find new SCO-specific include files at ftp://ftp.zenez.com/pub/zenez/prgms/SCO-3.2v4.2-includes.tar.gz.

You should unpack this file in the `include' directory of your MySQL source tree.

SCO development notes:

Beginning with Legend, OpenServer will have native threads and no 2GB file size limit.

2.12.5.9 SCO UnixWare Version 7.1.x Notes

We recommend using the latest production release of MySQL. Currently this is MySQL 4.0.x. Should you choose to use an older release of MySQL on UnixWare 7.1.x, you must use a version of MySQL at least as recent as 3.22.13 to get fixes for some portability and OS problems.

We have been able to compile MySQL with the following configure command on UnixWare Version 7.1.x:

CC="cc" CFLAGS="-I/usr/local/include" \
CXX="CC" CXXFLAGS="-I/usr/local/include" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
    --enable-thread-safe-client --with-berkeley-db=./bdb \
    --with-innodb --with-openssl --with-extra-charsets=complex

If you want to use gcc, you must use gcc 2.95.3 or newer.

CC=gcc CXX=g++ ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql

SCO provides operating system patches at ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/unixware7 for UnixWare 7.1.1, ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/unixware7/713/ for UnixWare 7.1.3, ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/unixware7/714/ for UnixWare 7.1.4, and ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/openunix8 for OpenUNIX 8.0.0.

SCO provides information about security fixes at ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/security/OpenUNIX for OpenUNIX and ftp://ftp.sco.com/pub/security/UnixWare for UnixWare.

By default, the maximum file size on a UnixWare 7 system is 1GB. Many OS utilities have a limitation of 2GB. The maximum possible file size on UnixWare 7 is 1TB with VXFS.

To enable large file support on UnixWare 7.1.x, run fsadm.

# fsadm -Fvxfs -o largefiles /
# fsadm /					* Note
# ulimit unlimited
# cd /etc/conf/bin
# ./idtune SFSZLIM 0x7FFFFFFF			** Note
# ./idtune HFSZLIM 0x7FFFFFFF			** Note
# ./idbuild -B

* This should report "largefiles".
** 0x7FFFFFFF represents infinity for these values.

Reboot the system using shutdown.

By default, the entries in `/etc/conf/cf.d/mtune' are set to:

Value           Default         Min             Max
-----           -------         --             ---
SVMMLIM         0x9000000       0x1000000       0x7FFFFFFF
HVMMLIM         0x9000000       0x1000000       0x7FFFFFFF
SSTKLIM         0x1000000       0x2000          0x7FFFFFFF
HSTKLIM         0x1000000       0x2000          0x7FFFFFFF

We recommend setting these values as follows:

SDATLIM 0x7FFFFFFF
HDATLIM 0x7FFFFFFF
SSTKLIM 0x7FFFFFFF
HSTKLIM 0x7FFFFFFF
SVMMLIM 0x7FFFFFFF
HVMMLIM 0x7FFFFFFF
SFNOLIM 2048
HFNOLIM 2048

We recommend tuning the system, but the proper parameter values to use depend on the number of users accessing the application or database and size the of the database (that is, the used buffer pool). The following will affect the following kernel parameters defined in `/etc/conf/cf.d/stune':

SHMMAX (recommended setting: 128MB) and SHMSEG (recommended setting: 15). These parameters have influence on the MySQL database engine to create user buffer pools.

SFNOLIM and HFNOLIM should be at maximum 2048.

NPROC should be set to at least 3000/4000 (depends on number of users).

Also is recommended to use following formula to count value for SEMMSL, SEMMNS, and SEMMNU:

SEMMSL = 13

13 is what has been found to be the best for both Progress and MySQL.

SEMMNS = SEMMSL * number of db servers to be run on the system.

Set SEMMNS to the value of SEMMSL multiplied by the number of db servers (maximum) that you will be running on the system at one time.

SEMMNU = SEMMNS

Set the value of SEMMNU to equal the value of SEMMNS. You could probably set this to 75% of SEMMNS, but this is a conservative estimate.

2.12.6 OS/2 Notes

MySQL uses quite a few open files. Because of this, you should add something like the following to your `CONFIG.SYS' file:

SET EMXOPT=-c -n -h1024

If you don't do this, you will probably run into the following error:

File 'xxxx' not found (Errcode: 24)

When using MySQL with OS/2 Warp 3, FixPack 29 or above is required. With OS/2 Warp 4, FixPack 4 or above is required. This is a requirement of the Pthreads library. MySQL must be installed on a partition with a type that supports long filenames, such as HPFS, FAT32, and so on.

The `INSTALL.CMD' script must be run from OS/2's own `CMD.EXE' and may not work with replacement shells such as `4OS2.EXE'.

The `scripts/mysql-install-db' script has been renamed. It is called `install.cmd' and is a REXX script, which will set up the default MySQL security settings and create the WorkPlace Shell icons for MySQL.

Dynamic module support is compiled in but not fully tested. Dynamic modules should be compiled using the Pthreads runtime library.

gcc -Zdll -Zmt -Zcrtdll=pthrdrtl -I../include -I../regex -I.. \
    -o example udf_example.cc -L../lib -lmysqlclient udf_example.def
mv example.dll example.udf

Note: Due to limitations in OS/2, UDF module name stems must not exceed eight characters. Modules are stored in the `/mysql2/udf' directory; the safe-mysqld.cmd script will put this directory in the BEGINLIBPATH environment variable. When using UDF modules, specified extensions are ignored--it is assumed to be `.udf'. For example, in Unix, the shared module might be named `example.so' and you would load a function from it like this:

mysql> CREATE FUNCTION metaphon RETURNS STRING SONAME 'example.so';

In OS/2, the module would be named `example.udf', but you would not specify the module extension:

mysql> CREATE FUNCTION metaphon RETURNS STRING SONAME 'example';

2.12.7 BeOS Notes

We have in the past talked with some BeOS developers who have said that MySQL is 80% ported to BeOS, but we haven't heard from them in a while.

2.13 Perl Installation Notes

Perl support for MySQL is provided by means of the DBI/DBD client interface. The interface requires Perl Version 5.6.0 or later. It will not work if you have an older version of Perl.

If you want to use transactions with Perl DBI, you need to have DBD::mysql version 1.2216 or newer. Version 2.9003 or newer is recommended.

If you are using the MySQL 4.1 client library, you must use DBD::mysql 2.9003 or newer.

As of MySQL 3.22.8, Perl support is no longer included with MySQL distributions. You can obtain the necessary modules from http://search.cpan.org for Unix, or by using the ActiveState ppm program on Windows. The following sections describe how to do this.

Perl support for MySQL must be installed if you want to run the MySQL benchmark scripts. See section 7.1.4 The MySQL Benchmark Suite.

2.13.1 Installing Perl on Unix

MySQL Perl support requires that you've installed MySQL client programming support (libraries and header files). Most installation methods install the necessary files. However, if you installed MySQL from RPM files on Linux, be sure that you've installed the developer RPM. The client programs are in the client RPM, but client programming support is in the developer RPM.

If you want to install Perl support, the files you will need can be obtained from the CPAN (Comprehensive Perl Archive Network) at http://search.cpan.org.

The easiest way to install Perl modules on Unix is to use the CPAN module. For example:

shell> perl -MCPAN -e shell
cpan> install DBI
cpan> install DBD::mysql

The DBD::mysql installation runs a number of tests. These tests require being able to connect to the local MySQL server as the anonymous user with no password. If you have removed anonymous accounts or assigned them passwords, the tests fail. You can use force install DBD::mysql to ignore the failed tests.

DBI requires the Data::Dumper module. It may be installed; if not, you should install it before installing DBI.

It is also possible to download the module distributions in the form of compressed tar archives and build the modules manually. For example, to unpack and build a DBI distribution, use a procedure such as this:

  1. Unpack the distribution into the current directory:
    shell> gunzip < DBI-VERSION.tar.gz | tar xvf -
    
    This command creates a directory named `DBI-VERSION'.
  2. Change location into the top-level directory of the unpacked distribution:
    shell> cd DBI-VERSION
    
  3. Build the distribution and compile everything:
    shell> perl Makefile.PL
    shell> make
    shell> make test
    shell> make install
    

The make test command is important because it verifies that the module is working. Note that when you run that command during the DBD::mysql installation to exercise the interface code, the MySQL server must be running or the test will fail.

It is a good idea to rebuild and reinstall the DBD::mysql distribution whenever you install a new release of MySQL, particularly if you notice symptoms such as that all your DBI scripts fail after you upgrade MySQL.

If you don't have access rights to install Perl modules in the system directory or if you want to install local Perl modules, the following reference may be useful: http://servers.digitaldaze.com/extensions/perl/modules.html#modules

Look under the heading ``Installing New Modules that Require Locally Installed Modules.''

2.13.2 Installing ActiveState Perl on Windows

On Windows, you should do the following to install the MySQL DBD module with ActiveState Perl:

This procedure should work at least with ActiveState Perl Version 5.6.

If you can't get the procedure to work, you should instead install the MyODBC driver and connect to the MySQL server through ODBC:

use DBI;
$dbh= DBI->connect("DBI:ODBC:$dsn",$user,$password) ||
  die "Got error $DBI::errstr when connecting to $dsn\n";

2.13.3 Problems Using the Perl DBI/DBD Interface

If Perl reports that it can't find the `../mysql/mysql.so' module, then the problem is probably that Perl can't locate the shared library `libmysqlclient.so'.

You should be able to fix this by one of the following methods:

Note that you may also need to modify the -L options if there are other libraries that the linker fails to find. For example, if the linker cannot find libc because it is in `/lib' and the link command specifies -L/usr/lib, change the -L option to -L/lib or add -L/lib to the existing link command.

If you get the following errors from DBD::mysql, you are probably using gcc (or using an old binary compiled with gcc):

/usr/bin/perl: can't resolve symbol '__moddi3'
/usr/bin/perl: can't resolve symbol '__divdi3'

Add -L/usr/lib/gcc-lib/... -lgcc to the link command when the `mysql.so' library gets built (check the output from make for `mysql.so' when you compile the Perl client). The -L option should specify the pathname of the directory where `libgcc.a' is located on your system.

Another cause of this problem may be that Perl and MySQL aren't both compiled with gcc. In this case, you can solve the mismatch by compiling both with gcc.

You may see the following error from DBD::mysql when you run the tests:

t/00base............install_driver(mysql) failed:
Can't load '../blib/arch/auto/DBD/mysql/mysql.so' for module DBD::mysql:
../blib/arch/auto/DBD/mysql/mysql.so: undefined symbol:
uncompress at /usr/lib/perl5/5.00503/i586-linux/DynaLoader.pm line 169.

This means that you need to include the -lz compression library on the link line. That can be done by changing the following line in the file `lib/DBD/mysql/Install.pm':

$sysliblist .= " -lm";

Change that line to:

$sysliblist .= " -lm -lz";

After this, you must run make realclean and then proceed with the installation from the beginning.

If you want to install DBI on SCO, you have to edit the `Makefile' in DBI-xxx and each subdirectory. Note that the following assumes gcc 2.95.2 or newer:

OLD:                                  NEW:
CC = cc                               CC = gcc
CCCDLFLAGS = -KPIC -W1,-Bexport       CCCDLFLAGS = -fpic
CCDLFLAGS = -wl,-Bexport              CCDLFLAGS =

LD = ld                               LD = gcc -G -fpic
LDDLFLAGS = -G -L/usr/local/lib       LDDLFLAGS = -L/usr/local/lib
LDFLAGS = -belf -L/usr/local/lib      LDFLAGS = -L/usr/local/lib

LD = ld                               LD = gcc -G -fpic
OPTIMISE = -Od                        OPTIMISE = -O1

OLD:
CCCFLAGS = -belf -dy -w0 -U M_XENIX -DPERL_SCO5 -I/usr/local/include

NEW:
CCFLAGS = -U M_XENIX -DPERL_SCO5 -I/usr/local/include

These changes are necessary because the Perl dynaloader will not load the DBI modules if they were compiled with icc or cc.

If you want to use the Perl module on a system that doesn't support dynamic linking (such as SCO), you can generate a static version of Perl that includes DBI and DBD::mysql. The way this works is that you generate a version of Perl with the DBI code linked in and install it on top of your current Perl. Then you use that to build a version of Perl that additionally has the DBD code linked in, and install that.

On SCO, you must have the following environment variables set:

LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/lib:/usr/lib:/usr/local/lib:/usr/progressive/lib

Or:

LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/lib:/lib:/usr/local/lib:/usr/ccs/lib:\
    /usr/progressive/lib:/usr/skunk/lib
LIBPATH=/usr/lib:/lib:/usr/local/lib:/usr/ccs/lib:\
    /usr/progressive/lib:/usr/skunk/lib
MANPATH=scohelp:/usr/man:/usr/local1/man:/usr/local/man:\
    /usr/skunk/man:

First, create a Perl that includes a statically linked DBI module by running these commands in the directory where your DBI distribution is located:

shell> perl Makefile.PL -static -config
shell> make
shell> make install
shell> make perl

Then you must install the new Perl. The output of make perl will indicate the exact make command you will need to execute to perform the installation. On SCO, this is make -f Makefile.aperl inst_perl MAP_TARGET=perl.

Next, use the just-created Perl to create another Perl that also includes a statically linked DBD::mysql by running these commands in the directory where your DBD::mysql distribution is located:

shell> perl Makefile.PL -static -config
shell> make
shell> make install
shell> make perl

Finally, you should install this new Perl. Again, the output of make perl indicates the command to use.

3 MySQL Tutorial

This chapter provides a tutorial introduction to MySQL by showing how to use the mysql client program to create and use a simple database. mysql (sometimes referred to as the ``terminal monitor'' or just ``monitor'') is an interactive program that allows you to connect to a MySQL server, run queries, and view the results. mysql may also be used in batch mode: you place your queries in a file beforehand, then tell mysql to execute the contents of the file. Both ways of using mysql are covered here.

To see a list of options provided by mysql, invoke it with the --help option:

shell> mysql --help

This chapter assumes that mysql is installed on your machine and that a MySQL server is available to which you can connect. If this is not true, contact your MySQL administrator. (If you are the administrator, you will need to consult other sections of this manual.)

This chapter describes the entire process of setting up and using a database. If you are interested only in accessing an existing database, you may want to skip over the sections that describe how to create the database and the tables it contains.

Because this chapter is tutorial in nature, many details are necessarily omitted. Consult the relevant sections of the manual for more information on the topics covered here.

3.1 Connecting to and Disconnecting from the Server

To connect to the server, you'll usually need to provide a MySQL username when you invoke mysql and, most likely, a password. If the server runs on a machine other than the one where you log in, you'll also need to specify a hostname. Contact your administrator to find out what connection parameters you should use to connect (that is, what host, username, and password to use). Once you know the proper parameters, you should be able to connect like this:

shell> mysql -h host -u user -p
Enter password: ********

host and user represent the hostname where your MySQL server is running and the username of your MySQL account. Substitute appropriate values for your setup. The ******** represents your password; enter it when mysql displays the Enter password: prompt.

If that works, you should see some introductory information followed by a mysql> prompt:

shell> mysql -h host -u user -p
Enter password: ********
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 25338 to server version: 4.0.14-log

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the buffer.

mysql>

The prompt tells you that mysql is ready for you to enter commands.

Some MySQL installations allow users to connect as the anonymous (unnamed) user to the server running on the local host. If this is the case on your machine, you should be able to connect to that server by invoking mysql without any options:

shell> mysql

After you have connected successfully, you can disconnect any time by typing QUIT (or \q) at the mysql> prompt:

mysql> QUIT
Bye

On Unix, you can also disconnect by pressing Control-D.

Most examples in the following sections assume that you are connected to the server. They indicate this by the mysql> prompt.

3.2 Entering Queries

Make sure that you are connected to the server, as discussed in the previous section. Doing so will not in itself select any database to work with, but that's okay. At this point, it's more important to find out a little about how to issue queries than to jump right in creating tables, loading data into them, and retrieving data from them. This section describes the basic principles of entering commands, using several queries you can try out to familiarize yourself with how mysql works.

Here's a simple command that asks the server to tell you its version number and the current date. Type it in as shown here following the mysql> prompt and press Enter:

mysql> SELECT VERSION(), CURRENT_DATE;
+--------------+--------------+
| VERSION()    | CURRENT_DATE |
+--------------+--------------+
| 3.22.20a-log | 1999-03-19   |
+--------------+--------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)
mysql>

This query illustrates several things about mysql:

Keywords may be entered in any lettercase. The following queries are equivalent:

mysql> SELECT VERSION(), CURRENT_DATE;
mysql> select version(), current_date;
mysql> SeLeCt vErSiOn(), current_DATE;

Here's another query. It demonstrates that you can use mysql as a simple calculator:

mysql> SELECT SIN(PI()/4), (4+1)*5;
+-------------+---------+
| SIN(PI()/4) | (4+1)*5 |
+-------------+---------+
|    0.707107 |      25 |
+-------------+---------+

The queries shown thus far have been relatively short, single-line statements. You can even enter multiple statements on a single line. Just end each one with a semicolon:

mysql> SELECT VERSION(); SELECT NOW();
+--------------+
| VERSION()    |
+--------------+
| 3.22.20a-log |
+--------------+

+---------------------+
| NOW()               |
+---------------------+
| 1999-03-19 00:15:33 |
+---------------------+

A command need not be given all on a single line, so lengthy commands that require several lines are not a problem. mysql determines where your statement ends by looking for the terminating semicolon, not by looking for the end of the input line. (In other words, mysql accepts free-format input: it collects input lines but does not execute them until it sees the semicolon.)

Here's a simple multiple-line statement:

mysql> SELECT
    -> USER()
    -> ,
    -> CURRENT_DATE;
+--------------------+--------------+
| USER()             | CURRENT_DATE |
+--------------------+--------------+
| joesmith@localhost | 1999-03-18   |
+--------------------+--------------+

In this example, notice how the prompt changes from mysql> to -> after you enter the first line of a multiple-line query. This is how mysql indicates that it hasn't seen a complete statement and is waiting for the rest. The prompt is your friend, because it provides valuable feedback. If you use that feedback, you will always be aware of what mysql is waiting for.

If you decide you don't want to execute a command that you are in the process of entering, cancel it by typing \c:

mysql> SELECT
    -> USER()
    -> \c
mysql>

Here, too, notice the prompt. It switches back to mysql> after you type \c, providing feedback to indicate that mysql is ready for a new command.

The following table shows each of the prompts you may see and summarizes what they mean about the state that mysql is in:

Prompt Meaning
mysql> Ready for new command.
-> Waiting for next line of multiple-line command.
'> Waiting for next line, collecting a string that begins with a single quote (`'').
"> Waiting for next line, collecting a string that begins with a double quote (`"').
`> Waiting for next line, collecting an identifier that begins with a backtick (``').

Multiple-line statements commonly occur by accident when you intend to issue a command on a single line, but forget the terminating semicolon. In this case, mysql waits for more input:

mysql> SELECT USER()
    ->

If this happens to you (you think you've entered a statement but the only response is a -> prompt), most likely mysql is waiting for the semicolon. If you don't notice what the prompt is telling you, you might sit there for a while before realizing what you need to do. Enter a semicolon to complete the statement, and mysql will execute it:

mysql> SELECT USER()
    -> ;
+--------------------+
| USER()             |
+--------------------+
| joesmith@localhost |
+--------------------+

The '> and "> prompts occur during string collection. In MySQL, you can write strings surrounded by either `'' or `"' characters (for example, 'hello' or "goodbye"), and mysql lets you enter strings that span multiple lines. When you see a '> or "> prompt, it means that you've entered a line containing a string that begins with a `'' or `"' quote character, but have not yet entered the matching quote that terminates the string. That's fine if you really are entering a multiple-line string, but how likely is that? Not very. More often, the '> and "> prompts indicate that you've inadvertently left out a quote character. For example:

mysql> SELECT * FROM my_table WHERE name = 'Smith AND age < 30;
    '>

If you enter this SELECT statement, then press Enter and wait for the result, nothing will happen. Instead of wondering why this query takes so long, notice the clue provided by the '> prompt. It tells you that mysql expects to see the rest of an unterminated string. (Do you see the error in the statement? The string 'Smith is missing the second quote.)

At this point, what do you do? The simplest thing is to cancel the command. However, you cannot just type \c in this case, because mysql interprets it as part of the string that it is collecting! Instead, enter the closing quote character (so mysql knows you've finished the string), then type \c:

mysql> SELECT * FROM my_table WHERE name = 'Smith AND age < 30;
    '> '\c
mysql>

The prompt changes back to mysql>, indicating that mysql is ready for a new command.

The `> prompt is similar to th '> and "> prompts, but indicates that you have begun but not completed a backtick-quoted identifier.

It's important to know what the '>, ">, and `> prompts signify, because if you mistakenly enter an unterminated string, any further lines you type will appear to be ignored by mysql---including a line containing QUIT! This can be quite confusing, especially if you don't know that you need to supply the terminating quote before you can cancel the current command.

3.3 Creating and Using a Database

Once you know how to enter commands, it's time to access a database.

Suppose that you have several pets in your home (your menagerie) and you'd like to keep track of various types of information about them. You can do so by creating tables to hold your data and loading them with the desired information. Then you can answer different sorts of questions about your animals by retrieving data from the tables. This section shows you how to:

The menagerie database will be simple (deliberately), but it is not difficult to think of real-world situations in which a similar type of database might be used. For example, a database like this could be used by a farmer to keep track of livestock, or by a veterinarian to keep track of patient records. A menagerie distribution containing some of the queries and sample data used in the following sections can be obtained from the MySQL Web site. It's available in either compressed tar format (http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Contrib/Examples/menagerie.tar.gz) or Zip format (http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Contrib/Examples/menagerie.zip).

Use the SHOW statement to find out what databases currently exist on the server:

mysql> SHOW DATABASES;
+----------+
| Database |
+----------+
| mysql    |
| test     |
| tmp      |
+----------+

The list of databases is probably different on your machine, but the mysql and test databases are likely to be among them. The mysql database is required because it describes user access privileges. The test database is often provided as a workspace for users to try things out.

Note that you may not see all databases if you don't have the SHOW DATABASES privilege. See section 13.5.1.3 GRANT and REVOKE Syntax.

If the test database exists, try to access it:

mysql> USE test
Database changed

Note that USE, like QUIT, does not require a semicolon. (You can terminate such statements with a semicolon if you like; it does no harm.) The USE statement is special in another way, too: it must be given on a single line.

You can use the test database (if you have access to it) for the examples that follow, but anything you create in that database can be removed by anyone else with access to it. For this reason, you should probably ask your MySQL administrator for permission to use a database of your own. Suppose that you want to call yours menagerie. The administrator needs to execute a command like this:

mysql> GRANT ALL ON menagerie.* TO 'your_mysql_name'@'your_client_host';

where your_mysql_name is the MySQL username assigned to you and your_client_host is the host from which you connect to the server.

3.3.1 Creating and Selecting a Database

If the administrator creates your database for you when setting up your permissions, you can begin using it. Otherwise, you need to create it yourself:

mysql> CREATE DATABASE menagerie;

Under Unix, database names are case sensitive (unlike SQL keywords), so you must always refer to your database as menagerie, not as Menagerie, MENAGERIE, or some other variant. This is also true for table names. (Under Windows, this restriction does not apply, although you must refer to databases and tables using the same lettercase throughout a given query.)

Creating a database does not select it for use; you must do that explicitly. To make menagerie the current database, use this command:

mysql> USE menagerie
Database changed

Your database needs to be created only once, but you must select it for use each time you begin a mysql session. You can do this by issuing a USE statement as shown in the example. Alternatively, you can select the database on the command line when you invoke mysql. Just specify its name after any connection parameters that you might need to provide. For example:

shell> mysql -h host -u user -p menagerie
Enter password: ********

Note that menagerie is not your password on the command just shown. If you want to supply your password on the command line after the -p option, you must do so with no intervening space (for example, as -pmypassword, not as -p mypassword). However, putting your password on the command line is not recommended, because doing so exposes it to snooping by other users logged in on your machine.

3.3.2 Creating a Table

Creating the database is the easy part, but at this point it's empty, as SHOW TABLES will tell you:

mysql> SHOW TABLES;
Empty set (0.00 sec)

The harder part is deciding what the structure of your database should be: what tables you will need and what columns will be in each of them.

You'll want a table that contains a record for each of your pets. This can be called the pet table, and it should contain, as a bare minimum, each animal's name. Because the name by itself is not very interesting, the table should contain other information. For example, if more than one person in your family keeps pets, you might want to list each animal's owner. You might also want to record some basic descriptive information such as species and sex.

How about age? That might be of interest, but it's not a good thing to store in a database. Age changes as time passes, which means you'd have to update your records often. Instead, it's better to store a fixed value such as date of birth. Then, whenever you need age, you can calculate it as the difference between the current date and the birth date. MySQL provides functions for doing date arithmetic, so this is not difficult. Storing birth date rather than age has other advantages, too:

You can probably think of other types of information that would be useful in the pet table, but the ones identified so far are sufficient: name, owner, species, sex, birth, and death.

Use a CREATE TABLE statement to specify the layout of your table:

mysql> CREATE TABLE pet (name VARCHAR(20), owner VARCHAR(20),
    -> species VARCHAR(20), sex CHAR(1), birth DATE, death DATE);

VARCHAR is a good choice for the name, owner, and species columns because the column values will vary in length. The lengths of those columns need not all be the same, and need not be 20. You can pick any length from 1 to 255, whatever seems most reasonable to you. (If you make a poor choice and it turns out later that you need a longer field, MySQL provides an ALTER TABLE statement.)

Several types of values can be chosen to represent sex in animal records, such as 'm' and 'f', or perhaps 'male' and 'female'. It's simplest to use the single characters 'm' and 'f'.

The use of the DATE data type for the birth and death columns is a fairly obvious choice.

Once you have created a table, SHOW TABLES should produce some output:

mysql> SHOW TABLES;
+---------------------+
| Tables in menagerie |
+---------------------+
| pet                 |
+---------------------+

To verify that your table was created the way you expected, use a DESCRIBE statement:

mysql> DESCRIBE pet;
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field   | Type        | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| name    | varchar(20) | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| owner   | varchar(20) | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| species | varchar(20) | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| sex     | char(1)     | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| birth   | date        | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| death   | date        | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+

You can use DESCRIBE any time, for example, if you forget the names of the columns in your table or what types they have.

3.3.3 Loading Data into a Table

After creating your table, you need to populate it. The LOAD DATA and INSERT statements are useful for this.

Suppose that your pet records can be described as shown here. (Observe that MySQL expects dates in 'YYYY-MM-DD' format; this may be different from what you are used to.)

name owner species sex birth death
Fluffy Harold cat f 1993-02-04
Claws Gwen cat m 1994-03-17
Buffy Harold dog f 1989-05-13
Fang Benny dog m 1990-08-27
Bowser Diane dog m 1979-08-31 1995-07-29
Chirpy Gwen bird f 1998-09-11
Whistler Gwen bird 1997-12-09
Slim Benny snake m 1996-04-29

Because you are beginning with an empty table, an easy way to populate it is to create a text file containing a row for each of your animals, then load the contents of the file into the table with a single statement.

You could create a text file `pet.txt' containing one record per line, with values separated by tabs, and given in the order in which the columns were listed in the CREATE TABLE statement. For missing values (such as unknown sexes or death dates for animals that are still living), you can use NULL values. To represent these in your text file, use \N (backslash, capital-N). For example, the record for Whistler the bird would look like this (where the whitespace between values is a single tab character):

name owner species sex birth death
Whistler Gwen bird \N 1997-12-09 \N

To load the text file `pet.txt' into the pet table, use this command:

mysql> LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE '/path/pet.txt' INTO TABLE pet;

Note that if you created the file on Windows with an editor that uses \r\n as a line terminator, you should use:

mysql> LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE '/path/pet.txt' INTO TABLE pet
    -> LINES TERMINATED BY '\r\n';

You can specify the column value separator and end of line marker explicitly in the LOAD DATA statement if you wish, but the defaults are tab and linefeed. These are sufficient for the statement to read the file `pet.txt' properly.

If the statement fails, it is likely that your MySQL installation does not have local file capability enabled by default. See section 5.4.4 Security Issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL for information on how to change this.

When you want to add new records one at a time, the INSERT statement is useful. In its simplest form, you supply values for each column, in the order in which the columns were listed in the CREATE TABLE statement. Suppose that Diane gets a new hamster named Puffball. You could add a new record using an INSERT statement like this:

mysql> INSERT INTO pet
    -> VALUES ('Puffball','Diane','hamster','f','1999-03-30',NULL);

Note that string and date values are specified as quoted strings here. Also, with INSERT, you can insert NULL directly to represent a missing value. You do not use \N like you do with LOAD DATA.

From this example, you should be able to see that there would be a lot more typing involved to load your records initially using several INSERT statements rather than a single LOAD DATA statement.

3.3.4 Retrieving Information from a Table

The SELECT statement is used to pull information from a table. The general form of the statement is:

SELECT what_to_select
FROM which_table
WHERE conditions_to_satisfy;

what_to_select indicates what you want to see. This can be a list of columns, or * to indicate ``all columns.'' which_table indicates the table from which you want to retrieve data. The WHERE clause is optional. If it's present, conditions_to_satisfy specifies conditions that rows must satisfy to qualify for retrieval.

3.3.4.1 Selecting All Data

The simplest form of SELECT retrieves everything from a table:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet;
+----------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name     | owner  | species | sex  | birth      | death      |
+----------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Fluffy   | Harold | cat     | f    | 1993-02-04 | NULL       |
| Claws    | Gwen   | cat     | m    | 1994-03-17 | NULL       |
| Buffy    | Harold | dog     | f    | 1989-05-13 | NULL       |
| Fang     | Benny  | dog     | m    | 1990-08-27 | NULL       |
| Bowser   | Diane  | dog     | m    | 1979-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
| Chirpy   | Gwen   | bird    | f    | 1998-09-11 | NULL       |
| Whistler | Gwen   | bird    | NULL | 1997-12-09 | NULL       |
| Slim     | Benny  | snake   | m    | 1996-04-29 | NULL       |
| Puffball | Diane  | hamster | f    | 1999-03-30 | NULL       |
+----------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+

This form of SELECT is useful if you want to review your entire table, for example, after you've just loaded it with your initial dataset. For example, you may happen to think that the birth date for Bowser doesn't seem quite right. Consulting your original pedigree papers, you find that the correct birth year should be 1989, not 1979.

There are least a couple of ways to fix this:

3.3.4.2 Selecting Particular Rows

As shown in the preceding section, it is easy to retrieve an entire table. Just omit the WHERE clause from the SELECT statement. But typically you don't want to see the entire table, particularly when it becomes large. Instead, you're usually more interested in answering a particular question, in which case you specify some constraints on the information you want. Let's look at some selection queries in terms of questions about your pets that they answer.

You can select only particular rows from your table. For example, if you want to verify the change that you made to Bowser's birth date, select Bowser's record like this:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name = 'Bowser';
+--------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name   | owner | species | sex  | birth      | death      |
+--------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Bowser | Diane | dog     | m    | 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
+--------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+

The output confirms that the year is correctly recorded as 1989, not 1979.

String comparisons normally are case-insensitive, so you can specify the name as 'bowser', 'BOWSER', etc. The query result will be the same.

You can specify conditions on any column, not just name. For example, if you want to know which animals were born after 1998, test the birth column:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE birth >= '1998-1-1';
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name     | owner | species | sex  | birth      | death |
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Chirpy   | Gwen  | bird    | f    | 1998-09-11 | NULL  |
| Puffball | Diane | hamster | f    | 1999-03-30 | NULL  |
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+

You can combine conditions, for example, to locate female dogs:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE species = 'dog' AND sex = 'f';
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name  | owner  | species | sex  | birth      | death |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Buffy | Harold | dog     | f    | 1989-05-13 | NULL  |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+

The preceding query uses the AND logical operator. There is also an OR operator:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE species = 'snake' OR species = 'bird';
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name     | owner | species | sex  | birth      | death |
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Chirpy   | Gwen  | bird    | f    | 1998-09-11 | NULL  |
| Whistler | Gwen  | bird    | NULL | 1997-12-09 | NULL  |
| Slim     | Benny | snake   | m    | 1996-04-29 | NULL  |
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+

AND and OR may be intermixed, although AND has higher precedence than OR. If you use both operators, it's a good idea to use parentheses to indicate explicitly how conditions should be grouped:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE (species = 'cat' AND sex = 'm')
    -> OR (species = 'dog' AND sex = 'f');
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name  | owner  | species | sex  | birth      | death |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Claws | Gwen   | cat     | m    | 1994-03-17 | NULL  |
| Buffy | Harold | dog     | f    | 1989-05-13 | NULL  |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+

3.3.4.3 Selecting Particular Columns

If you don't want to see entire rows from your table, just name the columns in which you're interested, separated by commas. For example, if you want to know when your animals were born, select the name and birth columns:

mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet;
+----------+------------+
| name     | birth      |
+----------+------------+
| Fluffy   | 1993-02-04 |
| Claws    | 1994-03-17 |
| Buffy    | 1989-05-13 |
| Fang     | 1990-08-27 |
| Bowser   | 1989-08-31 |
| Chirpy   | 1998-09-11 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 |
| Slim     | 1996-04-29 |
| Puffball | 1999-03-30 |
+----------+------------+

To find out who owns pets, use this query:

mysql> SELECT owner FROM pet;
+--------+
| owner  |
+--------+
| Harold |
| Gwen   |
| Harold |
| Benny  |
| Diane  |
| Gwen   |
| Gwen   |
| Benny  |
| Diane  |
+--------+

However, notice that the query simply retrieves the owner field from each record, and some of them appear more than once. To minimize the output, retrieve each unique output record just once by adding the keyword DISTINCT:

mysql> SELECT DISTINCT owner FROM pet;
+--------+
| owner  |
+--------+
| Benny  |
| Diane  |
| Gwen   |
| Harold |
+--------+

You can use a WHERE clause to combine row selection with column selection. For example, to get birth dates for dogs and cats only, use this query:

mysql> SELECT name, species, birth FROM pet
    -> WHERE species = 'dog' OR species = 'cat';
+--------+---------+------------+
| name   | species | birth      |
+--------+---------+------------+
| Fluffy | cat     | 1993-02-04 |
| Claws  | cat     | 1994-03-17 |
| Buffy  | dog     | 1989-05-13 |
| Fang   | dog     | 1990-08-27 |
| Bowser | dog     | 1989-08-31 |
+--------+---------+------------+

3.3.4.4 Sorting Rows

You may have noticed in the preceding examples that the result rows are displayed in no particular order. It's often easier to examine query output when the rows are sorted in some meaningful way. To sort a result, use an ORDER BY clause.

Here are animal birthdays, sorted by date:

mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet ORDER BY birth;
+----------+------------+
| name     | birth      |
+----------+------------+
| Buffy    | 1989-05-13 |
| Bowser   | 1989-08-31 |
| Fang     | 1990-08-27 |
| Fluffy   | 1993-02-04 |
| Claws    | 1994-03-17 |
| Slim     | 1996-04-29 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 |
| Chirpy   | 1998-09-11 |
| Puffball | 1999-03-30 |
+----------+------------+

On character type columns, sorting--like all other comparison operations--is normally performed in a case-insensitive fashion. This means that the order will be undefined for columns that are identical except for their case. You can force a case-sensitive sort for a column by using the BINARY cast: ORDER BY BINARY col_name.

The default sort order is ascending, with smallest values first. To sort in reverse (descending) order, add the DESC keyword to the name of the column you are sorting by:

mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet ORDER BY birth DESC;
+----------+------------+
| name     | birth      |
+----------+------------+
| Puffball | 1999-03-30 |
| Chirpy   | 1998-09-11 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 |
| Slim     | 1996-04-29 |
| Claws    | 1994-03-17 |
| Fluffy   | 1993-02-04 |
| Fang     | 1990-08-27 |
| Bowser   | 1989-08-31 |
| Buffy    | 1989-05-13 |
+----------+------------+

You can sort on multiple columns, and you can sort columns in different directions. For example, to sort by type of animal in ascending order, then by birth date within animal type in descending order (youngest animals first), use the following query:

mysql> SELECT name, species, birth FROM pet
    -> ORDER BY species, birth DESC;
+----------+---------+------------+
| name     | species | birth      |
+----------+---------+------------+
| Chirpy   | bird    | 1998-09-11 |
| Whistler | bird    | 1997-12-09 |
| Claws    | cat     | 1994-03-17 |
| Fluffy   | cat     | 1993-02-04 |
| Fang     | dog     | 1990-08-27 |
| Bowser   | dog     | 1989-08-31 |
| Buffy    | dog     | 1989-05-13 |
| Puffball | hamster | 1999-03-30 |
| Slim     | snake   | 1996-04-29 |
+----------+---------+------------+

Note that the DESC keyword applies only to the column name immediately preceding it (birth); it does not affect the species column sort order.

3.3.4.5 Date Calculations

MySQL provides several functions that you can use to perform calculations on dates, for example, to calculate ages or extract parts of dates.

To determine how many years old each of your pets is, compute the difference in the year part of the current date and the birth date, then subtract one if the current date occurs earlier in the calendar year than the birth date. The following query shows, for each pet, the birth date, the current date, and the age in years.

mysql> SELECT name, birth, CURDATE(),
    -> (YEAR(CURDATE())-YEAR(birth))
    -> - (RIGHT(CURDATE(),5)<RIGHT(birth,5))
    -> AS age
    -> FROM pet;
+----------+------------+------------+------+
| name     | birth      | CURDATE()  | age  |
+----------+------------+------------+------+
| Fluffy   | 1993-02-04 | 2003-08-19 |   10 |
| Claws    | 1994-03-17 | 2003-08-19 |    9 |
| Buffy    | 1989-05-13 | 2003-08-19 |   14 |
| Fang     | 1990-08-27 | 2003-08-19 |   12 |
| Bowser   | 1989-08-31 | 2003-08-19 |   13 |
| Chirpy   | 1998-09-11 | 2003-08-19 |    4 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 | 2003-08-19 |    5 |
| Slim     | 1996-04-29 | 2003-08-19 |    7 |
| Puffball | 1999-03-30 | 2003-08-19 |    4 |
+----------+------------+------------+------+

Here, YEAR() pulls out the year part of a date and RIGHT() pulls off the rightmost five characters that represent the MM-DD (calendar year) part of the date. The part of the expression that compares the MM-DD values evaluates to 1 or 0, which adjusts the year difference down a year if CURDATE() occurs earlier in the year than birth. The full expression is somewhat ungainly, so an alias (age) is used to make the output column label more meaningful.

The query works, but the result could be scanned more easily if the rows were presented in some order. This can be done by adding an ORDER BY name clause to sort the output by name:

mysql> SELECT name, birth, CURDATE(),
    -> (YEAR(CURDATE())-YEAR(birth))
    -> - (RIGHT(CURDATE(),5)<RIGHT(birth,5))
    -> AS age
    -> FROM pet ORDER BY name;
+----------+------------+------------+------+
| name     | birth      | CURDATE()  | age  |
+----------+------------+------------+------+
| Bowser   | 1989-08-31 | 2003-08-19 |   13 |
| Buffy    | 1989-05-13 | 2003-08-19 |   14 |
| Chirpy   | 1998-09-11 | 2003-08-19 |    4 |
| Claws    | 1994-03-17 | 2003-08-19 |    9 |
| Fang     | 1990-08-27 | 2003-08-19 |   12 |
| Fluffy   | 1993-02-04 | 2003-08-19 |   10 |
| Puffball | 1999-03-30 | 2003-08-19 |    4 |
| Slim     | 1996-04-29 | 2003-08-19 |    7 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 | 2003-08-19 |    5 |
+----------+------------+------------+------+

To sort the output by age rather than name, just use a different ORDER BY clause:

mysql> SELECT name, birth, CURDATE(),
    -> (YEAR(CURDATE())-YEAR(birth))
    -> - (RIGHT(CURDATE(),5)<RIGHT(birth,5))
    -> AS age
    -> FROM pet ORDER BY age;
+----------+------------+------------+------+
| name     | birth      | CURDATE()  | age  |
+----------+------------+------------+------+
| Chirpy   | 1998-09-11 | 2003-08-19 |    4 |
| Puffball | 1999-03-30 | 2003-08-19 |    4 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 | 2003-08-19 |    5 |
| Slim     | 1996-04-29 | 2003-08-19 |    7 |
| Claws    | 1994-03-17 | 2003-08-19 |    9 |
| Fluffy   | 1993-02-04 | 2003-08-19 |   10 |
| Fang     | 1990-08-27 | 2003-08-19 |   12 |
| Bowser   | 1989-08-31 | 2003-08-19 |   13 |
| Buffy    | 1989-05-13 | 2003-08-19 |   14 |
+----------+------------+------------+------+

A similar query can be used to determine age at death for animals that have died. You determine which animals these are by checking whether the death value is NULL. Then, for those with non-NULL values, compute the difference between the death and birth values:

mysql> SELECT name, birth, death,
    -> (YEAR(death)-YEAR(birth)) - (RIGHT(death,5)<RIGHT(birth,5))
    -> AS age
    -> FROM pet WHERE death IS NOT NULL ORDER BY age;
+--------+------------+------------+------+
| name   | birth      | death      | age  |
+--------+------------+------------+------+
| Bowser | 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |    5 |
+--------+------------+------------+------+

The query uses death IS NOT NULL rather than death <> NULL because NULL is a special value that cannot be compared using the usual comparison operators. This is discussed later. See section 3.3.4.6 Working with NULL Values.

What if you want to know which animals have birthdays next month? For this type of calculation, year and day are irrelevant; you simply want to extract the month part of the birth column. MySQL provides several date-part extraction functions, such as YEAR(), MONTH(), and DAYOFMONTH(). MONTH() is the appropriate function here. To see how it works, run a simple query that displays the value of both birth and MONTH(birth):

mysql> SELECT name, birth, MONTH(birth) FROM pet;
+----------+------------+--------------+
| name     | birth      | MONTH(birth) |
+----------+------------+--------------+
| Fluffy   | 1993-02-04 |            2 |
| Claws    | 1994-03-17 |            3 |
| Buffy    | 1989-05-13 |            5 |
| Fang     | 1990-08-27 |            8 |
| Bowser   | 1989-08-31 |            8 |
| Chirpy   | 1998-09-11 |            9 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 |           12 |
| Slim     | 1996-04-29 |            4 |
| Puffball | 1999-03-30 |            3 |
+----------+------------+--------------+

Finding animals with birthdays in the upcoming month is easy, too. Suppose that the current month is April. Then the month value is 4 and you look for animals born in May (month 5) like this:

mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet WHERE MONTH(birth) = 5;
+-------+------------+
| name  | birth      |
+-------+------------+
| Buffy | 1989-05-13 |
+-------+------------+

There is a small complication if the current month is December. You don't just add one to the month number (12) and look for animals born in month 13, because there is no such month. Instead, you look for animals born in January (month 1).

You can even write the query so that it works no matter what the current month is. That way you don't have to use a particular month number in the query. DATE_ADD() allows you to add a time interval to a given date. If you add a month to the value of CURDATE(), then extract the month part with MONTH(), the result produces the month in which to look for birthdays:

mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet
    -> WHERE MONTH(birth) = MONTH(DATE_ADD(CURDATE(),INTERVAL 1 MONTH));

A different way to accomplish the same task is to add 1 to get the next month after the current one (after using the modulo function (MOD) to wrap around the month value to 0 if it is currently 12):

mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet
    -> WHERE MONTH(birth) = MOD(MONTH(CURDATE()), 12) + 1;

Note that MONTH returns a number between 1 and 12. And MOD(something,12) returns a number between 0 and 11. So the addition has to be after the MOD(), otherwise we would go from November (11) to January (1).

3.3.4.6 Working with NULL Values

The NULL value can be surprising until you get used to it. Conceptually, NULL means missing value or unknown value and it is treated somewhat differently than other values. To test for NULL, you cannot use the arithmetic comparison operators such as =, <, or <>. To demonstrate this for yourself, try the following query:

mysql> SELECT 1 = NULL, 1 <> NULL, 1 < NULL, 1 > NULL;
+----------+-----------+----------+----------+
| 1 = NULL | 1 <> NULL | 1 < NULL | 1 > NULL |
+----------+-----------+----------+----------+
|     NULL |      NULL |     NULL |     NULL |
+----------+-----------+----------+----------+

Clearly you get no meaningful results from these comparisons. Use the IS NULL and IS NOT NULL operators instead:

mysql> SELECT 1 IS NULL, 1 IS NOT NULL;
+-----------+---------------+
| 1 IS NULL | 1 IS NOT NULL |
+-----------+---------------+
|         0 |             1 |
+-----------+---------------+

Note that in MySQL, 0 or NULL means false and anything else means true. The default truth value from a boolean operation is 1.

This special treatment of NULL is why, in the previous section, it was necessary to determine which animals are no longer alive using death IS NOT NULL instead of death <> NULL.

Two NULL values are regarded as equal in a GROUP BY.

When doing an ORDER BY, NULL values are presented first if you do ORDER BY ... ASC and last if you do ORDER BY ... DESC.

Note that MySQL 4.0.2 to 4.0.10 incorrectly always sorts NULL values first regardless of the sort direction.

3.3.4.7 Pattern Matching

MySQL provides standard SQL pattern matching as well as a form of pattern matching based on extended regular expressions similar to those used by Unix utilities such as vi, grep, and sed.

SQL pattern matching allows you to use `_' to match any single character and `%' to match an arbitrary number of characters (including zero characters). In MySQL, SQL patterns are case-insensitive by default. Some examples are shown here. Note that you do not use = or <> when you use SQL patterns; use the LIKE or NOT LIKE comparison operators instead.

To find names beginning with `b':

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE 'b%';
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name   | owner  | species | sex  | birth      | death      |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Buffy  | Harold | dog     | f    | 1989-05-13 | NULL       |
| Bowser | Diane  | dog     | m    | 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+

To find names ending with `fy':

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE '%fy';
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name   | owner  | species | sex  | birth      | death |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Fluffy | Harold | cat     | f    | 1993-02-04 | NULL  |
| Buffy  | Harold | dog     | f    | 1989-05-13 | NULL  |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+

To find names containing a `w':

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE '%w%';
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name     | owner | species | sex  | birth      | death      |
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Claws    | Gwen  | cat     | m    | 1994-03-17 | NULL       |
| Bowser   | Diane | dog     | m    | 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
| Whistler | Gwen  | bird    | NULL | 1997-12-09 | NULL       |
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+

To find names containing exactly five characters, use five instances of the `_' pattern character:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE '_____';
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name  | owner  | species | sex  | birth      | death |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Claws | Gwen   | cat     | m    | 1994-03-17 | NULL  |
| Buffy | Harold | dog     | f    | 1989-05-13 | NULL  |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+

The other type of pattern matching provided by MySQL uses extended regular expressions. When you test for a match for this type of pattern, use the REGEXP and NOT REGEXP operators (or RLIKE and NOT RLIKE, which are synonyms).

Some characteristics of extended regular expressions are:

To demonstrate how extended regular expressions work, the LIKE queries shown previously are rewritten here to use REGEXP.

To find names beginning with `b', use `^' to match the beginning of the name:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP '^b';
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name   | owner  | species | sex  | birth      | death      |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Buffy  | Harold | dog     | f    | 1989-05-13 | NULL       |
| Bowser | Diane  | dog     | m    | 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+

Prior to MySQL Version 3.23.4, REGEXP is case sensitive, and the previous query will return no rows. In this case, to match either lowercase or uppercase `b', use this query instead:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP '^[bB]';

From MySQL 3.23.4 on, if you really want to force a REGEXP comparison to be case sensitive, use the BINARY keyword to make one of the strings a binary string. This query will match only lowercase `b' at the beginning of a name:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP BINARY '^b';

To find names ending with `fy', use `$' to match the end of the name:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP 'fy$';
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name   | owner  | species | sex  | birth      | death |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Fluffy | Harold | cat     | f    | 1993-02-04 | NULL  |
| Buffy  | Harold | dog     | f    | 1989-05-13 | NULL  |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+

To find names containing a `w', use this query:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP 'w';
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name     | owner | species | sex  | birth      | death      |
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Claws    | Gwen  | cat     | m    | 1994-03-17 | NULL       |
| Bowser   | Diane | dog     | m    | 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
| Whistler | Gwen  | bird    | NULL | 1997-12-09 | NULL       |
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+

Because a regular expression pattern matches if it occurs anywhere in the value, it is not necessary in the previous query to put a wildcard on either side of the pattern to get it to match the entire value like it would be if you used an SQL pattern.

To find names containing exactly five characters, use `^' and `$' to match the beginning and end of the name, and five instances of `.' in between:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP '^.....$';
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name  | owner  | species | sex  | birth      | death |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Claws | Gwen   | cat     | m    | 1994-03-17 | NULL  |
| Buffy | Harold | dog     | f    | 1989-05-13 | NULL  |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+

You could also write the previous query using the `{n}' ``repeat-n-times'' operator:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP '^.{5}$';
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name  | owner  | species | sex  | birth      | death |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Claws | Gwen   | cat     | m    | 1994-03-17 | NULL  |
| Buffy | Harold | dog     | f    | 1989-05-13 | NULL  |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+

3.3.4.8 Counting Rows

Databases are often used to answer the question, ``How often does a certain type of data occur in a table?'' For example, you might want to know how many pets you have, or how many pets each owner has, or you might want to perform various kinds of census operations on your animals.

Counting the total number of animals you have is the same question as ``How many rows are in the pet table?'' because there is one record per pet. COUNT(*) counts the number of rows, so the query to count your animals looks like this:

mysql> SELECT COUNT(*) FROM pet;
+----------+
| COUNT(*) |
+----------+
|        9 |
+----------+

Earlier, you retrieved the names of the people who owned pets. You can use COUNT() if you want to find out how many pets each owner has:

mysql> SELECT owner, COUNT(*) FROM pet GROUP BY owner;
+--------+----------+
| owner  | COUNT(*) |
+--------+----------+
| Benny  |        2 |
| Diane  |        2 |
| Gwen   |        3 |
| Harold |        2 |
+--------+----------+

Note the use of GROUP BY to group together all records for each owner. Without it, all you get is an error message:

mysql> SELECT owner, COUNT(*) FROM pet;
ERROR 1140: Mixing of GROUP columns (MIN(),MAX(),COUNT()...)
with no GROUP columns is illegal if there is no GROUP BY clause

COUNT() and GROUP BY are useful for characterizing your data in various ways. The following examples show different ways to perform animal census operations.

Number of animals per species:

mysql> SELECT species, COUNT(*) FROM pet GROUP BY species;
+---------+----------+
| species | COUNT(*) |
+---------+----------+
| bird    |        2 |
| cat     |        2 |
| dog     |        3 |
| hamster |        1 |
| snake   |        1 |
+---------+----------+

Number of animals per sex:

mysql> SELECT sex, COUNT(*) FROM pet GROUP BY sex;
+------+----------+
| sex  | COUNT(*) |
+------+----------+
| NULL |        1 |
| f    |        4 |
| m    |        4 |
+------+----------+

(In this output, NULL indicates that the sex is unknown.)

Number of animals per combination of species and sex:

mysql> SELECT species, sex, COUNT(*) FROM pet GROUP BY species, sex;
+---------+------+----------+
| species | sex  | COUNT(*) |
+---------+------+----------+
| bird    | NULL |        1 |
| bird    | f    |        1 |
| cat     | f    |        1 |
| cat     | m    |        1 |
| dog     | f    |        1 |
| dog     | m    |        2 |
| hamster | f    |        1 |
| snake   | m    |        1 |
+---------+------+----------+

You need not retrieve an entire table when you use COUNT(). For example, the previous query, when performed just on dogs and cats, looks like this:

mysql> SELECT species, sex, COUNT(*) FROM pet
    -> WHERE species = 'dog' OR species = 'cat'
    -> GROUP BY species, sex;
+---------+------+----------+
| species | sex  | COUNT(*) |
+---------+------+----------+
| cat     | f    |        1 |
| cat     | m    |        1 |
| dog     | f    |        1 |
| dog     | m    |        2 |
+---------+------+----------+

Or, if you wanted the number of animals per sex only for known-sex animals:

mysql> SELECT species, sex, COUNT(*) FROM pet
    -> WHERE sex IS NOT NULL
    -> GROUP BY species, sex;
+---------+------+----------+
| species | sex  | COUNT(*) |
+---------+------+----------+
| bird    | f    |        1 |
| cat     | f    |        1 |
| cat     | m    |        1 |
| dog     | f    |        1 |
| dog     | m    |        2 |
| hamster | f    |        1 |
| snake   | m    |        1 |
+---------+------+----------+

3.3.4.9 Using More Than one Table

The pet table keeps track of which pets you have. If you want to record other information about them, such as events in their lives like visits to the vet or when litters are born, you need another table. What should this table look like? It needs:

Given these considerations, the CREATE TABLE statement for the event table might look like this:

mysql> CREATE TABLE event (name VARCHAR(20), date DATE,
    -> type VARCHAR(15), remark VARCHAR(255));

As with the pet table, it's easiest to load the initial records by creating a tab-delimited text file containing the information:

name date type remark
Fluffy 1995-05-15 litter 4 kittens, 3 female, 1 male
Buffy 1993-06-23 litter 5 puppies, 2 female, 3 male
Buffy 1994-06-19 litter 3 puppies, 3 female
Chirpy 1999-03-21 vet needed beak straightened
Slim 1997-08-03 vet broken rib
Bowser 1991-10-12 kennel
Fang 1991-10-12 kennel
Fang 1998-08-28 birthday Gave him a new chew toy
Claws 1998-03-17 birthday Gave him a new flea collar
Whistler 1998-12-09 birthday First birthday

Load the records like this:

mysql> LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE 'event.txt' INTO TABLE event;

Based on what you've learned from the queries you've run on the pet table, you should be able to perform retrievals on the records in the event table; the principles are the same. But when is the event table by itself insufficient to answer questions you might ask?

Suppose that you want to find out the ages at which each pet had its litters. We saw earlier how to calculate ages from two dates. The litter date of the mother is in the event table, but to calculate her age on that date you need her birth date, which is stored in the pet table. This means the query requires both tables:

mysql> SELECT pet.name,
    -> (YEAR(date)-YEAR(birth)) - (RIGHT(date,5)<RIGHT(birth,5)) AS age,
    -> remark
    -> FROM pet, event
    -> WHERE pet.name = event.name AND type = 'litter';
+--------+------+-----------------------------+
| name   | age  | remark                      |
+--------+------+-----------------------------+
| Fluffy |    2 | 4 kittens, 3 female, 1 male |
| Buffy  |    4 | 5 puppies, 2 female, 3 male |
| Buffy  |    5 | 3 puppies, 3 female         |
+--------+------+-----------------------------+

There are several things to note about this query:

You need not have two different tables to perform a join. Sometimes it is useful to join a table to itself, if you want to compare records in a table to other records in that same table. For example, to find breeding pairs among your pets, you can join the pet table with itself to produce candidate pairs of males and females of like species:

mysql> SELECT p1.name, p1.sex, p2.name, p2.sex, p1.species
    -> FROM pet AS p1, pet AS p2
    -> WHERE p1.species = p2.species AND p1.sex = 'f' AND p2.sex = 'm';
+--------+------+--------+------+---------+
| name   | sex  | name   | sex  | species |
+--------+------+--------+------+---------+
| Fluffy | f    | Claws  | m    | cat     |
| Buffy  | f    | Fang   | m    | dog     |
| Buffy  | f    | Bowser | m    | dog     |
+--------+------+--------+------+---------+

In this query, we specify aliases for the table name in order to refer to the columns and keep straight which instance of the table each column reference is associated with.

3.4 Getting Information About Databases and Tables

What if you forget the name of a database or table, or what the structure of a given table is (for example, what its columns are called)? MySQL addresses this problem through several statements that provide information about the databases and tables it supports.

You have previously seen SHOW DATABASES, which lists the databases managed by the server. To find out which database is currently selected, use the DATABASE() function:

mysql> SELECT DATABASE();
+------------+
| DATABASE() |
+------------+
| menagerie  |
+------------+

If you haven't selected any database yet, the result is NULL (or the empty string before MySQL 4.1.1).

To find out what tables the current database contains (for example, when you're not sure about the name of a table), use this command:

mysql> SHOW TABLES;
+---------------------+
| Tables in menagerie |
+---------------------+
| event               |
| pet                 |
+---------------------+

If you want to find out about the structure of a table, the DESCRIBE command is useful; it displays information about each of a table's columns:

mysql> DESCRIBE pet;
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field   | Type        | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| name    | varchar(20) | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| owner   | varchar(20) | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| species | varchar(20) | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| sex     | char(1)     | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| birth   | date        | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| death   | date        | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+

Field indicates the column name, Type is the data type for the column, NULL indicates whether the column can contain NULL values, Key indicates whether the column is indexed, and Default specifies the column's default value.

If you have indexes on a table, SHOW INDEX FROM tbl_name produces information about them.

3.5 Using mysql in Batch Mode

In the previous sections, you used mysql interactively to enter queries and view the results. You can also run mysql in batch mode. To do this, put the commands you want to run in a file, then tell mysql to read its input from the file:

shell> mysql < batch-file

If you are running mysql under Windows and have some special characters in the file that cause problems, you can do this:

C:\> mysql -e "source batch-file"

If you need to specify connection parameters on the command line, the command might look like this:

shell> mysql -h host -u user -p < batch-file
Enter password: ********

When you use mysql this way, you are creating a script file, then executing the script.

If you want the script to continue even if some of the statements in it produce errors, you should use the --force command-line option.

Why use a script? Here are a few reasons:

The default output format is different (more concise) when you run mysql in batch mode than when you use it interactively. For example, the output of SELECT DISTINCT species FROM pet looks like this when mysql is run interactively:

+---------+
| species |
+---------+
| bird    |
| cat     |
| dog     |
| hamster |
| snake   |
+---------+

In batch mode, the output looks like this instead:

species
bird
cat
dog
hamster
snake

If you want to get the interactive output format in batch mode, use mysql -t. To echo to the output the commands that are executed, use mysql -vvv.

You can also use scripts from the mysql prompt by using the source or \. command:

mysql> source filename;
mysql> \. filename

3.6 Examples of Common Queries

Here are examples of how to solve some common problems with MySQL.

Some of the examples use the table shop to hold the price of each article (item number) for certain traders (dealers). Supposing that each trader has a single fixed price per article, then (article, dealer) is a primary key for the records.

Start the command-line tool mysql and select a database:

shell> mysql your-database-name

(In most MySQL installations, you can use the database name test).

You can create and populate the example table with these statements:

mysql> CREATE TABLE shop (
    -> article INT(4) UNSIGNED ZEROFILL DEFAULT '0000' NOT NULL,
    -> dealer  CHAR(20)                 DEFAULT ''     NOT NULL,
    -> price   DOUBLE(16,2)             DEFAULT '0.00' NOT NULL,
    -> PRIMARY KEY(article, dealer));
mysql> INSERT INTO shop VALUES
    -> (1,'A',3.45),(1,'B',3.99),(2,'A',10.99),(3,'B',1.45),
    -> (3,'C',1.69),(3,'D',1.25),(4,'D',19.95);

After issuing the statements, the table should have the following contents:

mysql> SELECT * FROM shop;
+---------+--------+-------+
| article | dealer | price |
+---------+--------+-------+
|    0001 | A      |  3.45 |
|    0001 | B      |  3.99 |
|    0002 | A      | 10.99 |
|    0003 | B      |  1.45 |
|    0003 | C      |  1.69 |
|    0003 | D      |  1.25 |
|    0004 | D      | 19.95 |
+---------+--------+-------+

3.6.1 The Maximum Value for a Column

``What's the highest item number?''

SELECT MAX(article) AS article FROM shop;

+---------+
| article |
+---------+
|       4 |
+---------+

3.6.2 The Row Holding the Maximum of a Certain Column

``Find number, dealer, and price of the most expensive article.''

In standard SQL (and as of MySQL 4.1), this is easily done with a subquery:

SELECT article, dealer, price
FROM   shop
WHERE  price=(SELECT MAX(price) FROM shop);

In MySQL versions prior to 4.1, just do it in two steps:

  1. Get the maximum price value from the table with a SELECT statement.
    mysql> SELECT MAX(price) FROM shop;
    +------------+
    | MAX(price) |
    +------------+
    |      19.95 |
    +------------+
    
  2. Using the value 19.95 shown by the previous query to be the maximum article price, write a query to locate and display the corresponding record:
    mysql> SELECT article, dealer, price
        -> FROM   shop
        -> WHERE  price=19.95;
    +---------+--------+-------+
    | article | dealer | price |
    +---------+--------+-------+
    |    0004 | D      | 19.95 |
    +---------+--------+-------+
    

Another solution is to sort all rows descending by price and only get the first row using the MySQL-specific LIMIT clause:

SELECT article, dealer, price
FROM   shop
ORDER BY price DESC
LIMIT 1;

Note: If there were several most expensive articles, each with a price of 19.95, the LIMIT solution would show only one of them!

3.6.3 Maximum of Column per Group

``What's the highest price per article?''

SELECT article, MAX(price) AS price
FROM   shop
GROUP BY article

+---------+-------+
| article | price |
+---------+-------+
|    0001 |  3.99 |
|    0002 | 10.99 |
|    0003 |  1.69 |
|    0004 | 19.95 |
+---------+-------+

3.6.4 The Rows Holding the Group-wise Maximum of a Certain Field

``For each article, find the dealer or dealers with the most expensive price.''

In standard SQL (and as of MySQL 4.1), the problem can be solved with a subquery like this:

SELECT article, dealer, price
FROM   shop s1
WHERE  price=(SELECT MAX(s2.price)
              FROM shop s2
              WHERE s1.article = s2.article);

In MySQL versions prior to 4.1, it's best do it in several steps:

  1. Get the list of (article,maxprice) pairs.
  2. For each article, get the corresponding rows that have the stored maximum price.

This can easily be done with a temporary table and a join:

CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE tmp (
        article INT(4) UNSIGNED ZEROFILL DEFAULT '0000' NOT NULL,
        price   DOUBLE(16,2)             DEFAULT '0.00' NOT NULL);

LOCK TABLES shop READ;

INSERT INTO tmp SELECT article, MAX(price) FROM shop GROUP BY article;

SELECT shop.article, dealer, shop.price FROM shop, tmp
WHERE shop.article=tmp.article AND shop.price=tmp.price;

UNLOCK TABLES;

DROP TABLE tmp;

If you don't use a TEMPORARY table, you must also lock the tmp table.

``Can it be done with a single query?''

Yes, but only by using a quite inefficient trick called the ``MAX-CONCAT trick'':

SELECT article,
       SUBSTRING( MAX( CONCAT(LPAD(price,6,'0'),dealer) ), 7) AS dealer,
  0.00+LEFT(      MAX( CONCAT(LPAD(price,6,'0'),dealer) ), 6) AS price
FROM   shop
GROUP BY article;

+---------+--------+-------+
| article | dealer | price |
+---------+--------+-------+
|    0001 | B      |  3.99 |
|    0002 | A      | 10.99 |
|    0003 | C      |  1.69 |
|    0004 | D      | 19.95 |
+---------+--------+-------+

The last example can be made a bit more efficient by doing the splitting of the concatenated column in the client.

3.6.5 Using User Variables

You can use MySQL user variables to remember results without having to store them in temporary variables in the client. See section 9.3 User Variables.

For example, to find the articles with the highest and lowest price you can do this:

mysql> SELECT @min_price:=MIN(price),@max_price:=MAX(price) FROM shop;
mysql> SELECT * FROM shop WHERE price=@min_price OR price=@max_price;
+---------+--------+-------+
| article | dealer | price |
+---------+--------+-------+
|    0003 | D      |  1.25 |
|    0004 | D      | 19.95 |
+---------+--------+-------+

3.6.6 Using Foreign Keys

In MySQL 3.23.44 and up, InnoDB tables support checking of foreign key constraints. See section 15 The InnoDB Storage Engine. See also section 1.5.5.5 Foreign Keys.

You don't actually need foreign keys to join two tables. For table types other than InnoDB, the only things MySQL currently doesn't do are 1) CHECK to make sure that the keys you use really exist in the table or tables you're referencing and 2) automatically delete rows from a table with a foreign key definition. Using your keys to join tables will work just fine:

CREATE TABLE person (
    id SMALLINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
    name CHAR(60) NOT NULL,
    PRIMARY KEY (id)
);

CREATE TABLE shirt (
    id SMALLINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
    style ENUM('t-shirt', 'polo', 'dress') NOT NULL,
    color ENUM('red', 'blue', 'orange', 'white', 'black') NOT NULL,
    owner SMALLINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL REFERENCES person(id),
    PRIMARY KEY (id)
);

INSERT INTO person VALUES (NULL, 'Antonio Paz');

SELECT @last := LAST_INSERT_ID();

INSERT INTO shirt VALUES
(NULL, 'polo', 'blue', @last),
(NULL, 'dress', 'white', @last),
(NULL, 't-shirt', 'blue', @last);

INSERT INTO person VALUES (NULL, 'Lilliana Angelovska');

SELECT @last := LAST_INSERT_ID();

INSERT INTO shirt VALUES
(NULL, 'dress', 'orange', @last),
(NULL, 'polo', 'red', @last),
(NULL, 'dress', 'blue', @last),
(NULL, 't-shirt', 'white', @last);

SELECT * FROM person;
+----+---------------------+
| id | name                |
+----+---------------------+
|  1 | Antonio Paz         |
|  2 | Lilliana Angelovska |
+----+---------------------+

SELECT * FROM shirt;
+----+---------+--------+-------+
| id | style   | color  | owner |
+----+---------+--------+-------+
|  1 | polo    | blue   |     1 |
|  2 | dress   | white  |     1 |
|  3 | t-shirt | blue   |     1 |
|  4 | dress   | orange |     2 |
|  5 | polo    | red    |     2 |
|  6 | dress   | blue   |     2 |
|  7 | t-shirt | white  |     2 |
+----+---------+--------+-------+

SELECT s.* FROM person p, shirt s
 WHERE p.name LIKE 'Lilliana%'
   AND s.owner = p.id
   AND s.color <> 'white';

+----+-------+--------+-------+
| id | style | color  | owner |
+----+-------+--------+-------+
|  4 | dress | orange |     2 |
|  5 | polo  | red    |     2 |
|  6 | dress | blue   |     2 |
+----+-------+--------+-------+

3.6.7 Searching on Two Keys

An OR using a single key is well optimized, as is the handling of AND.

The one tricky case is that of searching on two different keys combined with OR:

SELECT field1_index, field2_index FROM test_table
WHERE field1_index = '1' OR  field2_index = '1'

This case is optimized from MySQL 5.0.0. See section 7.2.6 Index Merge Optimization.

In MySQL 4.0 and up, you can also solve the problem efficiently by using a UNION that combines the output of two separate SELECT statements. See section 13.1.7.2 UNION Syntax.

Each SELECT searches only one key and can be optimized:

SELECT field1_index, field2_index
    FROM test_table WHERE field1_index = '1'
UNION
SELECT field1_index, field2_index
    FROM test_table WHERE field2_index = '1';

Prior to MySQL 4.0, you can achieve the same effect by using a TEMPORARY table and separate SELECT statements. This type of optimization is also very good if you are using very complicated queries where the SQL server does the optimizations in the wrong order.

CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE tmp
SELECT field1_index, field2_index
    FROM test_table WHERE field1_index = '1';
INSERT INTO tmp
SELECT field1_index, field2_index
    FROM test_table WHERE field2_index = '1';
SELECT * from tmp;
DROP TABLE tmp;

This method of solving the problem is in effect a UNION of two queries.

3.6.8 Calculating Visits Per Day

The following example shows how you can use the bit group functions to calculate the number of days per month a user has visited a Web page.

CREATE TABLE t1 (year YEAR(4), month INT(2) UNSIGNED ZEROFILL,
             day INT(2) UNSIGNED ZEROFILL);
INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(2000,1,1),(2000,1,20),(2000,1,30),(2000,2,2),
            (2000,2,23),(2000,2,23);

The example table contains year-month-day values representing visits by users to the page. To determine how many different days in each month these visits occur, use this query:

SELECT year,month,BIT_COUNT(BIT_OR(1<<day)) AS days FROM t1
       GROUP BY year,month;

Which returns:

+------+-------+------+
| year | month | days |
+------+-------+------+
| 2000 |    01 |    3 |
| 2000 |    02 |    2 |
+------+-------+------+

The query calculates how many different days appear in the table for each year/month combination, with automatic removal of duplicate entries.

3.6.9 Using AUTO_INCREMENT

The AUTO_INCREMENT attribute can be used to generate a unique identity for new rows:

CREATE TABLE animals (
             id MEDIUMINT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
             name CHAR(30) NOT NULL,
             PRIMARY KEY (id)
             );
INSERT INTO animals (name) VALUES ('dog'),('cat'),('penguin'),
                                  ('lax'),('whale'),('ostrich');
SELECT * FROM animals;

Which returns:

+----+---------+
| id | name    |
+----+---------+
|  1 | dog     |
|  2 | cat     |
|  3 | penguin |
|  4 | lax     |
|  5 | whale   |
|  6 | ostrich |
+----+---------+

You can retrieve the most recent AUTO_INCREMENT value with the LAST_INSERT_ID() SQL function or the mysql_insert_id() C API function. These functions are connection-specific, so their return value is not affected by another connection also doing inserts.

Note: For a multiple-row insert, LAST_INSERT_ID()/mysql_insert_id() will actually return the AUTO_INCREMENT key from the first of the inserted rows. This allows multiple-row inserts to be reproduced correctly on other servers in a replication setup.

For MyISAM and BDB tables you can specify AUTO_INCREMENT on a secondary column in a multiple-column index. In this case, the generated value for the AUTO_INCREMENT column is calculated as MAX(auto_increment_column)+1 WHERE prefix=given-prefix. This is useful when you want to put data into ordered groups.

CREATE TABLE animals (
             grp ENUM('fish','mammal','bird') NOT NULL,
             id MEDIUMINT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
             name CHAR(30) NOT NULL,
             PRIMARY KEY (grp,id)
             );
INSERT INTO animals (grp,name) VALUES('mammal','dog'),('mammal','cat'),
                  ('bird','penguin'),('fish','lax'),('mammal','whale'),
                  ('bird','ostrich');
SELECT * FROM animals ORDER BY grp,id;

Which returns:

+--------+----+---------+
| grp    | id | name    |
+--------+----+---------+
| fish   |  1 | lax     |
| mammal |  1 | dog     |
| mammal |  2 | cat     |
| mammal |  3 | whale   |
| bird   |  1 | penguin |
| bird   |  2 | ostrich |
+--------+----+---------+

Note that in this case (when the AUTO_INCREMENT column is part of a multiple-column index), AUTO_INCREMENT values will be reused if you delete the row with the biggest AUTO_INCREMENT value in any group. This happens even for MyISAM tables, for which AUTO_INCREMENT values normally are not reused.)

3.7 Queries from the Twin Project

At Analytikerna and Lentus, we have been doing the systems and field work for a big research project. This project is a collaboration between the Institute of Environmental Medicine at Karolinska Institutet Stockholm and the Section on Clinical Research in Aging and Psychology at the University of Southern California.

The project involves a screening part where all twins in Sweden older than 65 years are interviewed by telephone. Twins who meet certain criteria are passed on to the next stage. In this latter stage, twins who want to participate are visited by a doctor/nurse team. Some of the examinations include physical and neuropsychological examination, laboratory testing, neuroimaging, psychological status assessment, and family history collection. In addition, data are collected on medical and environmental risk factors.

More information about Twin studies can be found at: http://www.mep.ki.se/twinreg/index_en.html

The latter part of the project is administered with a Web interface written using Perl and MySQL.

Each night all data from the interviews is moved into a MySQL database.

3.7.1 Find All Non-distributed Twins

The following query is used to determine who goes into the second part of the project:

SELECT
    CONCAT(p1.id, p1.tvab) + 0 AS tvid,
    CONCAT(p1.christian_name, ' ', p1.surname) AS Name,
    p1.postal_code AS Code,
    p1.city AS City,
    pg.abrev AS Area,
    IF(td.participation = 'Aborted', 'A', ' ') AS A,
    p1.dead AS dead1,
    l.event AS event1,
    td.suspect AS tsuspect1,
    id.suspect AS isuspect1,
    td.severe AS tsevere1,
    id.severe AS isevere1,
    p2.dead AS dead2,
    l2.event AS event2,
    h2.nurse AS nurse2,
    h2.doctor AS doctor2,
    td2.suspect AS tsuspect2,
    id2.suspect AS isuspect2,
    td2.severe AS tsevere2,
    id2.severe AS isevere2,
    l.finish_date
FROM
    twin_project AS tp
    /* For Twin 1 */
    LEFT JOIN twin_data AS td ON tp.id = td.id
              AND tp.tvab = td.tvab
    LEFT JOIN informant_data AS id ON tp.id = id.id
              AND tp.tvab = id.tvab
    LEFT JOIN harmony AS h ON tp.id = h.id
              AND tp.tvab = h.tvab
    LEFT JOIN lentus AS l ON tp.id = l.id
              AND tp.tvab = l.tvab
    /* For Twin 2 */
    LEFT JOIN twin_data AS td2 ON p2.id = td2.id
              AND p2.tvab = td2.tvab
    LEFT JOIN informant_data AS id2 ON p2.id = id2.id
              AND p2.tvab = id2.tvab
    LEFT JOIN harmony AS h2 ON p2.id = h2.id
              AND p2.tvab = h2.tvab
    LEFT JOIN lentus AS l2 ON p2.id = l2.id
              AND p2.tvab = l2.tvab,
    person_data AS p1,
    person_data AS p2,
    postal_groups AS pg
WHERE
    /* p1 gets main twin and p2 gets his/her twin. */
    /* ptvab is a field inverted from tvab */
    p1.id = tp.id AND p1.tvab = tp.tvab AND
    p2.id = p1.id AND p2.ptvab = p1.tvab AND
    /* Just the screening survey */
    tp.survey_no = 5 AND
    /* Skip if partner died before 65 but allow emigration (dead=9) */
    (p2.dead = 0 OR p2.dead = 9 OR
     (p2.dead = 1 AND
      (p2.death_date = 0 OR
       (((TO_DAYS(p2.death_date) - TO_DAYS(p2.birthday)) / 365)
        >= 65))))
    AND
    (
    /* Twin is suspect */
    (td.future_contact = 'Yes' AND td.suspect = 2) OR
    /* Twin is suspect - Informant is Blessed */
    (td.future_contact = 'Yes' AND td.suspect = 1
                               AND id.suspect = 1) OR
    /* No twin - Informant is Blessed */
    (ISNULL(td.suspect) AND id.suspect = 1
                        AND id.future_contact = 'Yes') OR
    /* Twin broken off - Informant is Blessed */
    (td.participation = 'Aborted'
     AND id.suspect = 1 AND id.future_contact = 'Yes') OR
    /* Twin broken off - No inform - Have partner */
    (td.participation = 'Aborted' AND ISNULL(id.suspect)
                                  AND p2.dead = 0))
    AND
    l.event = 'Finished'
    /* Get at area code */
    AND SUBSTRING(p1.postal_code, 1, 2) = pg.code
    /* Not already distributed */
    AND (h.nurse IS NULL OR h.nurse=00 OR h.doctor=00)
    /* Has not refused or been aborted */
    AND NOT (h.status = 'Refused' OR h.status = 'Aborted'
    OR h.status = 'Died' OR h.status = 'Other')
ORDER BY
    tvid;

Some explanations:

CONCAT(p1.id, p1.tvab) + 0 AS tvid
We want to sort on the concatenated id and tvab in numerical order. Adding 0 to the result causes MySQL to treat the result as a number.
column id
This identifies a pair of twins. It is a key in all tables.
column tvab
This identifies a twin in a pair. It has a value of 1 or 2.
column ptvab
This is an inverse of tvab. When tvab is 1 this is 2, and vice versa. It exists to save typing and to make it easier for MySQL to optimize the query.

This query demonstrates, among other things, how to do lookups on a table from the same table with a join (p1 and p2). In the example, this is used to check whether a twin's partner died before the age of 65. If so, the row is not returned.

All of the above exist in all tables with twin-related information. We have a key on both id,tvab (all tables), and id,ptvab (person_data) to make queries faster.

On our production machine (A 200MHz UltraSPARC), this query returns about 150-200 rows and takes less than one second.

The current number of records in the tables used in the query:
Table Rows
person_data 71074
lentus 5291
twin_project 5286
twin_data 2012
informant_data 663
harmony 381
postal_groups 100

3.7.2 Show a Table of Twin Pair Status

Each interview ends with a status code called event. The query shown here is used to display a table over all twin pairs combined by event. This indicates in how many pairs both twins are finished, in how many pairs one twin is finished and the other refused, and so on.

SELECT
        t1.event,
        t2.event,
        COUNT(*)
FROM
        lentus AS t1,
        lentus AS t2,
        twin_project AS tp
WHERE
        /* We are looking at one pair at a time */
        t1.id = tp.id
        AND t1.tvab=tp.tvab
        AND t1.id = t2.id
        /* Just the screening survey */
        AND tp.survey_no = 5
        /* This makes each pair only appear once */
        AND t1.tvab='1' AND t2.tvab='2'
GROUP BY
        t1.event, t2.event;

3.8 Using MySQL with Apache

There are programs that let you authenticate your users from a MySQL database and also let you write your log files into a MySQL table.

You can change the Apache logging format to be easily readable by MySQL by putting the following into the Apache configuration file:

LogFormat \
        "\"%h\",%{%Y%m%d%H%M%S}t,%>s,\"%b\",\"%{Content-Type}o\",  \
        \"%U\",\"%{Referer}i\",\"%{User-Agent}i\""

To load a log file in that format into MySQL, you can use a statement something like this:

LOAD DATA INFILE '/local/access_log' INTO TABLE tbl_name
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ',' OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY '"' ESCAPED BY '\\'

The named table should be created to have columns that correspond to those that the LogFormat line writes to the log file.

4 Using MySQL Programs

This chapter provides a brief overview of the programs provided by MySQL AB and discusses how to specify options when you run these programs. Most programs have options that are specific to their own operation, but the syntax for specifying options is similar for all of them. Later chapters provide more detailed descriptions of individual programs, including which options they recognize.

4.1 Overview of MySQL Programs

MySQL AB provides several types of programs:

The MYSQL server and server startup scripts:
These programs are discussed further in section 5 Database Administration.
Client programs that access the server:
These programs are discussed further in section 8 MySQL Client and Utility Programs.
Utility programs that operate independently of the server:
myisamchk is discussed further in section 5 Database Administration. The other programs are further in section 8 MySQL Client and Utility Programs.

Most MySQL distributions include all of these programs, except for those programs that are platform-specific. (For example, the server startup scripts are not used on Windows.) The exception is that RPM distributions are more specialized. There is one RPM for the server, another for the client programs, and so forth. If you appear to be missing one or more programs, see section 2 Installing MySQL for information on types of distributions and what they contain. It may be that you need to install something else.

4.2 Invoking MySQL Programs

To invoke a MySQL program at the command line (that is, from your shell or command prompt), enter the program name followed by any options or other arguments needed to instruct the program what you want it to do. The following commands show some sample program invocations. ``shell>'' represents the prompt for your command interpreter; it is not part of what you type. The particular prompt you will see depends on your command interpreter. Typical prompts are $ for sh or bash, % for csh or tcsh, and C:\> for Windows command.com or cmd.exe.

shell> mysql test
shell> mysqladmin extended-status variables
shell> mysqlshow --help
shell> mysqldump --user=root personnel

Arguments that begin with a dash are option arguments. They typically specify the type of connection a program should make to the server or affect its operational mode. Options have a syntax that is described in section 4.3 Specifying Program Options.

Non-option arguments (arguments with no leading dash) provide additional information to the program. For example, the mysql program interprets the first non-option argument as a database name, so the command mysql test indicates that you want to use the test database.

Later sections that describe individual programs indicate which options a program understands and describe the meaning of any additional non-option arguments.

Some options are common to a number of programs. The most common of these are the --host, --user, and --password options that specify connection parameters. They indicate the host where the MySQL server is running, and the username and password of your MySQL account. All MySQL client programs understand these options; they allow you to specify which server to connect to and the account to use on that server.

You may find it necessary to invoke MySQL programs using the pathname to the `bin' directory in which they are installed. This is likely to be the case if you get a ``program not found'' error whenever you attempt to run a MySQL program from any directory other than the `bin' directory. To make it more convenient to use MySQL, you can add the pathname of the `bin' directory to your PATH environment variable setting. Then to run a program you need only type its name, not its entire pathname.

Consult the documentation for your command interpreter for instructions on setting your PATH. The syntax for setting environment variables is interpreter-specific.

4.3 Specifying Program Options

You can provide options for MySQL programs in several ways:

MySQL programs determine which options are given first by examining environment variables, then option files, and then the command line. If an option is specified multiple times, the last occurrence takes precedence. This means that environment variables have the lowest precedence and command-line options the highest.

You can take advantage of the way that MySQL programs process options by specifying the default values for a program's options in an option file. Then you need not type them each time you run the program, but can override the defaults if necessary by using command-line options.

4.3.1 Using Options on the Command Line

Program options specified on the command line follow these rules:

MySQL 4.0 introduced some additional flexibility in the way you specify options. These changes were made in MySQL 4.0.2. Some of them relate to the way you specify options that have ``enabled'' and ``disabled'' states, and to the use of options that might be present in one version of MySQL but not another. Those capabilities are discussed in this section. Another change pertains to the way you use options to set program variables. section 4.3.4 Using Options to Set Program Variables discusses that topic further.

Some options control behavior that can be turned on or off. For example, the mysql client supports a --column-names option that determines whether or not to display a row of column names at the beginning of query results. By default, this option is enabled. However, you may want to disable it in some instances, such as when sending the output of mysql into another program that expects to see only data and not an initial header line.

To disable column names, you can specify the option using any of these forms:

--disable-column-names
--skip-column-names
--column-names=0

The --disable and --skip prefixes and the =0 suffix all have the same effect: They turn the option off.

The ``enabled'' form of the option may be specified in any of these ways:

--column-names
--enable-column-names
--column-names=1

Another change to option processing introduced in MySQL 4.0 is that you can use the --loose prefix for command-line options. If an option is prefixed by --loose, the program will not exit with an error if it does not recognize the option, but instead will issue only a warning:

shell> mysql --loose-no-such-option
mysql: WARNING: unknown option '--no-such-option'

The --loose prefix can be useful when you run programs from multiple installations of MySQL on the same machine, at least if all the versions are as recent as 4.0.2. This prefix is particularly useful when you list options in an option file. An option that may not be recognized by all versions of a program can be given using the --loose prefix (or loose in an option file). Versions of the program that do not recognize the option will issue a warning and ignore it. This strategy requires that versions involved be 4.0.2 or later, because earlier versions know nothing of the --loose convention.

4.3.2 Using Option Files

MySQL programs can read startup options from option files (also sometimes called configuration files). Option files provide a convenient way to specify commonly used options so that they need not be entered on the command line each time you run a program. Option file capability is available from MySQL 3.22 on.

The following programs support option files: myisamchk, myisampack, mysql, mysql.server, mysqladmin, mysqlbinlog, mysqlcc, mysqlcheck, mysqld_safe, mysqldump, mysqld, mysqlhotcopy, mysqlimport, and mysqlshow.

On Windows, MySQL programs read startup options from the following files:

Filename Purpose
WINDIR\my.ini Global options
C:\my.cnf Global options

WINDIR represents the location of your Windows directory. This is commonly `C:\Windows' or `C:\WinNT'. You can determine its exact location from the value of the WINDIR environment variable using the following command:

C:\> echo %WINDIR%

On Unix, MySQL programs read startup options from the following files:

Filename Purpose
/etc/my.cnf Global options
DATADIR/my.cnf Server-specific options
defaults-extra-file The file specified with --defaults-extra-file=path, if any
~/.my.cnf User-specific options

DATADIR represents the location of the MySQL data directory. Typically this is `/usr/local/mysql/data' for a binary installation or `/usr/local/var' for a source installation. Note that this is the data directory location that was specified at configuration time, not the one specified with --datadir when mysqld starts. Use of --datadir at runtime has no effect on where the server looks for option files, because it looks for them before processing any command-line arguments.

MySQL looks for option files in the order just described and reads any that exist. If an option file that you want to use does not exist, create it with a plain text editor. If multiple option files exist, an option specified in a file read later takes precedence over the same option specified in a file read earlier.

Any long option that may be given on the command line when running a MySQL program can be given in an option file as well. To get the list of available options for a program, run it with the --help option.

The syntax for specifying options in an option file is similar to command-line syntax, except that you omit the leading two dashes. For example, --quick or --host=localhost on the command line should be specified as quick or host=localhost in an option file. To specify an option of the form --loose-opt_name in an option file, write it as loose-opt_name.

Empty lines in option files are ignored. Non-empty lines can take any of the following forms:

#comment
;comment
Comment lines start with `#' or `;'. As of MySQL 4.0.14, a `#'-comment can start in the middle of a line as well.
[group]
group is the name of the program or group for which you want to set options. After a group line, any opt_name or set-variable lines apply to the named group until the end of the option file or another group line is given.
opt_name
This is equivalent to --opt_name on the command line.
opt_name=value
This is equivalent to --opt_name=value on the command line. In an option file, you can have spaces around the `=' character, something that is not true on the command line. As of MySQL 4.0.16, you can quote the value with double quotes or single quotes. This is useful if the value contains a `#' comment character or whitespace.
set-variable = var_name=value
Set the program variable var_name to the given value. This is equivalent to --set-variable=var_name=value on the command line. Spaces are allowed around the first `=' character but not around the second. This syntax is deprecated as of MySQL 4.0. See section 4.3.4 Using Options to Set Program Variables for more information on setting program variables.

Leading and trailing blanks are automatically deleted from option names and values. You may use the escape sequences `\b', `\t', `\n', `\r', `\\', and `\s' in option values to represent the backspace, tab, newline, carriage return, and space characters.

On Windows, if an option value represents a pathname, you should specify the value using `/' rather than `\' as the pathname separator. If you use `\', you must double it as `\\', because `\' is the escape character in MySQL.

If an option group name is the same as a program name, options in the group apply specifically to that program.

The [client] option group is read by all client programs (but not by mysqld). This allows you to specify options that apply to every client. For example, [client] is the perfect group to use to specify the password that you use to connect to the server. (But make sure that the option file is readable and writable only by yourself, so that other people cannot find out your password.) Be sure not to put an option in the [client] group unless it is recognized by all client programs that you use. Programs that do not understand the option will quit after displaying an error message if you try to run them.

As of MySQL 4.0.14, if you want to create option groups that should be read only by one specific mysqld server release series, you can do this by using groups with names of [mysqld-4.0], [mysqld-4.1], and so forth. The following group indicates that the --new option should be used only by MySQL servers with 4.0.x version numbers:

[mysqld-4.0]
new

Here is a typical global option file:

[client]
port=3306
socket=/tmp/mysql.sock

[mysqld]
port=3306
socket=/tmp/mysql.sock
key_buffer_size=16M
max_allowed_packet=8M

[mysqldump]
quick

The preceding option file uses var_name=value syntax for the lines that set the key_buffer_size and max_allowed_packet variables. Prior to MySQL 4.0.2, you would need to use set-variable syntax instead (described earlier in this section).

Here is a typical user option file:

[client]
# The following password will be sent to all standard MySQL clients
password="my_password"

[mysql]
no-auto-rehash
set-variable = connect_timeout=2

[mysqlhotcopy]
interactive-timeout

This option file uses set-variable syntax to set the connect_timeout variable. For MySQL 4.0.2 and up, you can also set the variable using just connect_timeout=2.

If you have a source distribution, you will find sample option files named `my-xxxx.cnf' in the `support-files' directory. If you have a binary distribution, look in the `support-files' directory under your MySQL installation directory (typically `C:\mysql' on Windows or `/usr/local/mysql' on Unix). On Windows the sample option files may also be located in the MySQL installation directory. Currently there are sample option files for small, medium, large, and very large systems. To experiment with one of these files, copy it to `C:\my.cnf' on Windows or to `.my.cnf' in your home directory on Unix.

Note: On Windows, the `.cnf' option file extension might not be displayed.

All MySQL programs that support option files handle the following command-line options:

--no-defaults
Don't read any option files.
--print-defaults
Print the program name and all options that it will get from option files.
--defaults-file=path_name
Use only the given option file. path_name is the full pathname to the file.
--defaults-extra-file=path_name
Read this option file after the global option file but before the user option file. path_name is the full pathname to the file.

To work properly, each of these options must immediately follow the command name on the command line, with the exception that --print-defaults may be used immediately after --defaults-file or --defaults-extra-file.

In shell scripts, you can use the my_print_defaults program to parse option files. The following example shows the output that my_print_defaults might produce when asked to show the options found in the [client] and [mysql] groups:

shell> my_print_defaults client mysql
--port=3306
--socket=/tmp/mysql.sock
--no-auto-rehash

Note for developers: Option file handling is implemented in the C client library simply by processing all matching options (that is, options in the appropriate group) before any command-line arguments. This works nicely for programs that use the last instance of an option that is specified multiple times. If you have a C or C++ program that handles multiply specified options this way but doesn't read option files, you need add only two lines to give it that capability. Check the source code of any of the standard MySQL clients to see how to do this.

Several other language interfaces to MySQL are based on the C client library, and some of them provide a way to access option file contents. These include Perl and Python. See the documentation for your preferred interface for details.

4.3.3 Using Environment Variables to Specify Options

To specify an option using an environment variable, set the variable using the syntax appropriate for your comment processor. For example, on Windows or NetWare, you can set the USER variable to specify your MySQL account name. To do so, use this syntax:

SET USER=your_name

The syntax on Unix depends on your shell. Suppose that you want to specify the TCP/IP port number using the MYSQL_TCP_PORT variable. The syntax for Bourne shell and variants (sh, bash, zsh, etc.) is:

MYSQL_TCP_PORT=3306

For csh and tcsh, use this syntax:

setenv MYSQL_TCP_PORT 3306

The commands to set environment variables can be executed at your command prompt to take effect immediately. These settings persist until you log out. To have the settings take effect each time you log in, place the appropriate command or commands in a startup file that your command interpreter reads each time it starts. Typical startup files are `AUTOEXEC.BAT' for Windows, `.bash_profile' for bash, or `.tcshrc' for tcsh. Consult the documentation for your command interpreter for specific details.

section F Environment Variables lists all environment variables that affect MySQL program operation.

4.3.4 Using Options to Set Program Variables

Many MySQL programs have internal variables that can be set at runtime. As of MySQL 4.0.2, program variables are set the same way as any other long option that takes a value. For example, mysql has a max_allowed_packet variable that controls the maximum size of its communication buffer. To set the max_allowed_packet variable for mysql to a value of 16MB, use either of the following commands:

shell> mysql --max_allowed_packet=16777216
shell> mysql --max_allowed_packet=16M

The first command specifies the value in bytes. The second specifies the value in megabytes. Variable values can have a suffix of K, M, or G (either uppercase or lowercase) to indicate units of kilobytes, megabytes, or gigabytes.

In an option file, the variable setting is given without the leading dashes:

[mysql]
max_allowed_packet=16777216

Or:

[mysql]
max_allowed_packet=16M

If you like, underscores in a variable name can be specified as dashes.

Prior to MySQL 4.0.2, program variable names are not recognized as option names. Instead, use the --set-variable option to assign a value to a variable:

shell> mysql --set-variable=max_allowed_packet=16777216
shell> mysql --set-variable=max_allowed_packet=16M

In an option file, omit the leading dashes:

[mysql]
set-variable = max_allowed_packet=16777216

Or:

[mysql]
set-variable = max_allowed_packet=16M

With --set-variable, underscores in variable names cannot be given as dashes for versions of MySQL older than 4.0.2.

The --set-variable option is still recognized in MySQL 4.0.2 and up, but is deprecated.

Some server variables can be set at runtime. For details, see section 5.2.3.1 Dynamic System Variables.

5 Database Administration

This chapter covers topics that deal with administering a MySQL installation, such as configuring the server, managing user accounts, and performing backups.

5.1 The MySQL Server and Server Startup Scripts

The MySQL server, mysqld, is the main program that does most of the work in a MySQL installation. The server is accompanied by several related scripts that perform setup operations when you install MySQL or that are helper programs to assist you in starting and stopping the server.

This section provides an overview of the server and related programs, and information about server startup scripts. Information about configuring the server itself is given in section 5.2 Configuring the MySQL Server.

5.1.1 Overview of the Server-Side Scripts and Utilities

All MySQL programs take many different options. However, every MySQL program provides a --help option that you can use to get a description of the program's options. For example, try mysqld --help.

You can override default options for all standard programs by specifying options on the command line or in an option file. section 4.3 Specifying Program Options.

The following list briefly describes the MySQL server and server-related programs:

mysqld
The SQL daemon (that is, the MySQL server). To use client programs, this program must be running, because clients gain access to databases by connecting to the server. See section 5.2 Configuring the MySQL Server.
mysqld-max
A version of the server that includes additional features. See section 5.1.2 The mysqld-max Extended MySQL Server.
mysqld_safe
A server startup script. mysqld_safe attempts to start mysqld-max if it exists, and mysqld otherwise. See section 5.1.3 The mysqld_safe Server Startup Script.
mysql.server
A server startup script. This script is used on systems that use run directories containing scripts that start system services for particular run levels. It invokes mysqld_safe to start the MySQL server. See section 5.1.4 The mysql.server Server Startup Script.
mysqld_multi
A server startup script that can start or stop multiple servers installed on the system. See section 5.1.5 The mysqld_multi Program for Managing Multiple MySQL Servers.
mysql_install_db
This script creates the MySQL grant tables with default privileges. It is usually executed only once, when first installing MySQL on a system.
mysql_fix_privilege_tables
This script is used after an upgrade install operation, to update the grant tables with any changes that have been made in newer versions of MySQL.

There are several other programs that also are run on the server host:

myisamchk
A utility to describe, check, optimize, and repair MyISAM tables. myisamchk is described in section 5.7.3 Table Maintenance and Crash Recovery.
make_binary_distribution
This program makes a binary release of a compiled MySQL. This could be sent by FTP to `/pub/mysql/upload/' on ftp.mysql.com for the convenience of other MySQL users.
mysqlbug
The MySQL bug reporting script. It can be used to send a bug report to the MySQL mailing list. (You can also visit http://bugs.mysql.com/ to file a bug report online.)

5.1.2 The mysqld-max Extended MySQL Server

A MySQL-Max server is a version of the mysqld MySQL server that has been built to include additional features.

The distribution to use depends on your platform:

You can find the MySQL-Max binaries on the MySQL AB Web site at http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mysql-4.0.html.

MySQL AB builds the MySQL-Max servers by using the following configure options:

--with-server-suffix=-max
This option adds a -max suffix to the mysqld version string.
--with-innodb
This option enables support for the InnoDB storage engine. MySQL-Max servers always include InnoDB support, but this option actually is needed only for MySQL 3.23. From MySQL 4 on, InnoDB is included by default in binary distributions, so you do not need a MySQL-Max server to obtain InnoDB support.
--with-bdb
This option enables support for the Berkeley DB (BDB) storage engine.
USE_SYMDIR
This define is enabled to turn on database symbolic link support for Windows. (This applies only before MySQL 4.0. As of MySQL 4.0, symbolic link support is available for all Windows servers, so a Max server is not needed to take advantage of this feature.)

MySQL-Max binary distributions are a convenience for those who wish to install precompiled programs. If you build MySQL using a source distribution, you can build your own Max-like server by enabling the same features at configuration time that the MySQL-Max binary distributions are built with.

MySQL-Max servers include the BerkeleyDB (BDB) storage engine whenever possible, but not all platforms support BDB. The following table shows which platforms allow MySQL-Max binaries to include BDB:

System BDB Support
AIX 4.3 N
HP-UX 11.0 N
Linux-Alpha N
Linux-IA-64 N
Linux-Intel Y
Mac OS X N
NetWare N
SCO OSR5 Y
Solaris-Intel N
Solaris-SPARC Y
UnixWare Y
Windows/NT Y

To find out which storage engines your server supports, issue the following statement:

mysql> SHOW ENGINES;

Before MySQL 4.1.2, SHOW ENGINES is unavailable. Use the following statement instead and check the value of the variable for the storage engine in which you are interested:

mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'have_%';
+------------------+----------+
| Variable_name    | Value    |
+------------------+----------+
| have_bdb         | NO       |
| have_crypt       | YES      |
| have_innodb      | YES      |
| have_isam        | NO       |
| have_raid        | NO       |
| have_symlink     | DISABLED |
| have_openssl     | NO       |
| have_query_cache | YES      |
+------------------+----------+

The values in the second column indicate the server's level of support for each feature:

Value Meaning
YES The feature is supported and is active.
NO The feature is not supported.
DISABLED The feature is supported but has been disabled.

A value of NO means that the server was compiled without support for the feature, so it cannot be activated at runtime.

A value of DISABLED occurs either because the server was started with an option that disables the feature, or because not all options required to enable it were given. In the latter case, the host_name.err error log file should contain a reason indicating why the option is disabled.

One situation in which you might see DISABLED occurs with MySQL 3.23 when the InnoDB storage engine is compiled in. In MySQL 3.23, you must supply at least the innodb_data_file_path option at runtime to set up the InnoDB tablespace. Without this option, InnoDB disables itself. See section 15.3 InnoDB in MySQL 3.23. You can specify configuration options for the BDB storage engine, too, but BDB will not disable itself if you do not provide them. See section 14.4.3 BDB Startup Options.

You might also see DISABLED for the InnoDB, BDB, or ISAM storage engines if the server was compiled to support them, but was started with the --skip-innodb, --skip-bdb, or --skip-isam options at runtime.

As of Version 3.23, all MySQL servers support MyISAM tables, because MyISAM is the default storage engine.

5.1.3 The mysqld_safe Server Startup Script

mysqld_safe is the recommended way to start a mysqld server on Unix and NetWare. mysqld_safe adds some safety features such as restarting the server when an error occurs and logging runtime information to an error log file. NetWare-specific behaviors are listed later in this section.

Note: Before MySQL 4.0, mysqld_safe is named safe_mysqld. To preserve backward compatibility, MySQL binary distributions for some time will include safe_mysqld as a symbolic link to mysqld_safe.

By default, mysqld_safe tries to start an executable named mysqld-max if it exists, or mysqld otherwise. Be aware of the implications of this behavior:

To override the default behavior and specify explicitly which server you want to run, specify a --mysqld or --mysqld-version option to mysqld_safe.

Many of the options to mysqld_safe are the same as the options to mysqld. See section 5.2.1 mysqld Command-Line Options.

All options specified to mysqld_safe on the command line are passed to mysqld. If you want to use any options that are specific to mysqld_safe and that mysqld doesn't support, do not specify them on the command line. Instead, list them in the [mysqld_safe] group of an option file. See section 4.3.2 Using Option Files.

mysqld_safe reads all options from the [mysqld], [server], and [mysqld_safe] sections in option files. For backward compatibility, it also reads [safe_mysqld] sections, although you should rename such sections to [mysqld_safe] when you begin using MySQL 4.0 or later.

mysqld_safe supports the following options:

--help
Display a help message and exit. (New in 5.0.3)
--basedir=path
The path to the MySQL installation directory.
--core-file-size=size
The size of the core file mysqld should be able to create. The option value is passed to ulimit -c.
--datadir=path
The path to the data directory.
--defaults-extra-file=path
The name of an option file to be read in addition to the usual option files.
--defaults-file=path
The name of an option file to be read instead of the usual option files.
--err-log=path
The old form of the --log-error option, to be used before MySQL 4.0.
--ledir=path
The path to the directory containing the mysqld program. Use this option to explicitly indicate the location of the server.
--log-error=path
Write the error log to the given file. See section 5.9.1 The Error Log.
--mysqld=prog_name
The name of the server program (in the ledir directory) that you want to start. This option is needed if you use the MySQL binary distribution but have the data directory outside of the binary distribution.
--mysqld-version=suffix
This option is similar to the --mysqld option, but you specify only the suffix for the server program name. The basename is assumed to be mysqld. For example, if you use --mysqld-version=max, mysqld_safe will start the mysqld-max program in the ledir directory. If the argument to --mysqld-version is empty, mysqld_safe uses mysqld in the ledir directory.
--nice=priority
Use the nice program to set the server's scheduling priority to the given value. This option was added in MySQL 4.0.14.
--no-defaults
Do not read any option files.
--open-files-limit=count
The number of files mysqld should be able to open. The option value is passed to ulimit -n. Note that you need to start mysqld_safe as root for this to work properly!
--pid-file=path
The path to the process ID file.
--port=port_num
The port number to use when listening for TCP/IP connections.
--socket=path
The Unix socket file to use for local connections.
--timezone=zone
Set the TZ time zone environment variable to the given option value. Consult your operating system documentation for legal time zone specification formats.
--user={user_name | user_id}
Run the mysqld server as the user having the name user_name or the numeric user ID user_id. (``User'' in this context refers to a system login account, not a MySQL user listed in the grant tables.)

The mysqld_safe script is written so that it normally can start a server that was installed from either a source or a binary distribution of MySQL, even though these types of distributions typically install the server in slightly different locations. (See section 2.1.5 Installation Layouts.) mysqld_safe expects one of the following conditions to be true:

Because mysqld_safe will try to find the server and databases relative to its own working directory, you can install a binary distribution of MySQL anywhere, as long as you run mysqld_safe from the MySQL installation directory:

shell> cd mysql_installation_directory
shell> bin/mysqld_safe &

If mysqld_safe fails, even when invoked from the MySQL installation directory, you can specify the --ledir and --datadir options to indicate the directories in which the server and databases are located on your system.

Normally, you should not edit the mysqld_safe script. Instead, configure mysqld_safe by using command-line options or options in the [mysqld_safe] section of a `my.cnf' option file. In rare cases, it might be necessary to edit mysqld_safe to get it to start the server properly. However, if you do this, your modified version of mysqld_safe might be overwritten if you upgrade MySQL in the future, so you should make a copy of your edited version that you can reinstall.

On NetWare, mysqld_safe is a NetWare Loadable Module (NLM) that is ported from the original Unix shell script. It does the following:

  1. Runs a number of system and option checks.
  2. Runs a check on MyISAM and ISAM tables.
  3. Provides a screen presence for the MySQL server.
  4. Starts mysqld, monitors it, and restarts it if it terminates in error.
  5. Sends error messages from mysqld to the `host_name.err' file in the data directory.
  6. Sends mysqld_safe screen output to the `host_name.safe' file in the data directory.

5.1.4 The mysql.server Server Startup Script

MySQL distributions on Unix include a script named mysql.server. It can be used on systems such as Linux and Solaris that use System V-style run directories to start and stop system services. It is also used by the Mac OS X Startup Item for MySQL.

mysql.server can be found in the `support-files' directory under your MySQL installation directory or in a MySQL source tree.

If you use the Linux server RPM package (MySQL-server-VERSION.rpm), the mysql.server script will have been installed in the `/etc/init.d' directory with the name `mysql'. You need not install it manually. See section 2.4 Installing MySQL on Linux for more information on the Linux RPM packages.

Some vendors provide RPM packages that install a startup script under a different name such as mysqld.

If you install MySQL from a source distribution or using a binary distribution format that does not install mysql.server automatically, you can install it manually. Instructions are provided in section 2.9.2.2 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically.

mysql.server reads options from the [mysql.server] and [mysqld] sections of option files. (For backward compatibility, it also reads [mysql_server] sections, although you should rename such sections to [mysql.server] when you begin using MySQL 4.0 or later.)

5.1.5 The mysqld_multi Program for Managing Multiple MySQL Servers

mysqld_multi is meant for managing several mysqld processes that listen for connections on different Unix socket files and TCP/IP ports. It can start or stop servers, or report their current status.

The program searches for groups named [mysqld#] in `my.cnf' (or in the file named by the --config-file option). # can be any positive integer. This number is referred to in the following discussion as the option group number, or GNR. Group numbers distinguish option groups from one another and are used as arguments to mysqld_multi to specify which servers you want to start, stop, or obtain a status report for. Options listed in these groups are the same that you would use in the [mysqld] group used for starting mysqld. (See, for example, section 2.9.2.2 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically.) However, when using multiple servers it is necessary that each one use its own value for options such as the Unix socket file and TCP/IP port number. For more information on which options must be unique per server in a multiple-server environment, see section 5.10 Running Multiple MySQL Servers on the Same Machine.

To invoke mysqld_multi, use the following syntax:

shell> mysqld_multi [options] {start|stop|report} [GNR[,GNR]...]

start, stop, and report indicate which operation you want to perform. You can perform the designated operation on a single server or multiple servers, depending on the GNR list that follows the option name. If there is no list, mysqld_multi performs the operation for all servers in the option file.

Each GNR value represents an option group number or range of group numbers. The value should be the number at the end of the group name in the option file. For example, the GNR for a group named [mysqld17] is 17. To specify a range of numbers, separate the first and last numbers by a dash. The GNR value 10-13 represents groups [mysqld10] through [mysqld13]. Multiple groups or group ranges can be specified on the command line, separated by commas. There must be no whitespace characters (spaces or tabs) in the GNR list; anything after a whitespace character is ignored.

This command starts a single server using option group [mysqld17]:

shell> mysqld_multi start 17

This command stops several servers, using option groups [mysql8] and [mysqld10] through [mysqld13]:

shell> mysqld_multi stop 8,10-13

For an example of how you might set up an option file, use this command:

shell> mysqld_multi --example

mysqld_multi supports the following options:

--config-file=name
Specify the name of an alternative option file. This affects where mysqld_multi looks for [mysqld#] option groups. Without this option, all options are read from the usual `my.cnf' file. The option does not affect where mysqld_multi reads its own options, which are always taken from the [mysqld_multi] group in the usual `my.cnf' file.
--example
Display a sample option file.
--help
Display a help message and exit.
--log=name
Specify the name of the log file. If the file exists, log output is appended to it.
--mysqladmin=prog_name
The mysqladmin binary to be used to stop servers.
--mysqld=prog_name
The mysqld binary to be used. Note that you can specify mysqld_safe as the value for this option also. The options are passed to mysqld. Just make sure that you have the directory where mysqld is located in your PATH environment variable setting or fix mysqld_safe.
--no-log
Print log information to stdout rather than to the log file. By default, output goes to the log file.
--password=password
The password of the MySQL account to use when invoking mysqladmin. Note that the password value is not optional for this option, unlike for other MySQL programs.
--silent
Disable warnings. This option was added in MySQL 4.1.6.
--tcp-ip
Connect to each MySQL server via the TCP/IP port instead of the Unix socket file. (If a socket file is missing, the server might still be running, but accessible only via the TCP/IP port.) By default, connections are made using the Unix socket file. This option affects stop and report operations.
--user=user_name
The username of the MySQL account to use when invoking mysqladmin.
--verbose
Be more verbose. This option was added in MySQL 4.1.6.
--version
Display version information and exit.

Some notes about mysqld_multi:

The following example shows how you might set up an option file for use with mysqld_multi. The first and fifth [mysqld#] group were intentionally left out from the example to illustrate that you can have ``gaps'' in the option file. This gives you more flexibility. The order in which the mysqld programs are started or stopped depends on the order in which they appear in the option file.

# This file should probably be in your home dir (~/.my.cnf)
# or /etc/my.cnf
# Version 2.1 by Jani Tolonen

[mysqld_multi]
mysqld     = /usr/local/bin/mysqld_safe
mysqladmin = /usr/local/bin/mysqladmin
user       = multi_admin
password   = multipass

[mysqld2]
socket     = /tmp/mysql.sock2
port       = 3307
pid-file   = /usr/local/mysql/var2/hostname.pid2
datadir    = /usr/local/mysql/var2
language   = /usr/local/share/mysql/english
user       = john

[mysqld3]
socket     = /tmp/mysql.sock3
port       = 3308
pid-file   = /usr/local/mysql/var3/hostname.pid3
datadir    = /usr/local/mysql/var3
language   = /usr/local/share/mysql/swedish
user       = monty

[mysqld4]
socket     = /tmp/mysql.sock4
port       = 3309
pid-file   = /usr/local/mysql/var4/hostname.pid4
datadir    = /usr/local/mysql/var4
language   = /usr/local/share/mysql/estonia
user       = tonu

[mysqld6]
socket     = /tmp/mysql.sock6
port       = 3311
pid-file   = /usr/local/mysql/var6/hostname.pid6
datadir    = /usr/local/mysql/var6
language   = /usr/local/share/mysql/japanese
user       = jani

See section 4.3.2 Using Option Files.

5.2 Configuring the MySQL Server

This section discusses MySQL server configuration topics:

5.2.1 mysqld Command-Line Options

When you start the mysqld server, you can specify program options using any of the methods described in section 4.3 Specifying Program Options. The most common methods are to provide options in an option file or on the command line. However, in most cases it is desirable to make sure that the server uses the same options each time it runs. The best way to ensure this is to list them in an option file. See section 4.3.2 Using Option Files.

mysqld reads options from the [mysqld] and [server] groups. mysqld_safe reads options from the [mysqld], [server], [mysqld_safe], and [safe_mysqld] groups. mysql.server reads options from the [mysqld] and [mysql.server] groups. An embedded MySQL server usually reads options from the [server], [embedded], and [xxxxx_SERVER] groups, where xxxxx is the name of the application into which the server is embedded.

mysqld accepts many command-line options. For a list, execute mysqld --help. Before MySQL 4.1.1, --help prints the full help message. As of 4.1.1, it prints a brief message; to see the full list, use mysqld --verbose --help.

The following list shows some of the most common server options. Additional options are described elsewhere:

You can also set the value of a server system variable by using the variable name as an option, as described later in this section.

--help, -?
Display a short help message and exit. Before MySQL 4.1.1, --help displays the full help message. As of 4.1.1, it displays an abbreviated message only. Use both the --verbose and --help options to see the full message.
--ansi
Use standard SQL syntax instead of MySQL syntax. See section 1.5.3 Running MySQL in ANSI Mode. For more precise control over the server SQL mode, use the --sql-mode option instead.
--basedir=path, -b path
The path to the MySQL installation directory. All paths are usually resolved relative to this.
--big-tables
Allow large result sets by saving all temporary sets in files. This option prevents most ``table full'' errors, but also slows down queries for which in-memory tables would suffice. Since MySQL 3.23.2, the server is able to handle large result sets automatically by using memory for small temporary tables and switching to disk tables where necessary.
--bind-address=IP
The IP address to bind to.
--console
Write the error log messages to stderr/stdout even if --log-error is specified. On Windows, mysqld will not close the console screen if this option is used.
--character-sets-dir=path
The directory where character sets are installed. See section 5.8.1 The Character Set Used for Data and Sorting.
--chroot=path
Put the mysqld server in a closed environment during startup by using the chroot() system call. This is a recommended security measure as of MySQL 4.0. (MySQL 3.23 is not able to provide a chroot() jail that is 100% closed.) Note that use of this option somewhat limits LOAD DATA INFILE and SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE.
--character-set-server=charset
Use charset as the default server character set. This option is available as of MySQL 4.1.3. See section 5.8.1 The Character Set Used for Data and Sorting.
--core-file
Write a core file if mysqld dies. For some systems, you must also specify the --core-file-size option to mysqld_safe. See section 5.1.3 The mysqld_safe Server Startup Script. Note that on some systems, such as Solaris, you will not get a core file if you are also using the --user option.
--collation-server=collation
Use collation as the default server collation. This option is available as of MySQL 4.1.3. See section 5.8.1 The Character Set Used for Data and Sorting.
--datadir=path, -h path
The path to the data directory.
--debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]
If MySQL is configured with --with-debug, you can use this option to get a trace file of what mysqld is doing. The debug_options string often is 'd:t:o,file_name'. See section E.1.2 Creating Trace Files.
--default-character-set=charset
Use charset as the default character set. This option is deprecated in favor of --character-set-server as of MySQL 4.1.3. See section 5.8.1 The Character Set Used for Data and Sorting.
--default-collation=collation
Use collation as the default collation. This option is deprecated in favor of --collation-server as of MySQL 4.1.3. See section 5.8.1 The Character Set Used for Data and Sorting.
--default-storage-engine=type
This option is a synonym for --default-table-type. It is available as of MySQL 4.1.2.
--default-table-type=type
Set the default table type for tables. See section 14 MySQL Storage Engines and Table Types.
--default-time-zone=type
Set the default server time zone. This option sets the global time_zone system variable. If this option is not given, the default time zone will be the same as the system time zone (given by the value of the system_time_zone system variable. This option is available as of MySQL 4.1.3.
--delay-key-write[= OFF | ON | ALL]
How the DELAYED KEYS option should be used. Delayed key writing causes key buffers not to be flushed between writes for MyISAM tables. OFF disables delayed key writes. ON enables delayed key writes for those tables that were created with the DELAYED KEYS option. ALL delays key writes for all MyISAM tables. Available as of MySQL 4.0.3. See section 7.5.2 Tuning Server Parameters. See section 14.1.1 MyISAM Startup Options. Note: If you set this variable to ALL, you should not use MyISAM tables from within another program (such as from another MySQL server or with myisamchk) when the table is in use. Doing so will lead to index corruption.
--delay-key-write-for-all-tables
Old form of --delay-key-write=ALL for use prior to MySQL 4.0.3. As of 4.0.3, use --delay-key-write instead.
--des-key-file=file_name
Read the default keys used by DES_ENCRYPT() and DES_DECRYPT() from this file.
--enable-named-pipe
Enable support for named pipes. This option applies only on Windows NT, 2000, XP, and 2003 systems, and can be used only with the mysqld-nt and mysqld-max-nt servers that support named pipe connections.
--exit-info[=flags], -T [flags]
This is a bit mask of different flags you can use for debugging the mysqld server. Do not use this option unless you know exactly what it does!
--external-locking
Enable system locking. Note that if you use this option on a system on which lockd does not fully work (as on Linux), you will easily get mysqld to deadlock. This option previously was named --enable-locking. Note: If you use this option to enable updates to MyISAM tables from many MySQL processes, you have to ensure that these conditions are satisfied: The easiest way to ensure this is to always use --external-locking together with --delay-key-write=OFF --query-cache-size=0. (This is not done by default because in many setups it's useful to have a mixture of the above options.)
--flush
Flush all changes to disk after each SQL statement. Normally MySQL does a write of all changes to disk only after each SQL statement and lets the operating system handle the synching to disk. See section A.4.2 What to Do If MySQL Keeps Crashing.
--init-file=file
Read SQL statements from this file at startup. Each statement must be on a single line and should not include comments.
--innodb-safe-binlog
Adds consistency guarantees between the content of InnoDB tables and the binary log. See section 5.9.4 The Binary Log.
--language=lang_name, -L lang_name
Client error messages in given language. lang_name can be given as the language name or as the full pathname to the directory where the language files are installed. See section 5.8.2 Setting the Error Message Language.
--large-pages
Some hardware/operating system architectures support memory pages greater than the default (usually 4 KB). The actual implementation of this support depends on the underlying hardware and OS. Applications that perform a lot of memory access may obtain performance improvements by using large pages due to reduced Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB) misses. Currently, MySQL supports only the Linux implementation of large pages support (which is called HugeTLB in Linux). We have plans to extend this support to FreeBSD, Solaris and possibly other platforms. Before large pages can be used on Linux, it is necessary to configure the HugeTLB memory pool. For reference, consult the `hugetlbpage.txt' file in the Linux kernel source. This option is disabled by default. It was added in MySQL 5.0.3.
--log[=file], -l [file]
Log connections and queries to this file. See section 5.9.2 The General Query Log. If you don't specify a filename, MySQL will use host_name.log as the filename.
--log-bin=[file]
The binary log file. Log all queries that change data to this file. Used for backup and replication. See section 5.9.4 The Binary Log. It is recommended to specify a filename (see section 1.5.7.3 Open Bugs and Design Deficiencies in MySQL for the reason) otherwise MySQL will use host_name-bin as the log file basename.
--log-bin-index[=file]
The index file for binary log filenames. See section 5.9.4 The Binary Log. If you don't specify a filename, and if you didn't either specify one in --log-bin, MySQL will use host_name-bin.index as the filename.
--log-error[=file]
Log errors and startup messages to this file. See section 5.9.1 The Error Log. If you don't specify a filename, MySQL will use host_name.err as the filename.
--log-isam[=file]
Log all ISAM/MyISAM changes to this file (used only when debugging ISAM/MyISAM).
--log-long-format
Log some extra information to the log files (update log, binary update log, and slow queries log, whatever log has been activated). For example, username and timestamp are logged for queries. Before MySQL 4.1, if you are using --log-slow-queries and --log-long-format, queries that are not using indexes also are logged to the slow query log. --log-long-format is deprecated as of MySQL version 4.1, when --log-short-format was introduced. (Long log format is the default setting since version 4.1.) Also note that starting with MySQL 4.1, the --log-queries-not-using-indexes option is available for the purpose of logging queries that do not use indexes to the slow query log.
--log-queries-not-using-indexes
If you are using this option with --log-slow-queries, then queries that are not using indexes also are logged to the slow query log. This option is available as of MySQL 4.1. See section 5.9.5 The Slow Query Log.
--log-short-format
Log less information to the log files (update log, binary update log, and slow queries log, whatever log has been activated). For example, username and timestamp are not logged for queries. This option was introduced in MySQL 4.1.
--log-slow-queries[=file]
Log all queries that have taken more than long_query_time seconds to execute to this file. See section 5.9.5 The Slow Query Log. Note that the default for the amount of information logged has changed in MySQL 4.1. See the --log-long-format and --log-short-format options for details.
--log-update[=file]
Log updates to file# where # is a unique number if not given. See section 5.9.3 The Update Log. The update log is deprecated and is removed in MySQL 5.0.0; you should use the binary log instead (--log-bin). See section 5.9.4 The Binary Log. Starting from version 5.0.0, using --log-update will just turn on the binary log instead (see section D.1.4 Changes in release 5.0.0 (22 Dec 2003: Alpha)).
--log-warnings, -W
Print out warnings such as Aborted connection... to the error log. Enabling this option is recommended, for example, if you use replication (you will get more information about what is happening, such as messages about network failures and reconnections). This option is enabled by default as of MySQL 4.0.19 and 4.1.2; to disable it, use --skip-log-warnings. As of MySQL 4.0.21 and 4.1.3, aborted connections are not logged to the error log unless the value is greater than 1. See section A.2.10 Communication Errors and Aborted Connections. This option was named --warnings before MySQL 4.0.
--low-priority-updates
Table-modifying operations (INSERT, REPLACE, DELETE, UPDATE) will have lower priority than selects. This can also be done via {INSERT | REPLACE | DELETE | UPDATE} LOW_PRIORITY ... to lower the priority of only one query, or by SET LOW_PRIORITY_UPDATES=1 to change the priority in one thread. See section 7.3.2 Table Locking Issues.
--memlock
Lock the mysqld process in memory. This works on systems such as Solaris that support the mlockall() system call. This might help if you have a problem where the operating system is causing mysqld to swap on disk. Note that use of this option requires that you run the server as root, which is normally not a good idea for security reasons.
--myisam-recover [=option[,option...]]]
Set the MyISAM storage engine recovery mode. The option value is any combination of the values of DEFAULT, BACKUP, FORCE, or QUICK. If you specify multiple values, separate them by commas. You can also use a value of "" to disable this option. If this option is used, mysqld will, when it opens a MyISAM table, open check whether the table is marked as crashed or wasn't closed properly. (The last option works only if you are running with --skip-external-locking.) If this is the case, mysqld will run a check on the table. If the table was corrupted, mysqld will attempt to repair it. The following options affect how the repair works:
Option Description
DEFAULT The same as not giving any option to --myisam-recover.
BACKUP If the data file was changed during recovery, save a backup of the `tbl_name.MYD' file as `tbl_name-datetime.BAK'.
FORCE Run recovery even if we will lose more than one row from the `.MYD' file.
QUICK Don't check the rows in the table if there aren't any delete blocks.
Before a table is automatically repaired, MySQL will add a note about this in the error log. If you want to be able to recover from most problems without user intervention, you should use the options BACKUP,FORCE. This will force a repair of a table even if some rows would be deleted, but it will keep the old data file as a backup so that you can later examine what happened. This option is available as of MySQL 3.23.25.
--ndb-connectstring=connect_string
When using the NDB storage engine, it is possible to point out the management server that distributes the cluster configuration by setting the connect string option. See section 16.3.4.2 The MySQL Cluster connectstring for syntax.
--ndbcluster
If the binary includes support for the NDB Cluster storage engine (from version 4.1.3, the MySQL-Max binaries are built with NDB Cluster enabled) the default disabling of support for the NDB Cluster storage engine can be overruled by using this option. Using the NDB Cluster storage engine is necessary for using MySQL Cluster. See section 16 MySQL Cluster.
--new
The --new option can be used to make the server behave as 4.1 in certain respects, easing a 4.0 to 4.1 upgrade: This option can be used to help you see how your applications will behave in MySQL 4.1, without actually upgrading to 4.1.
--old-passwords
Force the server to generate short (pre-4.1) password hashes for new passwords. This is useful for compatibility when the server must support older client programs. See section 5.5.9 Password Hashing in MySQL 4.1.
--old-protocol, -o
Use the 3.20 protocol for compatibility with some very old clients. See section 2.10.6 Upgrading from Version 3.20 to 3.21.
--one-thread
Only use one thread (for debugging under Linux). This option is available only if the server is built with debugging enabled. See section E.1 Debugging a MySQL Server.
--open-files-limit=count
To change the number of file descriptors available to mysqld. If this is not set or set to 0, then mysqld will use this value to reserve file descriptors to use with setrlimit(). If this value is 0 then mysqld will reserve max_connections*5 or max_connections + table_cache*2 (whichever is larger) number of files. You should try increasing this if mysqld gives you the error "Too many open files."
--pid-file=path
The path to the process ID file used by mysqld_safe.
--port=port_num, -P port_num
The port number to use when listening for TCP/IP connections.
--safe-mode
Skip some optimization stages.
--safe-show-database
With this option, the SHOW DATABASES statement displays only the names of those databases for which the user has some kind of privilege. As of MySQL 4.0.2, this option is deprecated and doesn't do anything (it is enabled by default), because there is a SHOW DATABASES privilege that can be used to control access to database names on a per-account basis. See section 5.5.3 Privileges Provided by MySQL.
--safe-user-create
If this is enabled, a user can't create new users with the GRANT statement, if the user doesn't have the INSERT privilege for the mysql.user table or any column in the table.
--secure-auth
Disallow authentication for accounts that have old (pre-4.1) passwords. This option is available as of MySQL 4.1.1.
--shared-memory
Enable shared-memory connections by local clients. This option is available only on Windows. It was added in MySQL 4.1.0.
--shared-memory-base-name=name
The name to use for shared-memory connections. This option is available only on Windows. It was added in MySQL 4.1.0.
--skip-bdb
Disable the BDB storage engine. This saves memory and might speed up some operations. Do not use this option if you require BDB tables.
--skip-concurrent-insert
Turn off the ability to select and insert at the same time on MyISAM tables. (This is to be used only if you think you have found a bug in this feature.)
--skip-delay-key-write
Ignore the DELAY_KEY_WRITE option for all tables. As of MySQL 4.0.3, you should use --delay-key-write=OFF instead. See section 7.5.2 Tuning Server Parameters.
--skip-external-locking
Don't use system locking. To use isamchk or myisamchk, you must shut down the server. See section 1.2.3 MySQL Stability. In MySQL 3.23, you can use CHECK TABLE and REPAIR TABLE to check and repair MyISAM tables. This option previously was named --skip-locking.
--skip-grant-tables
This option causes the server not to use the privilege system at all. This gives everyone full access to all databases! (You can tell a running server to start using the grant tables again by executing a mysqladmin flush-privileges or mysqladmin reload command, or by issuing a FLUSH PRIVILEGES statement.)
--skip-host-cache
Do not use the internal hostname cache for faster name-to-IP resolution. Instead, query the DNS server every time a client connects. See section 7.5.6 How MySQL Uses DNS.
--skip-innodb
Disable the InnoDB storage engine. This saves memory and disk space and might speed up some operations. Do not use this option if you require InnoDB tables.
--skip-isam
Disable the ISAM storage engine. As of MySQL 4.1, ISAM is disabled by default, so this option applies only if the server was configured with support for ISAM. This option was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
--skip-name-resolve
Do not resolve hostnames when checking client connections. Use only IP numbers. If you use this option, all Host column values in the grant tables must be IP numbers or localhost. See section 7.5.6 How MySQL Uses DNS.
--skip-ndbcluster
Disable the NDB Cluster storage engine. This is the default for binaries that were built with NDB Cluster storage engine support, this means that the system will only allocate memory and other resources for this storage engine if it is explicitly enabled.
--skip-networking
Don't listen for TCP/IP connections at all. All interaction with mysqld must be made via named pipes or shared memory (on Windows) or Unix socket files (on Unix). This option is highly recommended for systems where only local clients are allowed. See section 7.5.6 How MySQL Uses DNS.
--skip-new
Don't use new, possibly wrong routines.
--skip-symlink
This is the old form of --skip-symbolic-links, for use before MySQL 4.0.13.
--symbolic-links, --skip-symbolic-links
Enable or disable symbolic link support. This option has different effects on Windows and Unix: This option was added in MySQL 4.0.13.
--skip-safemalloc
If MySQL is configured with --with-debug=full, all MySQL programs check for memory overruns during each memory allocation and memory freeing operation. This checking is very slow, so for the server you can avoid it when you don't need it by using the --skip-safemalloc option.
--skip-show-database
With this option, the SHOW DATABASES statement is allowed only to users who have the SHOW DATABASES privilege, and the statement displays all database names. Without this option, SHOW DATABASES is allowed to all users, but displays each database name only if the user has the SHOW DATABASES privilege or some privilege for the database.
--skip-stack-trace
Don't write stack traces. This option is useful when you are running mysqld under a debugger. On some systems, you also must use this option to get a core file. See section E.1 Debugging a MySQL Server.
--skip-thread-priority
Disable using thread priorities for faster response time.
--socket=path
On Unix, this option specifies the Unix socket file to use for local connections. The default value is `/tmp/mysql.sock'. On Windows, the option specifies the pipe name to use for local connections that use a named pipe. The default value is MySQL.
--sql-mode=value[,value[,value...]]
Set the SQL mode for MySQL. See section 5.2.2 The Server SQL Mode. This option was added in 3.23.41.
--temp-pool
This option causes most temporary files created by the server to use a small set of names, rather than a unique name for each new file. This works around a problem in the Linux kernel dealing with creating many new files with different names. With the old behavior, Linux seems to ``leak'' memory, because it's being allocated to the directory entry cache rather than to the disk cache.
--transaction-isolation=level
Sets the default transaction isolation level, which can be READ-UNCOMMITTED, READ-COMMITTED, REPEATABLE-READ, or SERIALIZABLE. See section 13.4.6 SET TRANSACTION Syntax.
--tmpdir=path, -t path
The path of the directory to use for creating temporary files. It might be useful if your default /tmp directory resides on a partition that is too small to hold temporary tables. Starting from MySQL 4.1, this option accepts several paths that are used in round-robin fashion. Paths should be separated by colon characters (`:') on Unix and semicolon characters (`;') on Windows, NetWare, and OS/2. If the MySQL server is acting as a replication slave, you should not set --tmpdir to point to a directory on a memory-based filesystem or to a directory that is cleared when the server host restarts. A replication slave needs some of its temporary files to survive a machine restart so that it can replicate temporary tables or LOAD DATA INFILE operations. If files in the temporary file directory are lost when the server restarts, replication will fail.
--user={user_name | user_id}, -u {user_name | user_id}
Run the mysqld server as the user having the name user_name or the numeric user ID user_id. (``User'' in this context refers to a system login account, not a MySQL user listed in the grant tables.) This option is mandatory when starting mysqld as root. The server will change its user ID during its startup sequence, causing it to run as that particular user rather than as root. See section 5.4.1 General Security Guidelines. Starting from MySQL 3.23.56 and 4.0.12: To avoid a possible security hole where a user adds a --user=root option to some `my.cnf' file (thus causing the server to run as root), mysqld uses only the first --user option specified and produces a warning if there are multiple --user options. Options in `/etc/my.cnf' and `datadir/my.cnf' are processed before command-line options, so it is recommended that you put a --user option in `/etc/my.cnf' and specify a value other than root. The option in `/etc/my.cnf' will be found before any other --user options, which ensures that the server runs as a user other than root, and that a warning results if any other --user option is found.
--version, -V
Display version information and exit.

As of MySQL 4.0, you can assign a value to a server system variable by using an option of the form --var_name=value. For example, --key_buffer_size=32M sets the key_buffer_size variable to a value of 32MB.

Note that when setting a variable to a value, MySQL might automatically correct it to stay within a given range, or adjust the value to the closest allowable value if only certain values are allowed.

It is also possible to set variables by using --set-variable=var_name=value or -O var_name=value syntax. However, this syntax is deprecated as of MySQL 4.0.

You can find a full description for all variables in section 5.2.3 Server System Variables. The section on tuning server parameters includes information on how to optimize them. See section 7.5.2 Tuning Server Parameters.

You can change the values of most system variables for a running server with the SET statement. See section 13.5.3 SET Syntax.

If you want to restrict the maximum value that a startup option can be set to with SET, you can define this by using the --maximum-var_name command-line option.

5.2.2 The Server SQL Mode

The MySQL server can operate in different SQL modes, and (as of MySQL 4.1) can apply these modes differentially for different clients. This allows an application to tailor server operation to its own requirements.

Modes define what SQL syntax MySQL should support and what kind of data validation checks it should perform. This makes it easier to use MySQL in different environments and to use MySQL together with other database servers.

You can set the default SQL mode by starting mysqld with the --sql-mode="modes" option. The value also can be empty (--sql-mode="") if you want to reset it.

Beginning with MySQL 4.1, you can also change the SQL mode after startup time by setting the sql_mode variable with a SET [SESSION|GLOBAL] sql_mode='modes' statement. Setting the GLOBAL variable requires the SUPER privilege and affects the operation of all clients that connect from that time on. Setting the SESSION variable affects only the current client. Any client can change its session sql_mode value.

modes is a list of different modes separated by comma (`,') characters. You can retrieve the current mode by issuing a SELECT @@sql_mode statement. The default value is empty (no modes set).

The most important sql_mode values are probably these:

ANSI
Change syntax and behavior to be more conformant to standard SQL. (New in MySQL 4.1.1)
STRICT_TRANS_TABLES
If a value could not be inserted as given into a transactional table, abort the statement. For a non-transactional table, abort the statement if the value occurs in a single-row statement or the first row of a multiple-row statement. More detail is given later in this section. (New in MySQL 5.0.2)
TRADITIONAL
Make MySQL behave like a ``traditional'' SQL database system. A simple description of this mode is ``give an error instead of a warning'' when inserting an incorrect value into a column. Note: The INSERT/UPDATE will abort as soon as the error is noticed. This may not be what you want if you are using a non-transactional storage engine, because data changes made prior to the error will not be rolled back, resulting in a ``partially-done'' update. (New in MySQL 5.0.2)

When this manual refers to ``strict mode,'' it means a mode where at least one of STRICT_TRANS_TABLES or STRICT_ALL_TABLES is enabled.

The following list describes all the supported modes:

ALLOW_INVALID_DATES
Don't do full checking of dates in strict mode. Check only that the month is in the range from 1 to 12 and the day is in the range from 1 to 31. This is very convenient for Web applications where you obtain year, month, and day in three different fields and you want to store exactly what the user inserted (without date validation). This mode applies to DATE and DATETIME columns. It does not apply TIMESTAMP columns, which always require a valid date. This mode is new in MySQL 5.0.2. Before 5.0.2, this was the default MySQL date-handling mode. As of 5.0.2, enabling strict mode causes the server to require that month and day values be legal, not just in the range from 1 to 12 and 1 to 31. For example, '2004-04-31' is legal with strict mode disabled, but illegal with strict mode enabled. To allow such dates in strict mode, enable ALLOW_INVALID_DATES as well.
ANSI_QUOTES
Treat `"' as an identifier quote character (like the ``' quote character) and not as a string quote character. You can still use ``' to quote identifiers in ANSI mode. With ANSI_QUOTES enabled, you cannot use double quotes to quote a literal string, because it will be interpreted as an identifier. (New in MySQL 4.0.0)
ERROR_FOR_DIVISION_BY_ZERO
Produce an error in strict mode (otherwise a warning) when we encounter a division by zero (or MOD(X,0)) during an INSERT/ UPDATE. If this mode is not given, MySQL instead returns NULL for divisions by zero. If used with IGNORE, MySQL generates a warning for divisions by zero, but the result of the operation is NULL. (New in MySQL 5.0.2)
HIGH_NOT_PRECEDENCE
From MySQL 5.0.2 on, the NOT operator precedence is handled so that expressions such as NOT a BETWEEN b AND c are parsed as NOT (a BETWEEN b AND c). Before MySQL 5.0.2, the expression is parsed as (NOT a) BETWEEN b AND c. The old higher-precedence behavior can be obtained by enabling the HIGH_NOT_PRECEDENCE SQL mode. (New in MySQL 5.0.2)
mysql> SET sql_mode = '';
mysql> SELECT NOT 1 BETWEEN -5 AND 5;
        -> 0
mysql> SET sql_mode = 'broken_not';
mysql> SELECT NOT 1 BETWEEN -5 AND 5;
        -> 1
IGNORE_SPACE
Allow spaces between a function name and the `(' character. This forces all function names to be treated as reserved words. As a result, if you want to access any database, table, or column name that is a reserved word, you must quote it. For example, because there is a USER() function, the name of the user table in the mysql database and the User column in that table become reserved, so you must quote them:
SELECT "User" FROM mysql."user";
(New in MySQL 4.0.0)
NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER
Prevent GRANT from automatically creating new users if it would otherwise do so, unless a password also is specified. (New in MySQL 5.0.2)
NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO
NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO affects handling of AUTO_INCREMENT columns. Normally, you generate the next sequence number for the column by inserting either NULL or 0 into it. NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO suppresses this behavior for 0 so that only NULL generates the next sequence number. (New in MySQL 4.1.1) This mode can be useful if 0 has been stored in a table's AUTO_INCREMENT column. (This is not a recommended practice, by the way.) For example, if you dump the table with mysqldump and then reload it, MySQL normally generates new sequence numbers when it encounters the 0 values, resulting in a table with different contents than the one that was dumped. Enabling NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO before reloading the dump file solves this problem. As of MySQL 4.1.1, mysqldump automatically includes a statement in the dump output to enable NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO.
NO_BACKSLASH_ESCAPES
Disable the use of the backslash character (`\') as an escape character within strings. With this mode enabled, backslash becomes any ordinary character like any other. (New in MySQL 5.0.1)
NO_DIR_IN_CREATE
When creating a table, ignore all INDEX DIRECTORY and DATA DIRECTORY directives. This option is useful on slave replication servers. (New in MySQL 4.0.15)
NO_FIELD_OPTIONS
Don't print MySQL-specific column options in the output of SHOW CREATE TABLE. This mode is used by mysqldump in portability mode. (New in MySQL 4.1.1)
NO_KEY_OPTIONS
Don't print MySQL-specific index options in the output of SHOW CREATE TABLE. This mode is used by mysqldump in portability mode. (New in MySQL 4.1.1)
NO_TABLE_OPTIONS
Don't print MySQL-specific table options (such as ENGINE) in the output of SHOW CREATE TABLE. This mode is used by mysqldump in portability mode. (New in MySQL 4.1.1)
NO_UNSIGNED_SUBTRACTION
In subtraction operations, don't mark the result as UNSIGNED if one of the operands is unsigned. Note that this makes UNSIGNED BIGINT not 100% usable in all contexts. See section 12.7 Cast Functions and Operators. (New in MySQL 4.0.2)
NO_ZERO_DATE
Don't allow '0000-00-00' as a valid date. You can still insert zero dates with the IGNORE option. (New in MySQL 5.0.2)
NO_ZERO_IN_DATE
Don't accept dates where the month or day part is 0. If used with the IGNORE option, we insert a '0000-00-00' date for any such date. (New in MySQL 5.0.2)
ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY
Don't allow queries that in the GROUP BY part refer to a not selected column. (New in MySQL 4.0.0)
PIPES_AS_CONCAT
Treat || as a string concatenation operator (same as CONCAT()) rather than as a synonym for OR. (New in MySQL 4.0.0)
REAL_AS_FLOAT
Treat REAL as a synonym for FLOAT rather than as a synonym for DOUBLE. (New in MySQL 4.0.0)
STRICT_ALL_TABLES
Enable strict mode for all storage engines. Invalid data values are rejected. Additional detail follows. (New in MySQL 5.0.2)
STRICT_TRANS_TABLES
Enable strict mode for transactional storage engines, and when possible for non-transactional storage engines. Additional detail follows. (New in MySQL 5.0.2)

Strict mode controls how MySQL handles values that are invalid or missing. A value can be invalid for several reasons. For example, it might have the wrong data type for the column, or it might be out of range. A value is missing when a new row to be inserted does not contain a value for a column that has no explicit DEFAULT clause in its definition.

For transactional tables, an error occurs for invalid or missing values in a statement when either of the STRICT_ALL_TABLES or STRICT_TRANS_TABLES modes are enabled. The statement is aborted and rolled back.

For non-transactional tables, the behavior is the same for either mode, if the bad value occurs in the first row to be inserted or updated. The statement is aborted and the table remains unchanged. If the statement inserts or modifies multiple rows and the bad value occurs in the second or later row, the result depends on which strict option is enabled:

Strict mode disallows invalid date values such as '2004-04-31'. It does not disallow dates with zero parts such as 2004-04-00' or ``zero'' dates. To disallow these as well, enable the NO_ZERO_IN_DATE and NO_ZERO_DATE SQL modes in addition to strict mode.

If you are not using strict mode (that is, neither STRICT_TRANS_TABLES nor STRICT_ALL_TABLES is enabled), MySQL inserts adjusted values for invalid or missing values and produces warnings. In strict mode, you can produce this behavior by using INSERT IGNORE or UPDATE IGNORE. See section 13.5.4.20 SHOW WARNINGS Syntax.

The following special modes are provided as shorthand for combinations of mode values from the preceding list. All are available as of MySQL 4.1.1, except TRADITIONAL (5.0.2).

The descriptions include all mode values that are available in the most recent version of MySQL. For older versions, a combination mode does not include individual mode values that are not available except in newer versions.

ANSI
Equivalent to REAL_AS_FLOAT, PIPES_AS_CONCAT, ANSI_QUOTES, IGNORE_SPACE, ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY. See section 1.5.3 Running MySQL in ANSI Mode.
DB2
Equivalent to PIPES_AS_CONCAT, ANSI_QUOTES, IGNORE_SPACE, NO_KEY_OPTIONS, NO_TABLE_OPTIONS, NO_FIELD_OPTIONS.
MAXDB
Equivalent to PIPES_AS_CONCAT, ANSI_QUOTES, IGNORE_SPACE, NO_KEY_OPTIONS, NO_TABLE_OPTIONS, NO_FIELD_OPTIONS, NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER.
MSSQL
Equivalent to PIPES_AS_CONCAT, ANSI_QUOTES, IGNORE_SPACE, NO_KEY_OPTIONS, NO_TABLE_OPTIONS, NO_FIELD_OPTIONS.
MYSQL323
Equivalent to NO_FIELD_OPTIONS, HIGH_NOT_PRECEDENCE.
MYSQL40
Equivalent to NO_FIELD_OPTIONS, HIGH_NOT_PRECEDENCE.
ORACLE
Equivalent to PIPES_AS_CONCAT, ANSI_QUOTES, IGNORE_SPACE, NO_KEY_OPTIONS, NO_TABLE_OPTIONS, NO_FIELD_OPTIONS, NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER.
POSTGRESQL
Equivalent to PIPES_AS_CONCAT, ANSI_QUOTES, IGNORE_SPACE, NO_KEY_OPTIONS, NO_TABLE_OPTIONS, NO_FIELD_OPTIONS.
TRADITIONAL
Equivalent to STRICT_TRANS_TABLES, STRICT_ALL_TABLES, NO_ZERO_IN_DATE, NO_ZERO_DATE, ERROR_FOR_DIVISION_BY_ZERO, NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER.

5.2.3 Server System Variables

The server maintains many system variables that indicate how it is configured. All of them have default values. They can be set at server startup using options on the command line or in option files. Most of them can be set at runtime using the SET statement.

Beginning with MySQL 4.0.3, the mysqld server maintains two kinds of variables. Global variables affect the overall operation of the server. Session variables affect its operation for individual client connections.

When the server starts, it initializes all global variables to their default values. These defaults can be changed by options specified in option files or on the command line. After the server starts, those global variables that are dynamic can be changed by connecting to the server and issuing a SET GLOBAL var_name statement. To change a global variable, you must have the SUPER privilege.

The server also maintains a set of session variables for each client that connects. The client's session variables are initialized at connect time using the current values of the corresponding global variables. For those session variables that are dynamic, the client can change them by issuing a SET SESSION var_name statement. Setting a session variable requires no special privilege, but a client can change only its own session variables, not those of any other client.

A change to a global variable is visible to any client that accesses that global variable. However, it affects the corresponding session variable that is initialized from the global variable only for clients that connect after the change. It does not affect the session variable for any client that is currently connected (not even that of the client that issues the SET GLOBAL statement).

When setting a variable using a startup option, variable values can be given with a suffix of K, M, or G to indicate kilobytes, megabytes, or gigabytes, respectively. For example, the following command starts the server with a key buffer size of 16 megabytes:

mysqld --key_buffer_size=16M

Before MySQL 4.0, use this syntax instead:

mysqld --set-variable=key_buffer_size=16M

The lettercase of suffix letters does not matter; 16M and 16m are equivalent.

At runtime, use the SET statement to set system variables. In this context, suffix letters cannot be used, but the value can take the form of an expression:

mysql> SET sort_buffer_size = 10 * 1024 * 1024;

To specify explicitly whether to set the global or session variable, use the GLOBAL or SESSION options:

mysql> SET GLOBAL sort_buffer_size = 10 * 1024 * 1024;
mysql> SET SESSION sort_buffer_size = 10 * 1024 * 1024;

Without either option, the statement sets the session variable.

The variables that can be set at runtime are listed in section 5.2.3.1 Dynamic System Variables.

If you want to restrict the maximum value to which a system variable can be set with the SET statement, you can specify this maximum by using an option of the form --maximum-var_name at server startup. For example, to prevent the value of query_cache_size from being increased to more than 32MB at runtime, use the option --maximum-query_cache_size=32M. This feature is available as of MySQL 4.0.2.

You can view system variables and their values by using the SHOW VARIABLES statement. See section 9.4 System Variables for more information.

mysql> SHOW VARIABLES;
+---------------------------------+------------------------------+
| Variable_name                   | Value                        |
+---------------------------------+------------------------------|
| back_log                        | 50                           |
| basedir                         | /usr/local/mysql             |
| bdb_cache_size                  | 8388572                      |
| bdb_home                        | /usr/local/mysql             |
| bdb_log_buffer_size             | 32768                        |
| bdb_logdir                      |                              |
| bdb_max_lock                    | 10000                        |
| bdb_shared_data                 | OFF                          |
| bdb_tmpdir                      | /tmp/                        |
| bdb_version                     | Sleepycat Software: ...      |
| binlog_cache_size               | 32768                        |
| bulk_insert_buffer_size         | 8388608                      |
| character_set                   | latin1                       |
| character_sets                  | latin1 big5 czech euc_kr     |
| concurrent_insert               | ON                           |
| connect_timeout                 | 5                            |
| convert_character_set           |                              |
| datadir                         | /usr/local/mysql/data/       |
| default_week_format             | 0                            |
| delay_key_write                 | ON                           |
| delayed_insert_limit            | 100                          |
| delayed_insert_timeout          | 300                          |
| delayed_queue_size              | 1000                         |
| flush                           | OFF                          |
| flush_time                      | 0                            |
| ft_boolean_syntax               | + -><()~*:""&|               |
| ft_max_word_len                 | 84                           |
| ft_min_word_len                 | 4                            |
| ft_query_expansion_limit        | 20                           |
| ft_stopword_file                | (built-in)                   |
| have_bdb                        | YES                          |
| have_innodb                     | YES                          |
| have_isam                       | YES                          |
| have_openssl                    | YES                          |
| have_query_cache                | YES                          |
| have_raid                       | NO                           |
| have_symlink                    | DISABLED                     |
| init_file                       |                              |
| innodb_additional_mem_pool_size | 1048576                      |
| innodb_buffer_pool_size         | 8388608                      |
| innodb_data_file_path           | ibdata1:10M:autoextend       |
| innodb_data_home_dir            |                              |
| innodb_fast_shutdown            | ON                           |
| innodb_file_io_threads          | 4                            |
| innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit  | 1                            |
| innodb_flush_method             |                              |
| innodb_force_recovery           | 0                            |
| innodb_lock_wait_timeout        | 50                           |
| innodb_log_arch_dir             |                              |
| innodb_log_archive              | OFF                          |
| innodb_log_buffer_size          | 1048576                      |
| innodb_log_file_size            | 5242880                      |
| innodb_log_files_in_group       | 2                            |
| innodb_log_group_home_dir       | ./                           |
| innodb_mirrored_log_groups      | 1                            |
| innodb_thread_concurrency       | 8                            |
| interactive_timeout             | 28800                        |
| join_buffer_size                | 131072                       |
| key_buffer_size                 | 16773120                     |
| key_cache_age_threshold         | 300                          |
| key_cache_block_size            | 1024                         |
| key_cache_division_limit        | 100                          |
| language                        | /usr/local/mysql/share/...   |
| large_files_support             | ON                           |
| local_infile                    | ON                           |
| locked_in_memory                | OFF                          |
| log                             | OFF                          |
| log_bin                         | OFF                          |
| log_slave_updates               | OFF                          |
| log_slow_queries                | OFF                          |
| log_update                      | OFF                          |
| log_warnings                    | 1                            |
| long_query_time                 | 10                           |
| low_priority_updates            | OFF                          |
| lower_case_table_names          | 0                            |
| max_allowed_packet              | 1047552                      |
| max_binlog_cache_size           | 4294967295                   |
| max_binlog_size                 | 1073741824                   |
| max_connect_errors              | 10                           |
| max_connections                 | 100                          |
| max_delayed_threads             | 20                           |
| max_error_count                 | 64                           |
| max_heap_table_size             | 16777216                     |
| max_join_size                   | 4294967295                   |
| max_relay_log_size              | 0                            |
| max_sort_length                 | 1024                         |
| max_tmp_tables                  | 32                           |
| max_user_connections            | 0                            |
| max_write_lock_count            | 4294967295                   |
| myisam_max_extra_sort_file_size | 268435456                    |
| myisam_max_sort_file_size       | 2147483647                   |
| myisam_recover_options          | force                        |
| myisam_repair_threads           | 1                            |
| myisam_sort_buffer_size         | 8388608                      |
| net_buffer_length               | 16384                        |
| net_read_timeout                | 30                           |
| net_retry_count                 | 10                           |
| net_write_timeout               | 60                           |
| open_files_limit                | 1024                         |
| pid_file                        | /usr/local/mysql/name.pid    |
| port                            | 3306                         |
| protocol_version                | 10                           |
| query_cache_limit               | 1048576                      |
| query_cache_size                | 0                            |
| query_cache_type                | ON                           |
| read_buffer_size                | 131072                       |
| read_rnd_buffer_size            | 262144                       |
| rpl_recovery_rank               | 0                            |
| server_id                       | 0                            |
| skip_external_locking           | ON                           |
| skip_networking                 | OFF                          |
| skip_show_database              | OFF                          |
| slave_net_timeout               | 3600                         |
| slow_launch_time                | 2                            |
| socket                          | /tmp/mysql.sock              |
| sort_buffer_size                | 2097116                      |
| sql_mode                        |                              |
| table_cache                     | 64                           |
| table_type                      | MYISAM                       |
| thread_cache_size               | 3                            |
| thread_stack                    | 131072                       |
| timezone                        | EEST                         |
| tmp_table_size                  | 33554432                     |
| tmpdir                          | /tmp/:/mnt/hd2/tmp/          |
| tx_isolation                    | READ-COMMITTED               |
| version                         | 4.0.4-beta                   |
| wait_timeout                    | 28800                        |
+---------------------------------+------------------------------+

Most system variables are described here. Variables with no version indicated have been present since at least MySQL 3.22. InnoDB system variables are listed at section 15.5 InnoDB Startup Options.

Values for buffer sizes, lengths, and stack sizes are given in bytes unless otherwise specified.

Information on tuning these variables can be found in section 7.5.2 Tuning Server Parameters.

ansi_mode
This is ON if mysqld was started with --ansi. See section 1.5.3 Running MySQL in ANSI Mode. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.6 and removed in 3.23.41. See the description for sql_mode.
back_log
The number of outstanding connection requests MySQL can have. This comes into play when the main MySQL thread gets very many connection requests in a very short time. It then takes some time (although very little) for the main thread to check the connection and start a new thread. The back_log value indicates how many requests can be stacked during this short time before MySQL momentarily stops answering new requests. You need to increase this only if you expect a large number of connections in a short period of time. In other words, this value is the size of the listen queue for incoming TCP/IP connections. Your operating system has its own limit on the size of this queue. The manual page for the Unix listen() system call should have more details. Check your OS documentation for the maximum value for this variable. Attempting to set back_log higher than your operating system limit will be ineffective.
basedir
The MySQL installation base directory. This variable can be set with the --basedir option.
bdb_cache_size
The size of the buffer that is allocated for caching indexes and rows for BDB tables. If you don't use BDB tables, you should start mysqld with --skip-bdb to not waste memory for this cache. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.14.
bdb_home
The base directory for BDB tables. This should be assigned the same value as the datadir variable. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.14.
bdb_log_buffer_size
The size of the buffer that is allocated for caching indexes and rows for BDB tables. If you don't use BDB tables, you should set this to 0 or start mysqld with --skip-bdb to not waste memory for this cache. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.31.
bdb_logdir
The directory where the BDB storage engine writes its log files. This variable can be set with the --bdb-logdir option. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.14.
bdb_max_lock
The maximum number of locks you can have active on a BDB table (10,000 by default). You should increase this if errors such as the following occur when you perform long transactions or when mysqld has to examine many rows to calculate a query:
bdb: Lock table is out of available locks
Got error 12 from ...
This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.29.
bdb_shared_data
This is ON if you are using --bdb-shared-data. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.29.
bdb_tmpdir
The value of the --bdb-tmpdir option. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.14.
bdb_version
See the description for version_bdb.
binlog_cache_size
The size of the cache to hold the SQL statements for the binary log during a transaction. A binary log cache is allocated for each client if the server supports any transactional storage engines and, starting from MySQL 4.1.2, if the server has binary log enabled (--log-bin option). If you often use big, multiple-statement transactions, you can increase this to get more performance. The Binlog_cache_use and Binlog_cache_disk_use status variables can be useful for tuning the size of this variable. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.29. See section 5.9.4 The Binary Log.
bulk_insert_buffer_size
MyISAM uses a special tree-like cache to make bulk inserts faster for INSERT ... SELECT, INSERT ... VALUES (...), (...), ..., and LOAD DATA INFILE. This variable limits the size of the cache tree in bytes per thread. Setting it to 0 disables this optimization. Note: This cache is used only when adding data to a non-empty table. The default value is 8MB. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.3. This variable previously was named myisam_bulk_insert_tree_size.
character_set
The default character set. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.3, then removed in MySQL 4.1.1 and replaced by the various character_set_xxx variables.
character_set_client
The character set for statements that arrive from the client. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
character_set_connection
The character set used for literals that do not have a character set introducer and for number-to-string conversion. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
character_set_database
The character set used by the default database. The server sets this variable whenever the default database changes. If there is no default database, the variable has the same value as character_set_server. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
character_set_results
The character set used for returning query results to the client. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
character_set_server
The server default character set. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
character_set_system
The character set used by the server for storing identifiers. The value is always utf8. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
character_sets
The supported character sets. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.15 and removed in MySQL 4.1.1. (Use SHOW CHARACTER SET for a list of character sets.)
character_sets_dir
The directory where character sets are installed. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.2.
collation_connection
The collation of the connection character set. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
collation_database
The collation used by the default database. The server sets this variable whenever the default database changes. If there is no default database, the variable has the same value as collation_server. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
collation_server
The server default collation. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
concurrent_insert
If ON (the default), MySQL allows INSERT and SELECT statements to run concurrently for MyISAM tables that have no free blocks in the middle. You can turn this option off by starting mysqld with --safe or --skip-new. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.7.
connect_timeout
The number of seconds the mysqld server waits for a connect packet before responding with Bad handshake.
convert_character_set
The current character set mapping that was set by SET CHARACTER SET. This variable was removed in MySQL 4.1.
datadir
The MySQL data directory. This variable can be set with the --datadir option.
default_week_format
The default mode value to use for the WEEK() function. This variable is available as of MySQL 4.0.14.
delay_key_write
This option applies only to MyISAM tables. It can have one of the following values to affect handling of the DELAY_KEY_WRITE table option that can be used in CREATE TABLE statements.
Option Description
OFF DELAYED_KEY_WRITE is ignored.
ON MySQL honors the DELAY_KEY_WRITE option for CREATE TABLE. This is the default value.
ALL All new opened tables are treated as if they were created with the DELAY_KEY_WRITE option enabled.
If DELAY_KEY_WRITE is enabled, this means that the key buffer for tables with this option are not flushed on every index update, but only when a table is closed. This will speed up writes on keys a lot, but if you use this feature, you should add automatic checking of all MyISAM tables by starting the server with the --myisam-recover option (for example, --myisam-recover=BACKUP,FORCE). See section 5.2.1 mysqld Command-Line Options and section 14.1.1 MyISAM Startup Options. Note that --external-locking doesn't offer any protection against index corruption for tables that use delayed key writes. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.8.
delayed_insert_limit
After inserting delayed_insert_limit delayed rows, the INSERT DELAYED handler thread checks whether there are any SELECT statements pending. If so, it allows them to execute before continuing to insert delayed rows.
delayed_insert_timeout
How long an INSERT DELAYED handler thread should wait for INSERT statements before terminating.
delayed_queue_size
This is a per-table limit on the number of rows to queue when handling INSERT DELAYED statements. If the queue becomes full, any client that issues an INSERT DELAYED statement will wait until there is room in the queue again.
expire_logs_days
The number of days for automatic binary log removal. The default is 0, which means ``no automatic removal''. Possible removals happen at startup and at binary log rotation. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.0.
flush
This is ON if you have started mysqld with the --flush option. This variable was added in MySQL 3.22.9.
flush_time
If this is set to a non-zero value, all tables will be closed every flush_time seconds to free up resources and sync unflushed data to disk. We recommend this option only on Windows 9x or Me, or on systems with minimal resources available. This variable was added in MySQL 3.22.18.
ft_boolean_syntax
The list of operators supported by boolean full-text searches performed using IN BOOLEAN MODE. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.1. See section 12.6.1 Boolean Full-Text Searches. The default variable value is '+ -><()~*:""&|'. The rules for changing the value are as follows:
ft_max_word_len
The maximum length of the word to be included in a FULLTEXT index. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.0. Note: FULLTEXT indexes must be rebuilt after changing this variable. Use REPAIR TABLE tbl_name QUICK.
ft_min_word_len
The minimum length of the word to be included in a FULLTEXT index. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.0. Note: FULLTEXT indexes must be rebuilt after changing this variable. Use REPAIR TABLE tbl_name QUICK.
ft_query_expansion_limit
The number of top matches to use for full-text searches performed using WITH QUERY EXPANSION. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
ft_stopword_file
The file from which to read the list of stopwords for full-text searches. All the words from the file are used; comments are not honored. By default, a built-in list of stopwords is used (as defined in the `myisam/ft_static.c' file). Setting this variable to the empty string ('') disables stopword filtering. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.10. Note: FULLTEXT indexes must be rebuilt after changing this variable. Use REPAIR TABLE tbl_name QUICK.
group_concat_max_len
The maximum allowed result length for the GROUP_CONCAT() function. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.0.
have_archive
YES if mysqld supports ARCHIVE tables, NO if not. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.3.
have_bdb
YES if mysqld supports BDB tables. DISABLED if --skip-bdb is used. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.30.
have_compress
Whether the zlib compression library is available to the server. If not, the COMPRESS() and UNCOMPRESS() functions cannot be used. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
have_crypt
Whether the crypt() system call is available to the server. If not, the CRYPT() function cannot be used. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.10.
have_csv
YES if mysqld supports ARCHIVE tables, NO if not. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.4.
have_example_engine
YES if mysqld supports EXAMPLE tables, NO if not. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.4.
have_geometry
Whether the server supports spatial data types. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.3.
have_innodb
YES if mysqld supports InnoDB tables. DISABLED if --skip-innodb is used. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.37.
have_isam
YES if mysqld supports ISAM tables. DISABLED if --skip-isam is used. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.30.
have_ndbcluster
YES if mysqld supports NDB Cluster tables. DISABLED if --skip-ndbcluster is used. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.2.
have_openssl
YES if mysqld supports SSL (encryption) of the client/server protocol. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.43.
have_query_cache
YES if mysqld supports the query cache. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.2.
have_raid
YES if mysqld supports the RAID option. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.30.
have_rtree_keys
Whether RTREE indexes are available. (These are used for spatial indexed in MyISAM tables.) This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.3.
have_symlink
Whether symbolic link support is enabled. This is required on Unix for support of the DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY table options. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.0.
init_connect
A string to be executed by the server for each client that connects. The string consists of one or more SQL statements. To specify multiple statements, separate them by semicolon characters. For example, each client begins by default with autocommit mode enabled. There is no global server variable to specify that autocommit should be disabled by default, but init_connect can be used to achieve the same effect:
SET GLOBAL init_connect='SET AUTOCOMMIT=0';
This variable can also be set on the command line or in an option file. To set the variable as just shown using an option file, include these lines:
[mysqld]
init_connect='SET AUTOCOMMIT=0'
Note that the content of init_connect is not executed for users having the SUPER privilege; this is in case that content has been wrongly set (contains a wrong query, for example with a syntax error), thus making all connections fail. Not executing it for SUPER users enables those to open a connection and fix init_connect. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.2.
init_file
The name of the file specified with the --init-file option when you start the server. This is a file containing SQL statements that you want the server to execute when it starts. Each statement must be on a single line and should not include comments. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.2.
init_slave
This variable is similar to init_connect, but is a string to be executed by a slave server each time the SQL thread starts. The format of the string is the same as for the init_connect variable. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.2.
innodb_xxx
The InnoDB system variables are listed at section 15.5 InnoDB Startup Options.
interactive_timeout
The number of seconds the server waits for activity on an interactive connection before closing it. An interactive client is defined as a client that uses the CLIENT_INTERACTIVE option to mysql_real_connect(). See also wait_timeout.
join_buffer_size
The size of the buffer that is used for full joins (joins that do not use indexes). Normally the best way to get fast joins is to add indexes. Increase the value of join_buffer_size to get a faster full join when adding indexes is not possible. One join buffer is allocated for each full join between two tables. For a complex join between several tables for which indexes are not used, multiple join buffers might be necessary.
key_buffer_size
Index blocks for MyISAM and ISAM tables are buffered and are shared by all threads. key_buffer_size is the size of the buffer used for index blocks. The key buffer is also known as the key cache. The maximum allowable setting for key_buffer_size is 4GB. The effective maximum size might be less, depending on your available physical RAM and per-process RAM limits imposed by your operating system or hardware platform. Increase the value to get better index handling (for all reads and multiple writes) to as much as you can afford. Using a value that is 25% of total memory on a machine that mainly runs MySQL is quite common. However, if you make the value too large (for example, more than 50% of your total memory) your system might start to page and become extremely slow. MySQL relies on the operating system to perform filesystem caching for data reads, so you must leave some room for the filesystem cache. For even more speed when writing many rows at the same time, use LOCK TABLES. See section 13.4.5 LOCK TABLES and UNLOCK TABLES Syntax. You can check the performance of the key buffer by issuing a SHOW STATUS statement and examining the Key_read_requests, Key_reads, Key_write_requests, and Key_writes status variables. See section 13.5.4 SHOW Syntax. The Key_reads/Key_read_requests ratio should normally be less than 0.01. The Key_writes/Key_write_requests ratio is usually near 1 if you are using mostly updates and deletes, but might be much smaller if you tend to do updates that affect many rows at the same time or if you are using the DELAY_KEY_WRITE table option. The fraction of the key buffer in use can be determined using key_buffer_size in conjunction with the Key_blocks_unused status variable and the buffer block size. From MySQL 4.1.1 on, the buffer block size is available from the key_cache_block_size server variable. The fraction of the buffer in use is:
1 - ((Key_blocks_unused * key_cache_block_size) / key_buffer_size)
This value is an approximation because some space in the key buffer may be allocated internally for administrative structures. Before MySQL 4.1.1, key cache blocks are 1024 bytes, and before MySQL 4.1.2, Key_blocks_unused is unavailable. The Key_blocks_used variable can be used as follows to determine the fraction of the key buffer in use:
(Key_blocks_used * 1024) / key_buffer_size
However, Key_blocks_used indicates the maximum number of blocks that have ever been in use at once, so this formula does not necessary represent the current fraction of the buffer that is in use. See section 7.4.6 The MyISAM Key Cache.
key_cache_age_threshold
This value controls the demotion of buffers from the hot sub-chain of a key cache to the warm sub-chain. Lower values cause demotion to happen more quickly. The minimum value is 100. The default value is 300. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1. See section 7.4.6 The MyISAM Key Cache.
key_cache_block_size
The size in bytes of blocks in the key cache. The default value is 1024. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1. See section 7.4.6 The MyISAM Key Cache.
key_cache_division_limit
The division point between the hot and warm sub-chains of the key cache buffer chain. The value is the percentage of the buffer chain to use for the warm sub-chain. Allowable values range from 1 to 100. The default value is 100. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1. See section 7.4.6 The MyISAM Key Cache.
language
The language used for error messages.
large_file_support
Whether mysqld was compiled with options for large file support. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.28.
large_pages
Indicates whether large page support is enabled. This variable was added in MySQL 5.0.3.
license
The type of license the server has. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.19.
local_infile
Whether LOCAL is supported for LOAD DATA INFILE statements. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.3.
locked_in_memory
Whether mysqld was locked in memory with --memlock. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.25.
log
Whether logging of all queries to the general query log is enabled. See section 5.9.2 The General Query Log.
log_bin
Whether the binary log is enabled. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.14. See section 5.9.4 The Binary Log.
log_error
The location of the error log. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.10.
log_slave_updates
Whether updates received by a slave server from a master server should be logged to the slave's own binary log. Binary logging must be enabled on the slave for this to have any effect. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.17. See section 6.8 Replication Startup Options.
log_slow_queries
Whether slow queries should be logged. ``Slow'' is determined by the value of the long_query_time variable. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.2. See section 5.9.5 The Slow Query Log.
log_update
Whether the update log is enabled. This variable was added in MySQL 3.22.18. Note that the binary log is preferable to the update log, which is unavailable as of MySQL 5.0. See section 5.9.3 The Update Log.
log_warnings
Whether to produce additional warning messages. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.3. It is enabled by default as of MySQL 4.0.19 and 4.1.2. As of MySQL 4.0.21 and 4.1.3, aborted connections are not logged to the error log unless the value is greater than 1.
long_query_time
If a query takes longer than this many seconds, the Slow_queries status variable is incremented. If you are using the --log-slow-queries option, the query is logged to the slow query log file. This value is measured in real time, not CPU time, so a query that is under the threshold on a lightly loaded system might be above the threshold on a heavily loaded one. See section 5.9.5 The Slow Query Log.
low_priority_updates
If set to 1, all INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, and LOCK TABLE WRITE statements wait until there is no pending SELECT or LOCK TABLE READ on the affected table. This variable previously was named sql_low_priority_updates. It was added in MySQL 3.22.5.
lower_case_file_system
This variable indicates whether the filesystem where the data directory is located has case insensitive filenames. ON means filenames are case insensitive, OFF means they are case sensitive. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.19.
lower_case_table_names
If set to 1, table names are stored in lowercase on disk and table name comparisons are not case sensitive. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.6. If set to 2 (new in 4.0.18), table names are stored as given but compared in lowercase. From MySQL 4.0.2, this option also applies to database names. From 4.1.1, it also applies to table aliases. See section 9.2.2 Identifier Case Sensitivity. You should not set this variable to 0 if you are running MySQL on a system that does not have case-sensitive filenames (such as Windows or Mac OS X). New in 4.0.18: If this variable is not set at startup and the filesystem on which the data directory is located does not have case-sensitive filenames, MySQL automatically sets lower_case_table_names to 2.
max_allowed_packet
The maximum size of one packet or any generated/intermediate string. The packet message buffer is initialized to net_buffer_length bytes, but can grow up to max_allowed_packet bytes when needed. This value by default is small, to catch big (possibly wrong) packets. You must increase this value if you are using big BLOB columns or long strings. It should be as big as the biggest BLOB you want to use. The protocol limit for max_allowed_packet is 16MB before MySQL 4.0 and 1GB thereafter.
max_binlog_cache_size
If a multiple-statement transaction requires more than this amount of memory, you will get the error Multi-statement transaction required more than 'max_binlog_cache_size' bytes of storage. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.29.
max_binlog_size
If a write to the binary log exceeds the given value, rotate the binary logs. You cannot set this variable to more than 1GB or to less than 4096 bytes. (The minimum before MYSQL 4.0.14 is 1024 bytes.) The default value is 1GB. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.33. Note if you are using transactions: A transaction is written in one chunk to the binary log, hence it is never split between several binary logs. Therefore, if you have big transactions, you might see binary logs bigger than max_binlog_size. If max_relay_log_size is 0, the value of max_binlog_size applies to relay logs as well. max_relay_log_size was added in MySQL 4.0.14.
max_connect_errors
If there are more than this number of interrupted connections from a host, that host is blocked from further connections. You can unblock blocked hosts with the FLUSH HOSTS statement.
max_connections
The number of simultaneous client connections allowed. Increasing this value increases the number of file descriptors that mysqld requires. See section 7.4.8 How MySQL Opens and Closes Tables for comments on file descriptor limits. Also see section A.2.6 Too many connections.
max_delayed_threads
Don't start more than this number of threads to handle INSERT DELAYED statements. If you try to insert data into a new table after all INSERT DELAYED threads are in use, the row will be inserted as if the DELAYED attribute wasn't specified. If you set this to 0, MySQL never creates a thread to handle DELAYED rows; in effect, this disables DELAYED entirely. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.0.
max_error_count
The maximum number of error, warning, and note messages to be stored for display by SHOW ERRORS or SHOW WARNINGS. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.0.
max_heap_table_size
This variable sets the maximum size to which MEMORY (HEAP) tables are allowed to grow. The value of the variable is used to calculate MEMORY table MAX_ROWS values. Setting this variable has no effect on any existing MEMORY table, unless the table is re-created with a statement such as CREATE TABLE or TRUNCATE TABLE, or altered with ALTER TABLE. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.0.
max_insert_delayed_threads
This variable is a synonym for max_delayed_threads. It was added in MySQL 4.0.19.
max_join_size
Don't allow SELECT statements that probably will need to examine more than max_join_size row combinations or are likely to do more than max_join_size disk seeks. By setting this value, you can catch SELECT statements where keys are not used properly and that would probably take a long time. Set it if your users tend to perform joins that lack a WHERE clause, that take a long time, or that return millions of rows. Setting this variable to a value other than DEFAULT resets the SQL_BIG_SELECTS value to 0. If you set the SQL_BIG_SELECTS value again, the max_join_size variable is ignored. If a query result is in the query cache, no result size check is performed, because the result has previously been computed and it does not burden the server to send it to the client. This variable previously was named sql_max_join_size.
max_length_for_sort_data
The cutoff on the size of index values that determines which filesort algorithm to use. See section 7.2.10 How MySQL Optimizes ORDER BY. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1
max_relay_log_size
If a write by a replication slave to its relay log exceeds the given value, rotate the relay log. This variable enables you to put different size constraints on relay logs and binary logs. However, setting the variable to 0 makes MySQL use max_binlog_size for both binary logs and relay logs. You must set max_relay_log_size to between 4096 bytes and 1GB (inclusive), or to 0. The default value is 0. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.14. See section 6.3 Replication Implementation Details.
max_seeks_for_key
Limit the assumed maximum number of seeks when looking up rows based on a key. The MySQL optimizer will assume that no more than this number of key seeks will be required when searching for matching rows in a table by scanning a key, regardless of the actual cardinality of the key (see section 13.5.4.11 SHOW INDEX Syntax). By setting this to a low value (100?), you can force MySQL to prefer keys instead of table scans. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.14.
max_sort_length
The number of bytes to use when sorting BLOB or TEXT values. Only the first max_sort_length bytes of each value are used; the rest are ignored.
max_tmp_tables
The maximum number of temporary tables a client can keep open at the same time. (This option doesn't yet do anything.)
max_user_connections
The maximum number of simultaneous connections allowed to any given MySQL account. A value of 0 means ``no limit.'' This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.34. Before MySQL 5.0.3, this variable has only a global form. Beginning with MySQL 5.0.3, it also has a read-only session form. The session variable has the same value as the global variable unless the current account has a non-zero MAX_USER_CONNECTIONS resource limit. In that case, the session value reflects the account limit.
max_write_lock_count
After this many write locks, allow some read locks to run in between. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.7.
multi_read_range
Specifies the maximum number of ranges to send to a storage engine during range selects. The default value is 256. Sending multiple ranges to an engine is a feature that can improve the performance of certain selects dramatically, particularly for NDBCLUSTER. This engine needs to send the range requests to all nodes, and sending many of those requests at once reduces the communication costs significantly. This variable was added in MySQL 5.0.3.
myisam_data_pointer_size
The default pointer size in bytes, to be used by CREATE TABLE for MyISAM tables when no MAX_ROWS option is specified. This variable cannot be less than 2 or larger than 8. The default value is 4. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.2. See section A.2.11 The table is full.
myisam_max_extra_sort_file_size
If the temporary file used for fast MyISAM index creation would be larger than using the key cache by the amount specified here, prefer the key cache method. This is mainly used to force long character keys in large tables to use the slower key cache method to create the index. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.37. Note: The value is given in megabytes before 4.0.3 and in bytes thereafter.
myisam_max_sort_file_size
The maximum size of the temporary file MySQL is allowed to use while re-creating a MyISAM index (during REPAIR TABLE, ALTER TABLE, or LOAD DATA INFILE). If the file size would be bigger than this value, the index will be created using the key cache instead, which is slower. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.37. Note: The value is given in megabytes before 4.0.3 and in bytes thereafter.
myisam_recover_options
The value of the --myisam-recover option. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.36.
myisam_repair_threads
If this value is greater than 1, MyISAM table indexes are created in parallel (each index in its own thread) during the Repair by sorting process. The default value is 1. Note: Multi-threaded repair is still alpha quality code. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.13.
myisam_sort_buffer_size
The buffer that is allocated when sorting MyISAM indexes during a REPAIR TABLE or when creating indexes with CREATE INDEX or ALTER TABLE. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.16.
named_pipe
On Windows, indicates whether the server supports connections over named pipes. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.50.
net_buffer_length
The communication buffer is reset to this size between queries. This should not normally be changed, but if you have very little memory, you can set it to the expected length of SQL statements sent by clients. If statements exceed this length, the buffer is automatically enlarged, up to max_allowed_packet bytes.
net_read_timeout
The number of seconds to wait for more data from a connection before aborting the read. When the server is reading from the client, net_read_timeout is the timeout value controlling when to abort. When the server is writing to the client, net_write_timeout is the timeout value controlling when to abort. See also slave_net_timeout. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.20.
net_retry_count
If a read on a communication port is interrupted, retry this many times before giving up. This value should be set quite high on FreeBSD because internal interrupts are sent to all threads. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.7.
net_write_timeout
The number of seconds to wait for a block to be written to a connection before aborting the write. See also net_read_timeout. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.20.
new
This variable is used in MySQL 4.0 to turn on some 4.1 behaviors. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.12.
old_passwords
Whether the server should use pre-4.1-style passwords for MySQL user accounts. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
open_files_limit
The number of files that the operating system allows mysqld to open. This is the real value allowed by the system and might be different from the value you gave mysqld as a startup option. The value is 0 on systems where MySQL can't change the number of open files. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.20.
optimizer_prune_level
Controls the heuristics applied during query optimization to prune less-promising partial plans from the optimizer search space. A value of 0 disables heuristics so that the optimizer performs an exhaustive search. A value of 1 causes the optimizer to prune plans based on the number of rows retrieved by intermediate plans. This variable was added in MySQL 5.0.1.
optimizer_search_depth
The maximum depth of search performed by the query optimizer. Values larger than the number of relations in a query result in better query plans, but take longer to generate an execution plan for a query. Values smaller than the number of relations in a query return an execution plan quicker, but the resulting plan may be far from being optimal. If set to 0, the system automatically picks a reasonable value. If set to the maximum number of tables used in a query plus 2, the optimizer switches to the original algorithm used before MySQL 5.0.1 that performs an exhaustive search. This variable was added in MySQL 5.0.1.
pid_file
The pathname of the process ID (PID) file. This variable can be set with the --pid-file option. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.23.
port
The port on which the server listens for TCP/IP connections. This variable can be set with the --port option.
preload_buffer_size
The size of the buffer that is allocated when preloading indexes. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
protocol_version
The version of the client/server protocol used by the MySQL server. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.18.
query_alloc_block_size
The allocation size of memory blocks that are allocated for objects created during query parsing and execution. If you have problems with memory fragmentation, it might help to increase this a bit. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.16.
query_cache_limit
Don't cache results that are bigger than this. The default value is 1MB. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.1.
query_cache_min_res_unit
The minimum size for blocks allocated by the query cache. The default value is 4KB. Tuning information for this variable is given in section 5.11.3 Query Cache Configuration. This variable is present from MySQL 4.1.
query_cache_size
The amount of memory allocated for caching query results. The default value is 0, which disables the query cache. Note that this amount of memory will be allocated even if query_cache_type is set to 0. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.1.
query_cache_type
Set query cache type. Setting the GLOBAL value sets the type for all clients that connect thereafter. Individual clients can set the SESSION value to affect their own use of the query cache.
Option Description
0 or OFF Don't cache or retrieve results. Note that this will not deallocate the query cache buffer. To do that, you should set query_cache_size to 0.
1 or ON Cache all query results except for those that begin with SELECT SQL_NO_CACHE.
2 or DEMAND Cache results only for queries that begin with SELECT SQL_CACHE.
This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.3.
query_cache_wlock_invalidate
Normally, when one client acquires a WRITE lock on a MyISAM table, other clients are not blocked from issuing queries for the table if the query results are present in the query cache. Setting this variable to 1 causes acquisition of a WRITE lock for a table to invalidate any queries in the query cache that refer to the table. This forces other clients that attempt to access the table to wait while the lock is in effect. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.19.
query_prealloc_size
The size of the persistent buffer used for query parsing and execution. This buffer is not freed between queries. If you are running complex queries, a larger query_prealloc_size value might be helpful in improving performance, because it can reduce the need for the server to perform memory allocation during query execution operations. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.16.
range_alloc_block_size
The size of blocks that are allocated when doing range optimization. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.16.
read_buffer_size
Each thread that does a sequential scan allocates a buffer of this size for each table it scans. If you do many sequential scans, you might want to increase this value. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.3. Previously, it was named record_buffer.
read_only
When the variable is set to ON for a replication slave server, it causes the slave to allow no updates except from slave threads or from users with the SUPER privilege. This can be useful to ensure that a slave server accepts no updates from clients. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.14.
relay_log_purge
Disables or enables automatic purging of relay logs as soon as they are not needed any more. The default value is 1 (enabled). This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
read_rnd_buffer_size
When reading rows in sorted order after a sort, the rows are read through this buffer to avoid disk seeks. Setting the variable to a large value can improve ORDER BY performance by a lot. However, this is a buffer allocated for each client, so you should not set the global variable to a large value. Instead, change the session variable only from within those clients that need to run large queries. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.3. Previously, it was named record_rnd_buffer.
safe_show_database
Don't show databases for which the user has no database or table privileges. This can improve security if you're concerned about people being able to see what databases other users have. See also skip_show_database. This variable was removed in MySQL 4.0.5. Instead, use the SHOW DATABASES privilege to control access by MySQL accounts to database names.
secure_auth
If the MySQL server has been started with the --secure-auth option, it blocks connections from all accounts that have passwords stored in the old (pre-4.1) format. In that case, the value of this variable is ON, otherwise it is OFF. You should enable this option if you want to prevent all usage of passwords in old format (and hence insecure communication over the network). This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1. Server startup will fail with an error if this option is enabled and the privilege tables are in pre-4.1 format. When used as a client-side option, the client refuses to connect to a server if the server requires a password in old format for the client account.
server_id
The value of the --server-id option. It is used for master and slave replication servers. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.26.
shared_memory
Whether or not the server allows shared-memory connections. Currently, only Windows servers support this. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
shared_memory_base_name
Indicates whether or not the server allows shared-memory connections, and sets the identifier for the shared memory. This is useful when running multiple MYSQL instances on a single physical machine. Currently, only Windows servers support this. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.0.
skip_external_locking
This is OFF if mysqld uses external locking. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.3. Previously, it was named skip_locking.
skip_networking
This is ON if the server allows only local (non-TCP/IP) connections. On Unix, local connections use a Unix socket file. On Windows, local connections use a named pipe or shared memory. On NetWare, only TCP/IP connections are supported, so do not set this variable to ON. This variable was added in MySQL 3.22.23.
skip_show_database
This prevents people from using the SHOW DATABASES statement if they don't have the SHOW DATABASES privilege. This can improve security if you're concerned about people being able to see what databases other users have. See also safe_show_database. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.4. As of MySQL 4.0.2, its effect also depends on the SHOW DATABASES privilege: If the variable value is ON, the SHOW DATABASES statement is allowed only to users who have the SHOW DATABASES privilege, and the statement displays all database names. If the value is OFF, SHOW DATABASES is allowed to all users, but displays each database name only if the user has the SHOW DATABASES privilege or some privilege for the database.
slave_compressed_protocol
Whether to use compression of the slave/master protocol if both the slave and the master support it. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.3.
slave_net_timeout
The number of seconds to wait for more data from a master/slave connection before aborting the read. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.40.
slow_launch_time
If creating a thread takes longer than this many seconds, the server increments the Slow_launch_threads status variable. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.15.
socket
On Unix, this is the Unix socket file used for local client connections. On Windows, this is the name of the named pipe used for local client connections.
sort_buffer_size
Each thread that needs to do a sort allocates a buffer of this size. Increase this value for faster ORDER BY or GROUP BY operations. See section A.4.4 Where MySQL Stores Temporary Files.
sql_mode
The current server SQL mode. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.41. It can be set dynamically as of MySQL 4.1.1. See section 5.2.2 The Server SQL Mode.
sql_slave_skip_counter
The number of events from the master that a slave server should skip. It was added in MySQL 3.23.33.
storage_engine
This variable is a synonym for table_type. It was added in MySQL 4.1.2.
sync_binlog
If positive, the MySQL server will synchronize its binary log to disk (fdatasync()) after every sync_binlog'th write to this binary log. Note that there is one write to the binary log per statement if in autocommit mode, and otherwise one write per transaction. The default value is 0 which does no sync'ing to disk. A value of 1 is the safest choice, because in case of crash you will lose at most one statement/transaction from the binary log; but it is also the slowest choice (unless the disk has a battery-backed cache, which makes sync'ing very fast). This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.3.
sync_frm
This was added as a command-line option in MySQL 4.0.18, and is also a settable global variable since MySQL 4.1.3. If set to 1, when a non-temporary table is created it will synchronize its `.frm' file to disk (fdatasync()); this is slower but safer in case of crash. Default is 1.
system_time_zone
The server system time zone. When the server begins executing, it inherits a time zone setting from the machine defaults, possibly modified by the environment of the account used for running the server or the startup script. The value is used to set system_time_zone. Typically the time zone is specified by the TZ environment variable. It also can be specified using the --timezone option of the mysqld_safe script. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.3.
table_cache
The number of open tables for all threads. Increasing this value increases the number of file descriptors that mysqld requires. You can check whether you need to increase the table cache by checking the Opened_tables status variable. See section 5.2.4 Server Status Variables. If the value of Opened_tables is large and you don't do FLUSH TABLES a lot (which just forces all tables to be closed and reopened), then you should increase the value of the table_cache variable. For more information about the table cache, see section 7.4.8 How MySQL Opens and Closes Tables.
table_type
The default table type (storage engine). To set the table type at server startup, use the --default-table-type option. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.0. See section 5.2.1 mysqld Command-Line Options.
thread_cache_size
How many threads the server should cache for reuse. When a client disconnects, the client's threads are put in the cache if there are fewer than thread_cache_size threads there. Requests for threads are satisfied by reusing threads taken from the cache if possible, and only when the cache is empty is a new thread created. This variable can be increased to improve performance if you have a lot of new connections. (Normally this doesn't give a notable performance improvement if you have a good thread implementation.) By examining the difference between the Connections and Threads_created status variables (see section 5.2.4 Server Status Variables for details) you can see how efficient the thread cache is. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.16.
thread_concurrency
On Solaris, mysqld calls thr_setconcurrency() with this value. This function allows applications to give the threads system a hint about the desired number of threads that should be run at the same time. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.7.
thread_stack
The stack size for each thread. Many of the limits detected by the crash-me test are dependent on this value. The default is large enough for normal operation. See section 7.1.4 The MySQL Benchmark Suite.
time_zone
The current time zone. The initial value of this is 'SYSTEM' (use the value of system_time_zone), but can be specified explicitly at server startup time with the --default-time-zone option. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.3.
timezone
The time zone for the server. This is set from the TZ environment variable when mysqld is started. The time zone also can be set by giving a --timezone argument to mysqld_safe. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.15. As of MySQL 4.1.3, it is obsolete and has been replaced by the system_time_zone variable. See section A.4.6 Time Zone Problems.
tmp_table_size
If an in-memory temporary table exceeds this size, MySQL automatically converts it to an on-disk MyISAM table. Increase the value of tmp_table_size if you do many advanced GROUP BY queries and you have lots of memory.
tmpdir
The directory used for temporary files and temporary tables. Starting from MySQL 4.1, this variable can be set to a list of several paths that are used in round-robin fashion. Paths should be separated by colon characters (`:') on Unix and semicolon characters (`;') on Windows, NetWare, and OS/2. This feature can be used to spread the load between several physical disks. If the MySQL server is acting as a replication slave, you should not set tmpdir to point to a directory on a memory-based filesystem or to a directory that is cleared when the server host restarts. A replication slave needs some of its temporary files to survive a machine restart so that it can replicate temporary tables or LOAD DATA INFILE operations. If files in the temporary file directory are lost when the server restarts, replication will fail. This variable was added in MySQL 3.22.4.
transaction_alloc_block_size
The allocation size of memory blocks that are allocated for storing queries that are part of a transaction to be stored in the binary log when doing a commit. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.16.
transaction_prealloc_size
The size of the persistent buffer for transaction_alloc_blocks that is not freed between queries. By making this big enough to fit all queries in a common transaction, you can avoid a lot of malloc() calls. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.16.
tx_isolation
The default transaction isolation level. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.3.
updatable_views_with_limit
This variable controls whether updates can be made using a view that does not contain a primary key in the underlying table, if the update contains a LIMIT clause. (Such updates often are generated by GUI tools.) An update is an UPDATE or DELETE statement. Primary key here means a PRIMARY KEY, or a UNIQUE index in which no column can contain NULL. The variable can have two values: This variable was added in MySQL 5.0.2.
version
The version number for the server.
version_bdb
The BDB storage engine version. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.31 with the name bdb_version and renamed to version_bdb in MySQL 4.1.1.
version_comment
The configure script has a --with-comment option that allows a comment to be specified when building MySQL. This variable contains the value of that comment. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.17.
version_compile_machine
The type of machine MySQL was built on. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1.
version_compile_os
The type of operating system MySQL was built on. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.19.
wait_timeout
The number of seconds the server waits for activity on a non-interactive connection before closing it. On thread startup, the session wait_timeout value is initialized from the global wait_timeout value or from the global interactive_timeout value, depending on the type of client (as defined by the CLIENT_INTERACTIVE connect option to mysql_real_connect()). See also interactive_timeout.

5.2.3.1 Dynamic System Variables

Beginning with MySQL 4.0.3, many server system variables are dynamic and can be set at runtime using SET GLOBAL or SET SESSION. You can also select their values using SELECT. See section 9.4 System Variables.

The following table shows the full list of all dynamic system variables. The last column indicates for each variable whether GLOBAL or SESSION (or both) apply.

Variable Name Value Type Type
autocommit boolean SESSION
big_tables boolean SESSION
binlog_cache_size numeric GLOBAL
bulk_insert_buffer_size numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
character_set_client string GLOBAL | SESSION
character_set_connection string GLOBAL | SESSION
character_set_results string GLOBAL | SESSION
character_set_server string GLOBAL | SESSION
collation_connection string GLOBAL | SESSION
collation_server string GLOBAL | SESSION
concurrent_insert boolean GLOBAL
connect_timeout numeric GLOBAL
convert_character_set string GLOBAL | SESSION
default_week_format numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
delay_key_write OFF | ON | ALL GLOBAL
delayed_insert_limit numeric GLOBAL
delayed_insert_timeout numeric GLOBAL
delayed_queue_size numeric GLOBAL
error_count numeric SESSION
expire_logs_days numeric GLOBAL
flush boolean GLOBAL
flush_time numeric GLOBAL
foreign_key_checks boolean SESSION
ft_boolean_syntax numeric GLOBAL
group_concat_max_len numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
identity numeric SESSION
innodb_autoextend_increment numeric GLOBAL
innodb_concurrency_tickets numeric GLOBAL
innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct numeric GLOBAL
innodb_max_purge_lag numeric GLOBAL
innodb_sync_spin_loops numeric GLOBAL
innodb_table_locks boolean GLOBAL | SESSION
innodb_thread_concurrency numeric GLOBAL
innodb_thread_sleep_delay numeric GLOBAL
insert_id boolean SESSION
interactive_timeout numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
join_buffer_size numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
key_buffer_size numeric GLOBAL
last_insert_id numeric SESSION
local_infile boolean GLOBAL
log_warnings numeric GLOBAL
long_query_time numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
low_priority_updates boolean GLOBAL | SESSION
max_allowed_packet numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
max_binlog_cache_size numeric GLOBAL
max_binlog_size numeric GLOBAL
max_connect_errors numeric GLOBAL
max_connections numeric GLOBAL
max_delayed_threads numeric GLOBAL
max_error_count numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
max_heap_table_size numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
max_insert_delayed_threads numeric GLOBAL
max_join_size numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
max_relay_log_size numeric GLOBAL
max_seeks_for_key numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
max_sort_length numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
max_tmp_tables numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
max_user_connections numeric GLOBAL
max_write_lock_count numeric GLOBAL
multi_read_range numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
myisam_data_pointer_size numeric GLOBAL
myisam_max_extra_sort_file_size numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
myisam_max_sort_file_size numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
myisam_repair_threads numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
myisam_sort_buffer_size numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
net_buffer_length numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
net_read_timeout numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
net_retry_count numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
net_write_timeout numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
old_passwords numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
optimizer_prune_level numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
optimizer_search_depth numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
preload_buffer_size numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
query_alloc_block_size numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
query_cache_limit numeric GLOBAL
query_cache_size numeric GLOBAL
query_cache_type enumeration GLOBAL | SESSION
query_cache_wlock_invalidate boolean GLOBAL | SESSION
query_prealloc_size numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
range_alloc_block_size numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
read_buffer_size numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
read_only numeric GLOBAL
read_rnd_buffer_size numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
rpl_recovery_rank numeric GLOBAL
safe_show_database boolean GLOBAL
secure_auth boolean GLOBAL
server_id numeric GLOBAL
slave_compressed_protocol boolean GLOBAL
slave_net_timeout numeric GLOBAL
slow_launch_time numeric GLOBAL
sort_buffer_size numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
sql_auto_is_null boolean SESSION
sql_big_selects boolean SESSION
sql_big_tables boolean SESSION
sql_buffer_result boolean SESSION
sql_log_bin boolean SESSION
sql_log_off boolean SESSION
sql_log_update boolean SESSION
sql_low_priority_updates boolean GLOBAL | SESSION
sql_max_join_size numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
sql_mode enumeration GLOBAL | SESSION
sql_quote_show_create boolean SESSION
sql_safe_updates boolean SESSION
sql_select_limit numeric SESSION
sql_slave_skip_counter numeric GLOBAL
updatable_views_with_limit enumeration GLOBAL | SESSION
sql_warnings boolean SESSION
sync_binlog numeric GLOBAL
sync_frm boolean GLOBAL
storage_engine enumeration GLOBAL | SESSION
table_cache numeric GLOBAL
table_type enumeration GLOBAL | SESSION
thread_cache_size numeric GLOBAL
time_zone string GLOBAL | SESSION
timestamp boolean SESSION
tmp_table_size enumeration GLOBAL | SESSION
transaction_alloc_block_size numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
transaction_prealloc_size numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
tx_isolation enumeration GLOBAL | SESSION
unique_checks boolean SESSION
wait_timeout numeric GLOBAL | SESSION
warning_count numeric SESSION

Variables that are marked as ``string'' take a string value. Variables that are marked as ``numeric'' take a numeric value. Variables that are marked as ``boolean'' can be set to 0, 1, ON or OFF. Variables that are marked as ``enumeration'' normally should be set to one of the available values for the variable, but can also be set to the number that corresponds to the desired enumeration value. For enumeration-valued system variables, the first enumeration value corresponds to 0. This differs from ENUM columns, for which the first enumeration value corresponds to 1.

5.2.4 Server Status Variables

The server maintains many status variables that provide information about its operations. You can view these variables and their values by using the SHOW STATUS statement:

mysql> SHOW STATUS;
+--------------------------+------------+
| Variable_name            | Value      |
+--------------------------+------------+
| Aborted_clients          | 0          |
| Aborted_connects         | 0          |
| Bytes_received           | 155372598  |
| Bytes_sent               | 1176560426 |
| Connections              | 30023      |
| Created_tmp_disk_tables  | 0          |
| Created_tmp_files        | 60         |
| Created_tmp_tables       | 8340       |
| Delayed_errors           | 0          |
| Delayed_insert_threads   | 0          |
| Delayed_writes           | 0          |
| Flush_commands           | 1          |
| Handler_delete           | 462604     |
| Handler_read_first       | 105881     |
| Handler_read_key         | 27820558   |
| Handler_read_next        | 390681754  |
| Handler_read_prev        | 6022500    |
| Handler_read_rnd         | 30546748   |
| Handler_read_rnd_next    | 246216530  |
| Handler_update           | 16945404   |
| Handler_write            | 60356676   |
| Key_blocks_used          | 14955      |
| Key_read_requests        | 96854827   |
| Key_reads                | 162040     |
| Key_write_requests       | 7589728    |
| Key_writes               | 3813196    |
| Max_used_connections     | 0          |
| Not_flushed_delayed_rows | 0          |
| Not_flushed_key_blocks   | 0          |
| Open_files               | 2          |
| Open_streams             | 0          |
| Open_tables              | 1          |
| Opened_tables            | 44600      |
| Qcache_free_blocks       | 36         |
| Qcache_free_memory       | 138488     |
| Qcache_hits              | 79570      |
| Qcache_inserts           | 27087      |
| Qcache_lowmem_prunes     | 3114       |
| Qcache_not_cached        | 22989      |
| Qcache_queries_in_cache  | 415        |
| Qcache_total_blocks      | 912        |
| Questions                | 2026873    |
| Select_full_join         | 0          |
| Select_full_range_join   | 0          |
| Select_range             | 99646      |
| Select_range_check       | 0          |
| Select_scan              | 30802      |
| Slave_open_temp_tables   | 0          |
| Slave_running            | OFF        |
| Slow_launch_threads      | 0          |
| Slow_queries             | 0          |
| Sort_merge_passes        | 30         |
| Sort_range               | 500        |
| Sort_rows                | 30296250   |
| Sort_scan                | 4650       |
| Table_locks_immediate    | 1920382    |
| Table_locks_waited       | 0          |
| Threads_cached           | 0          |
| Threads_connected        | 1          |
| Threads_created          | 30022      |
| Threads_running          | 1          |
| Uptime                   | 80380      |
+--------------------------+------------+

Many status variables are reset to 0 by the FLUSH STATUS statement.

The status variables have the following meanings. The Com_xxx statement counter variables were added beginning with MySQL 3.23.47. The Qcache_xxx query cache variables were added beginning with MySQL 4.0.1. Otherwise, variables with no version indicated have been present since at least MySQL 3.22.

Aborted_clients
The number of connections that were aborted because the client died without closing the connection properly. See section A.2.10 Communication Errors and Aborted Connections.
Aborted_connects
The number of tries to connect to the MySQL server that failed. See section A.2.10 Communication Errors and Aborted Connections.
Binlog_cache_disk_use
The number of transactions that used the temporary binary log cache but that exceeded the value of binlog_cache_size and used a temporary file to store statements from the transaction. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.2.
Binlog_cache_use
The number of transactions that used the temporary binary log cache. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.2.
Bytes_received
The number of bytes received from all clients. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.7.
Bytes_sent
The number of bytes sent to all clients. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.7.
Com_xxx
The number of times each xxx statement has been executed. There is one status variable for each type of statement. For example, Com_delete and Com_insert count DELETE and INSERT statements.
Connections
The number of connection attempts (successful or not) to the MySQL server.
Created_tmp_disk_tables
The number of temporary tables on disk created automatically by the server while executing statements. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.24.
Created_tmp_files
How many temporary files mysqld has created. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.28.
Created_tmp_tables
The number of in-memory temporary tables created automatically by the server while executing statements. If Created_tmp_disk_tables is big, you may want to increase the tmp_table_size value to cause temporary tables to be memory-based instead of disk-based.
Delayed_errors
The number of rows written with INSERT DELAYED for which some error occurred (probably duplicate key).
Delayed_insert_threads
The number of INSERT DELAYED handler threads in use.
Delayed_writes
The number of INSERT DELAYED rows written.
Flush_commands
The number of executed FLUSH statements.
Handler_commit
The number of internal COMMIT statements. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.2.
Handler_discover
The MySQL server can ask the NDB Cluster storage engine if it knows about a table with a given name. This is called discovery. Handler_discover indicates the number of time tables have been discovered. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.2.
Handler_delete
The number of times a row was deleted from a table.
Handler_read_first
The number of times the first entry was read from an index. If this is high, it suggests that the server is doing a lot of full index scans; for example, SELECT col1 FROM foo, assuming that col1 is indexed.
Handler_read_key
The number of requests to read a row based on a key. If this is high, it is a good indication that your queries and tables are properly indexed.
Handler_read_next
The number of requests to read the next row in key order. This will be incremented if you are querying an index column with a range constraint or if you are doing an index scan.
Handler_read_prev
The number of requests to read the previous row in key order. This read method is mainly used to optimize ORDER BY ... DESC. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.6.
Handler_read_rnd
The number of requests to read a row based on a fixed position. This will be high if you are doing a lot of queries that require sorting of the result. You probably have a lot of queries that require MySQL to scan whole tables or you have joins that don't use keys properly.
Handler_read_rnd_next
The number of requests to read the next row in the data file. This will be high if you are doing a lot of table scans. Generally this suggests that your tables are not properly indexed or that your queries are not written to take advantage of the indexes you have.
Handler_rollback
The number of internal ROLLBACK statements. This variable was added in MySQL 4.0.2.
Handler_update
The number of requests to update a row in a table.
Handler_write
The number of requests to insert a row in a table.
Innodb_buffer_pool_pages_data
The number of pages containing data (dirty or clean). Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_buffer_pool_pages_dirty
The number of pages currently dirty. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_buffer_pool_pages_flushed
The number of buffer pool pages that have been requested to be flushed. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_buffer_pool_pages_free
The number of free pages. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_buffer_pool_pages_latched
The number of latched pages in InnoDB buffer pool. These are pages currently being read or written or that can't be flushed or removed for some other reason. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_buffer_pool_pages_misc
The number of pages busy because they have been allocated for administrative overhead such as row locks or the adaptive hash index. This value can also be calculated as Innodb_buffer_pool_pages_total - Innodb_buffer_pool_pages_free - Innodb_buffer_pool_pages_data. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_buffer_pool_pages_total
Total size of buffer pool, in pages. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_buffer_pool_read_ahead_rnd
The number of ``random'' read-aheads InnoDB initiated. This happens when a query is to scan a large portion of a table but in random order. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_buffer_pool_read_ahead_seq
The number of sequential read-aheads InnoDB initiated. This happens when InnoDB does a sequential full table scan. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_buffer_pool_read_requests
The number of logical read requests InnoDB has done. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_buffer_pool_reads
The number of logical reads that InnoDB could not satisfy from buffer pool and had to do a single-page read. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_buffer_pool_wait_free
Normally, writes to the InnoDB buffer pool happen in the background. However, if it's necessary to read or create a page and no clean pages are available, it's necessary to wait for pages to be flushed first. This counter counts instances of these waits. If the buffer pool size was set properly, this value should be small. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_buffer_pool_write_requests
The number writes done to the InnoDB buffer pool. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_data_fsyncs
The number of fsync() operations so far. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_data_pending_fsyncs
The current number of pending fsync() operations. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_data_pending_reads
The current number of pending reads. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_data_pending_writes
The current number of pending writes. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_data_read
The amount of data read so far, in bytes. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_data_reads
The total number of data reads. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_data_writes
The total number of data writes. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_data_written
The amount of data written so far, in bytes. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_dblwr_writes
Innodb_dblwr_pages_written
The number of doublewrite writes that have been performed and the number of pages that have been written for this purpose. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_log_waits
The number of waits we had because log buffer was too small and we had to wait for it to be flushed before continuing. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_log_write_requests
The number of log write requests. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_log_writes
The number of physical writes to the log file. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_os_log_fsyncs
The number of fsyncs writes done to the log file. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_os_log_pending_fsyncs
The number of pending log file fsyncs. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_os_log_pending_writes
Pending log file writes. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_os_log_written
The number of bytes written to the log file. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_page_size
The compiled-in InnoDB page size (default 16KB). Many values are counted in pages; the page size allows them to be easily converted to bytes. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_pages_created
The number of pages created. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_pages_read
The number of pages read. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_pages_written
The number of pages written. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_row_lock_current_waits
The number of row locks currently being waited for. Added in MySQL 5.0.3.
Innodb_row_lock_time
The total time spent in acquiring row locks, in milliseconds. Added in MySQL 5.0.3.
Innodb_row_lock_time_avg
The average time to acquire a row lock, in milliseconds. Added in MySQL 5.0.3.
Innodb_row_lock_time_max
The maximum time to acquire a row lock, in milliseconds. Added in MySQL 5.0.3.
Innodb_row_lock_waits
The number of times a row lock had to be waited for. Added in MySQL 5.0.3.
Innodb_rows_deleted
The number of rows deleted from InnoDB tables. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_rows_inserted
The number of rows inserted in InnoDB tables. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_rows_read
The number of rows read from InnoDB tables. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Innodb_rows_updated
The number of rows updated in InnoDB tables. Added in MySQL 5.0.2.
Key_blocks_not_flushed
The number of key blocks in the key cache that have changed but haven't yet been flushed to disk. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.1. It used to be known as Not_flushed_key_blocks.
Key_blocks_unused
The number of unused blocks in the key cache. You can use this value to determine how much of the key cache is in use; see the discussion of key_buffer_size in section 5.2.3 Server System Variables. This variable was added in MySQL 4.1.2. section 5.2.3 Server System Variables.
Key_blocks_used
The number of used blocks in the key cache. This value is a high-water mark that indicates the maximum number of blocks that have ever been in use at one time.
Key_read_requests
The number of requests to read a key block from the cache.
Key_reads
The number of physical reads of a key block from disk. If Key_reads is big, then your key_buffer_size value is probably too small. The cache miss rate can be calculated as Key_reads/Key_read_requests.
Key_write_requests
The number of requests to write a key block to the cache.
Key_writes
The number of physical writes of a key block to disk.
Last_query_cost
The total cost of the last compiled query as computed by the query optimizer. Useful for comparing the cost of different query plans for the same query. The default value of -1 means that no query has been compiled yet. This variable was added in MySQL 5.0.1.
Max_used_connections
The maximum number of connections that have been in use simultaneously since the server started.
Not_flushed_delayed_rows
The number of rows waiting to be written in INSERT DELAY queues.
Not_flushed_key_blocks
The old name for Key_blocks_not_flushed before MySQL 4.1.1.
Open_files
The number of files that are open.
Open_streams
The number of streams that are open (used mainly for logging).
Open_tables
The number of tables that are open.
Opened_tables
The number of tables that have been opened. If Opened_tables is big, your table_cache value is probably too small.
Qcache_free_blocks
The number of free memory blocks in query cache.
Qcache_free_memory
The amount of free memory for query cache.
Qcache_hits
The number of cache hits.
Qcache_inserts
The number of queries added to the cache.
Qcache_lowmem_prunes
The number of queries that were deleted from the cache because of low memory.
Qcache_not_cached
The number of non-cached queries (not cachable, or due to query_cache_type).
Qcache_queries_in_cache
The number of queries registered in the cache.
Qcache_total_blocks
The total number of blocks in the query cache.
Questions
The number of queries that have been sent to the server.
Rpl_status
The status of failsafe replication (not yet implemented).
Select_full_join
The number of joins that do not use indexes. If this value is not 0, you should carefully check the indexes of your tables. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.25.
Select_full_range_join
The number of joins that used a range search on a reference table. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.25.
Select_range
The number of joins that used ranges on the first table. (It's normally not critical even if this is big.) This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.25.
Select_range_check
The number of joins without keys that check for key usage after each row. (If this is not 0, you should carefully check the indexes of your tables.) This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.25.
Select_scan
The number of joins that did a full scan of the first table. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.25.
Slave_open_temp_tables
The number of temporary tables currently open by the slave SQL thread. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.29.
Slave_running
This is ON if this server is a slave that is connected to a master. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.16.
Slow_launch_threads
The number of threads that have taken more than slow_launch_time seconds to create. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.15.
Slow_queries
The number of queries that have taken more than long_query_time seconds. See section 5.9.5 The Slow Query Log.
Sort_merge_passes
The number of merge passes the sort algorithm has had to do. If this value is large, you should consider increasing the value of the sort_buffer_size system variable. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.28.
Sort_range
The number of sorts that were done with ranges. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.25.
Sort_rows
The number of sorted rows. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.25.
Sort_scan
The number of sorts that were done by scanning the table. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.25.
Ssl_xxx
Variables used for SSL connections. These variables were added in MySQL 4.0.0.
Table_locks_immediate
The number of times that a table lock was acquired immediately. This variable was added as of MySQL 3.23.33.
Table_locks_waited
The number of times that a table lock could not be acquired immediately and a wait was needed. If this is high, and you have performance problems, you should first optimize your queries, and then either split your table or tables or use replication. This variable was added as of MySQL 3.23.33.
Threads_cached
The number of threads in the thread cache. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.17.
Threads_connected
The number of currently open connections.
Threads_created
The number of threads created to handle connections. If Threads_created is big, you may want to increase the thread_cache_size value. The cache hit rate can be calculated as Threads_created/Connections. This variable was added in MySQL 3.23.31.
Threads_running
The number of threads that are not sleeping.
Uptime
The number of seconds the server has been up.

5.3 The MySQL Server Shutdown Process

The server shutdown process can be summarized like this:

  1. The shutdown process is initiated
  2. The server creates a shutdown thread if necessary
  3. The server stops accepting new connections
  4. The server terminates current activity
  5. Storage engines are shut down or closed
  6. The server exits

A more detailed description of the process follows:

  1. The shutdown process is initiated. Server shutdown can be initiated several ways. For example, a user with the SHUTDOWN privilege can execute a mysqladmin shutdown command. mysqladmin can be used on any platform supported by MySQL. Other operating system-specific shutdown initiation methods are possible as well: The server shuts down on Unix when it receives a SIGTERM signal. A server running as a service on Windows shuts down when the services manager tells it to.
  2. The server creates a shutdown thread if necessary. Depending on how shutdown was initiated, the server might create a thread to handle the shutdown process. If shutdown was requested by a client, a shutdown thread is created. If shutdown is the result of receiving a SIGTERM signal, the signal thread might handle shutdown itself, or it might create a separate thread to do so. If the server tries to create a shutdown thread and cannot (for example, if memory is exhausted), it issues a diagnostic message that will appear in the error log:
    Error: Can't create thread to kill server
    
  3. The server stops accepting new connections. To prevent new activity from being initiated during shutdown, the server stops accepting new client connections. It does this by closing the network connections to which it normally listens for connections: the TCP/IP port, the Unix socket file, the Windows named pipe, and shared memory on Windows.
  4. The server terminates current activity. For each thread that is associated with a client connection, the connection to the client is broken and the thread is marked as killed. Threads die when they notice that they are so marked. Threads for idle connections die quickly. Threads that currently are processing queries check their state periodically and take longer to die. For additional information about thread termination, see section 13.5.5.3 KILL Syntax, in particular for the instructions about killed REPAIR TABLE or OPTIMIZE TABLE operations on MyISAM tables. For threads that have an open transaction, the transaction is rolled back. Note that if a thread is updating a non-transactional table, an operation such as a multiple-row UPDATE or INSERT may leave the table partially updated, because the operation can terminate before completion. If the server is a master replication server, threads associated with currently connected slaves are treated like other client threads. That is, each one is marked as killed and exits when it next checks its state. If the server is a slave replication server, the I/O and SQL threads, if active, are stopped before client threads are marked as killed. The SQL thread is allowed to finish its current statement (to avoid causing replication problems) then stops. If the SQL thread was in the middle of a transaction at this point, the transaction is rolled back.
  5. Storage engines are shut down or closed. At this stage, the table cache is flushed and all open tables are closed. Each storage engine performs any actions necessary for tables that it manages. For example, MyISAM flushes any pending index writes for a table. InnoDB flushes its buffer pool to disk, writes the current LSN to the tablespace, and terminates its own internal threads.
  6. The server exits.

5.4 General Security Issues

This section describes some general security issues to be aware of and what you can do to make your MySQL installation more secure against attack or misuse. For information specifically about the access control system that MySQL uses for setting up user accounts and checking database access, see section 5.5 The MySQL Access Privilege System.

5.4.1 General Security Guidelines

Anyone using MySQL on a computer connected to the Internet should read this section to avoid the most common security mistakes.

In discussing security, we emphasize the necessity of fully protecting the entire server host (not just the MySQL server) against all types of applicable attacks: eavesdropping, altering, playback, and denial of service. We do not cover all aspects of availability and fault tolerance here.

MySQL uses security based on Access Control Lists (ACLs) for all connections, queries, and other operations that users can attempt to perform. There is also some support for SSL-encrypted connections between MySQL clients and servers. Many of the concepts discussed here are not specific to MySQL at all; the same general ideas apply to almost all applications.

When running MySQL, follow these guidelines whenever possible:

5.4.2 Making MySQL Secure Against Attackers

When you connect to a MySQL server, you should use a password. The password is not transmitted in clear text over the connection. Password handling during the client connection sequence was upgraded in MySQL 4.1.1 to be very secure. If you are using an older version of MySQL, or are still using pre-4.1.1-style passwords, the encryption algorithm is less strong and with some effort a clever attacker who can sniff the traffic between the client and the server can crack the password. (See section 5.5.9 Password Hashing in MySQL 4.1 for a discussion of the different password handling methods.) If the connection between the client and the server goes through an untrusted network, you should use an SSH tunnel to encrypt the communication.

All other information is transferred as text that can be read by anyone who is able to watch the connection. If you are concerned about this, you can use the compressed protocol (in MySQL 3.22 and above) to make traffic much more difficult to decipher. To make the connection even more secure, you should use SSH to get an encrypted TCP/IP connection between a MySQL server and a MySQL client. You can find an Open Source SSH client at http://www.openssh.org/, and a commercial SSH client at http://www.ssh.com/.

If you are using MySQL 4.0 or newer, you can also use internal OpenSSL support. See section 5.6.7 Using Secure Connections.

To make a MySQL system secure, you should strongly consider the following suggestions:

5.4.3 Startup Options for mysqld Concerning Security

The following mysqld options affect security:

--local-infile[={0|1}]
If you start the server with --local-infile=0, clients cannot use LOCAL in LOAD DATA statements. See section 5.4.4 Security Issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL.
--old-passwords
Force the server to generate short (pre-4.1) password hashes for new passwords. This is useful for compatibility when the server must support older client programs. See section 5.5.9 Password Hashing in MySQL 4.1.
--safe-show-database
With this option, the SHOW DATABASES statement displays the names of only those databases for which the user has some kind of privilege. As of MySQL 4.0.2, this option is deprecated and doesn't do anything (it is enabled by default), because there is a SHOW DATABASES privilege that can be used to control access to database names on a per-account basis. See section 13.5.1.3 GRANT and REVOKE Syntax.
--safe-user-create
If this is enabled, a user cannot create new users with the GRANT statement unless the user has the INSERT privilege for the mysql.user table. If you want a user to have the ability to create new users with those privileges that the user has right to grant, you should grant the user the following privilege:
mysql> GRANT INSERT(user) ON mysql.user TO 'user_name'@'host_name';
This will ensure that the user can't change any privilege columns directly, but has to use the GRANT statement to give privileges to other users.
--secure-auth
Disallow authentication for accounts that have old (pre-4.1) passwords. This option is available as of MySQL 4.1.1.
--skip-grant-tables
This option causes the server not to use the privilege system at all. This gives everyone full access to all databases! (You can tell a running server to start using the grant tables again by executing a mysqladmin flush-privileges or mysqladmin reload command, or by issuing a FLUSH PRIVILEGES statement.)
--skip-name-resolve
Hostnames are not resolved. All Host column values in the grant tables must be IP numbers or localhost.
--skip-networking
Don't allow TCP/IP connections over the network. All connections to mysqld must be made via Unix socket files. This option is unsuitable when using a MySQL version prior to 3.23.27 with the MIT-pthreads package, because Unix socket files were not supported by MIT-pthreads at that time.
--skip-show-database
With this option, the SHOW DATABASES statement is allowed only to users who have the SHOW DATABASES privilege, and the statement displays all database names. Without this option, SHOW DATABASES is allowed to all users, but displays each database name only if the user has the SHOW DATABASES privilege or some privilege for the database.

5.4.4 Security Issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL

The LOAD DATA statement can load a file that is located on the server host, or it can load a file that is located on the client host when the LOCAL keyword is specified.

There are two potential security issues with supporting the LOCAL version of LOAD DATA statements:

To deal with these problems, we changed how LOAD DATA LOCAL is handled as of MySQL 3.23.49 and MySQL 4.0.2 (4.0.13 on Windows):

5.5 The MySQL Access Privilege System

MySQL has an advanced but non-standard security and privilege system. This section describes how it works.

5.5.1 What the Privilege System Does

The primary function of the MySQL privilege system is to authenticate a user connecting from a given host, and to associate that user with privileges on a database such as SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE.

Additional functionality includes the ability to have anonymous users and to grant privileges for MySQL-specific functions such as LOAD DATA INFILE and administrative operations.

5.5.2 How the Privilege System Works

The MySQL privilege system ensures that all users may perform only the operations allowed to them. As a user, when you connect to a MySQL server, your identity is determined by the host from which you connect and the username you specify. When you issue requests after connecting, the system grants privileges according to your identity and what you want to do.

MySQL considers both your hostname and username in identifying you because there is little reason to assume that a given username belongs to the same person everywhere on the Internet. For example, the user joe who connects from office.com need not be the same person as the user joe who connects from elsewhere.com. MySQL handles this by allowing you to distinguish users on different hosts that happen to have the same name: You can grant one set of privileges for connections by joe from office.com, and a different set of privileges for connections by joe from elsewhere.com.

MySQL access control involves two stages:

If your privileges are changed (either by yourself or someone else) while you are connected, those changes will not necessarily take effect immediately for the next statement you issue. See section 5.5.7 When Privilege Changes Take Effect for details.

The server stores privilege information in the grant tables of the mysql database (that is, in the database named mysql). The MySQL server reads the contents of these tables into memory when it starts and re-reads them under the circumstances indicated in section 5.5.7 When Privilege Changes Take Effect. Access-control decisions are based on the in-memory copies of the grant tables.

Normally, you manipulate the contents of the grant tables indirectly by using the GRANT and REVOKE statements to set up accounts and control the privileges available to each one. See section 13.5.1.3 GRANT and REVOKE Syntax. The discussion here describes the underlying structure of the grant tables and how the server uses their contents when interacting with clients.

The server uses the user, db, and host tables in the mysql database at both stages of access control. The columns in these grant tables are shown here:

Table Name user db host
Scope columns Host Host Host
User Db Db
Password User
Privilege columns Select_priv Select_priv Select_priv
Insert_priv Insert_priv Insert_priv
Update_priv Update_priv Update_priv
Delete_priv Delete_priv Delete_priv
Index_priv Index_priv Index_priv
Alter_priv Alter_priv Alter_priv
Create_priv Create_priv Create_priv
Drop_priv Drop_priv Drop_priv
Grant_priv Grant_priv Grant_priv
Create_view_priv Create_view_priv Create_view_priv
Show_view_priv Show_view_priv Show_view_priv
Create_routine_priv Create_routine_priv
Alter_routine_priv Alter_routine_priv
References_priv References_priv References_priv
Reload_priv
Shutdown_priv
Process_priv
File_priv
Show_db_priv
Super_priv
Create_tmp_table_priv Create_tmp_table_priv Create_tmp_table_priv
Lock_tables_priv Lock_tables_priv Lock_tables_priv
Execute_priv
Repl_slave_priv
Repl_client_priv
Security columns ssl_type @tab
ssl_cipher
x509_issuer
x509_subject
Resource control columns max_questions @tab
max_updates
max_connections
max_user_connections

The ssl_type, ssl_cipher, x509_issuer, and x509_subject columns were added in MySQL 4.0.0.

The Create_tmp_table_priv, Execute_priv, Lock_tables_priv, Repl_client_priv, Repl_slave_priv, Show_db_priv, Super_priv, max_questions, max_updates, and max_connections columns were added in MySQL 4.0.2. Execute_priv is not operational until MySQL 5.0.3, however.

The Create_view_priv and Show_view_priv columns were added in MySQL 5.0.1.

The Create_routine_priv, Alter_routine_priv, and max_user_connections columns were added in MySQL 5.0.3.

During the second stage of access control, the server performs request verification to make sure that each client has sufficient privileges for each request that it issues. In addition to the user, db, and host grant tables, the server may also consult the tables_priv and columns_priv tables for requests that involve tables. The tables_priv and columns_priv tables provide finer privilege control at the table and column levels. They have the following columns:

Table Name tables_priv columns_priv
Scope columns Host Host
Db Db
User User
Table_name Table_name
Column_name
Privilege columns Table_priv Column_priv
Column_priv
Other columns Timestamp Timestamp
Grantor

The Timestamp and Grantor columns currently are unused and are discussed no further here.

For verification of requests that involve stored routines, the server may consult the procs_priv table. This table exists as of MySQL 5.0.3 and has the following columns:

Table Name procs_priv
Scope columns Host
Db
User
Routine_name
Privilege columns Proc_priv
Other columns Timestamp
Grantor

The Timestamp and Grantor columns currently are unused and are discussed no further here.

Each grant table contains scope columns and privilege columns:

Scope columns contain strings. They are declared as shown here; the default value for each is the empty string:

Column Name Type
Host CHAR(60)
User CHAR(16)
Password CHAR(16)
Db CHAR(64)
Table_name CHAR(64)
Column_name CHAR(64)
Routine_name CHAR(64)

Before MySQL 3.23, the Db column is CHAR(32) in some tables and CHAR(60) in others.

For access-checking purposes, comparisons of Host values are case-insensitive. User, Password, Db, and Table_name values are case sensitive. Column_name values are case insensitive in MySQL 3.22.12 or later.

In the user, db, and host tables, each privilege is listed in a separate column that is declared as ENUM('N','Y') DEFAULT 'N'. In other words, each privilege can be disabled or enabled, with the default being disabled.

In the tables_priv, columns_priv, and procs_priv tables, the privilege columns are declared as SET columns. Values in these columns can contain any combination of the privileges controlled by the table:

Table Name Column Name Possible Set Elements
tables_priv Table_priv 'Select', 'Insert', 'Update', 'Delete', 'Create', 'Drop', 'Grant', 'References', 'Index', 'Alter'
tables_priv Column_priv 'Select', 'Insert', 'Update', 'References'
columns_priv Column_priv 'Select', 'Insert', 'Update', 'References'
procs_priv Proc_priv 'Execute', 'Alter Routine', 'Grant'

Briefly, the server uses the grant tables as follows:

Administrative privileges (such as RELOAD or SHUTDOWN) are specified only in the user table. This is because administrative operations are operations on the server itself and are not database-specific, so there is no reason to list these privileges in the other grant tables. In fact, to determine whether you can perform an administrative operation, the server need consult only the user table.

The FILE privilege also is specified only in the user table. It is not an administrative privilege as such, but your ability to read or write files on the server host is independent of the database you are accessing.

The mysqld server reads the contents of the grant tables into memory when it starts. You can tell it to re-read the tables by issuing a FLUSH PRIVILEGES statement or executing a mysqladmin flush-privileges or mysqladmin reload command. Changes to the grant tables take effect as indicated in section 5.5.7 When Privilege Changes Take Effect.

When you modify the contents of the grant tables, it is a good idea to make sure that your changes set up privileges the way you want. To check the privileges for a given account, use the SHOW GRANTS statement. For example, to determine the privileges that are granted to an account with Host and User values of pc84.example.com and bob, issue this statement:

mysql> SHOW GRANTS FOR 'bob'@'pc84.example.com';

A useful diagnostic tool is the mysqlaccess script, which Yves Carlier has provided for the MySQL distribution. Invoke mysqlaccess with the --help option to find out how it works. Note that mysqlaccess checks access using only the user, db, and host tables. It does not check table, column, or routine privileges specified in the tables_priv, columns_priv, or procs_priv tables.

For additional help in diagnosing privilege-related problems, see section 5.5.8 Causes of Access denied Errors. For general advice on security issues, see section 5.4 General Security Issues.

5.5.3 Privileges Provided by MySQL

Information about account privileges is stored in the user, db, host, tables_priv, columns_priv, and procs_priv tables in the mysql database. The MySQL server reads the contents of these tables into memory when it starts and re-reads them under the circumstances indicated in section 5.5.7 When Privilege Changes Take Effect. Access-control decisions are based on the in-memory copies of the grant tables.

The names used in the GRANT and REVOKE statements to refer to privileges are shown in the following table, along with the column name associated with each privilege in the grant tables and the context in which the privilege applies. Further information about the meaning of each privilege may be found at section 13.5.1.3 GRANT and REVOKE Syntax.

Privilege Column Context
CREATE Create_priv databases, tables, or indexes
DROP Drop_priv databases or tables
GRANT Grant_priv databases, tables, or stored routines
REFERENCES References_priv databases or tables
ALTER Alter_priv tables
DELETE Delete_priv tables
INDEX Index_priv tables
INSERT Insert_priv tables
SELECT Select_priv tables
UPDATE Update_priv tables
CREATE VIEW Create_view_priv views
SHOW VIEW Show_view_priv views
ALTER ROUTINE Alter_routine_priv stored routines
CREATE ROUTINE Create_routine_priv stored routines
EXECUTE Execute_priv stored routines
CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES Create_tmp_table_priv server administration
FILE File_priv file access on server host
LOCK TABLES Lock_tables_priv server administration
PROCESS Process_priv server administration
RELOAD Reload_priv server administration
REPLICATION CLIENT Repl_client_priv server administration
REPLICATION SLAVE Repl_slave_priv server administration
SHOW DATABASES Show_db_priv server administration
SHUTDOWN Shutdown_priv server administration
SUPER Super_priv server administration

The CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES, EXECUTE, LOCK TABLES, REPLICATION CLIENT, REPLICATION SLAVE, SHOW DATABASES, and SUPER privileges were added in MySQL 4.0.2. (EXECUTE is not operational until MySQL 5.0.3.) CREATE VIEW and SHOW VIEW were added in MySQL 5.0.1. CREATE ROUTINE and ALTER ROUTINE were added in MySQL 5.0.3. To use these privileges when upgrading from an earlier version of MySQL that does not have them, , you must upgrade your grant tables. See section 2.10.7 Upgrading the Grant Tables.

The CREATE and DROP privileges allow you to create new databases and tables, or to drop (remove) existing databases and tables. If you grant the DROP privilege for the mysql database to a user, that user can drop the database in which the MySQL access privileges are stored!

The SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE privileges allow you to perform operations on rows in existing tables in a database.

SELECT statements require the SELECT privilege only if they actually retrieve rows from a table. Some SELECT statements do not access tables and can be executed without permission for any database. For example, you can use the mysql client as a simple calculator to evaluate expressions that make no reference to tables:

mysql> SELECT 1+1;
mysql> SELECT PI()*2;

The INDEX privilege allows you to create or drop (remove) indexes. INDEX applies to existing tables. If you have the CREATE privilege for a table, you can include index definitions in the CREATE TABLE statement.

The ALTER privilege allows you to use ALTER TABLE to change the structure of or rename tables.

The CREATE ROUTINE privilege is needed for creating stored routines (functions and procedures). ALTER ROUTINE privilege is needed for altering or dropping stored routines, and EXECUTE is needed for executing stored routines.

The GRANT privilege allows you to give to other users those privileges that you yourself possess. It can be used for databases, tables, and stored routines.

The FILE privilege gives you permission to read and write files on the server host using the LOAD DATA INFILE and SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE statements. A user who has the FILE privilege can read any file on the server host that is either world-readable or readable by the MySQL server. (This implies the user can read any file in any database directory, because the server can access any of those files.) The FILE privilege also allows the user to create new files in any directory where the MySQL server has write access. Existing files cannot be overwritten.

The remaining privileges are used for administrative operations. Many of them can be performed by using the mysqladmin program or by issuing SQL statements. The following table shows which mysqladmin commands each administrative privilege allows you to execute:

Privilege Commands Permitted to Privilege Holders
RELOAD flush-hosts, flush-logs, flush-privileges, flush-status, flush-tables, flush-threads, refresh, reload
SHUTDOWN shutdown
PROCESS processlist
SUPER kill

The reload command tells the server to re-read the grant tables into memory. flush-privileges is a synonym for reload. The refresh command closes and reopens the log files and flushes all tables. The other flush-xxx commands perform functions similar to refresh, but are more specific and may be preferable in some instances. For example, if you want to flush just the log files, flush-logs is a better choice than refresh.

The shutdown command shuts down the server. This command can be issued only from mysqladmin. There is no corresponding SQL statement.

The processlist command displays information about the threads executing within the server (that is, about the statements being executed by clients associated with other accounts). The kill command terminates server threads. You can always display or kill your own threads, but you need the PROCESS privilege to display threads initiated by other users and the SUPER privilege to kill them. See section 13.5.5.3 KILL Syntax. Prior to MySQL 4.0.2 when SUPER was introduced, the PROCESS privilege controls the ability to both see and terminate threads for other clients.

The CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES privilege allows the use of the keyword TEMPORARY in CREATE TABLE statements.

The LOCK TABLES privilege allows the use of explicit LOCK TABLES statements to lock tables for which you have the SELECT privilege. This includes the use of write locks, which prevents anyone else from reading the locked table.

The REPLICATION CLIENT privilege allows the use of SHOW MASTER STATUS and SHOW SLAVE STATUS.

The REPLICATION SLAVE privilege should be granted to accounts that are used by slave servers to connect to the current server as their master. Without this privilege, the slave cannot request updates that have been made to databases on the master server.

The SHOW DATABASES privilege allows the account to see database names by issuing the SHOW DATABASE statement. Accounts that do not have this privilege see only databases for which they have some privileges, and cannot use the statement at all if the server was started with the --skip-show-database option.

It is a good idea in general to grant to an account only those privileges that it needs. You should exercise particular caution in granting the FILE and administrative privileges:

There are some things that you cannot do with the MySQL privilege system:

5.5.4 Connecting to the MySQL Server

MySQL client programs generally expect you to specify connection parameters when you want to access a MySQL server:

For example, the mysql client can be started as follows from a command-line prompt (indicated here by shell>):

shell> mysql -h host_name -u user_name -pyour_pass

Alternate forms of the -h, -u, and -p options are --host=host_name, --user=user_name, and --password=your_pass. Note that there is no space between -p or --password= and the password following it.

If you use a -p or --password option but do not specify the password value, the client program will prompt you to enter the password. The password is not displayed as you enter it. This is more secure than giving the password on the command line. Any user on your system may be able to see a password specified on the command line by executing a command such as ps auxww. See section 5.6.6 Keeping Your Password Secure.

MySQL client programs use default values for any connection parameter option that you do not specify:

Thus, for a Unix user with a login name of joe, all of the following commands are equivalent:

shell> mysql -h localhost -u joe
shell> mysql -h localhost
shell> mysql -u joe
shell> mysql

Other MySQL clients behave similarly.

You can specify different default values to be used when you make a connection so that you need not enter them on the command line each time you invoke a client program. This can be done in a couple of ways:

5.5.5 Access Control, Stage 1: Connection Verification

When you attempt to connect to a MySQL server, the server accepts or rejects the connection based on your identity and whether you can verify your identity by supplying the correct password. If not, the server denies access to you completely. Otherwise, the server accepts the connection, then enters Stage 2 and waits for requests.

Your identity is based on two pieces of information:

Identity checking is performed using the three user table scope columns (Host, User, and Password). The server accepts the connection only if the Host and User columns in some user table record match the client hostname and username, and the client supplies the password specified in that record.

Host values in the user table may be specified as follows:

Because you can use IP wildcard values in the Host column (for example, '144.155.166.%' to match every host on a subnet), someone could try to exploit this capability by naming a host 144.155.166.somewhere.com. To foil such attempts, MySQL disallows matching on hostnames that start with digits and a dot. Thus, if you have a host named something like 1.2.foo.com, its name will never match the Host column of the grant tables. An IP wildcard value can match only IP numbers, not hostnames.

In the User column, wildcard characters are not allowed, but you can specify a blank value, which matches any name. If the user table row that matches an incoming connection has a blank username, the user is considered to be an anonymous user with no name, not a user with the name that the client actually specified. This means that a blank username is used for all further access checking for the duration of the connection (that is, during Stage 2).

The Password column can be blank. This is not a wildcard and does not mean that any password matches. It means that the user must connect without specifying a password.

Non-blank Password values in the user table represent encrypted passwords. MySQL does not store passwords in plaintext form for anyone to see. Rather, the password supplied by a user who is attempting to connect is encrypted (using the PASSWORD() function). The encrypted password then is used during the connection process when checking whether the password is correct. (This is done without the encrypted password ever traveling over the connection.) From MySQL's point of view, the encrypted password is the REAL password, so you should not give anyone access to it! In particular, don't give non-administrative users read access to the tables in the mysql database!

From version 4.1 on, MySQL employs a stronger authentication method that has better password protection during the connection process than in earlier versions. It is secure even if TCP/IP packets are sniffed or the mysql database is captured. Password encryption is discussed further in section 5.5.9 Password Hashing in MySQL 4.1.

The following examples show how various combinations of Host and User values in the user table apply to incoming connections:

Host Value User Value Connections Matched by Entry
'thomas.loc.gov' 'fred' fred, connecting from thomas.loc.gov
'thomas.loc.gov' '' Any user, connecting from thomas.loc.gov
'%' 'fred' fred, connecting from any host
'%' '' Any user, connecting from any host
'%.loc.gov' 'fred' fred, connecting from any host in the loc.gov domain
'x.y.%' 'fred' fred, connecting from x.y.net, x.y.com, x.y.edu, and so on. (this is probably not useful)
'144.155.166.177' 'fred' fred, connecting from the host with IP address 144.155.166.177
'144.155.166.%' 'fred' fred, connecting from any host in the 144.155.166 class C subnet
'144.155.166.0/255.255.255.0' 'fred' Same as previous example

It is possible for the client hostname and username of an incoming connection to match more than one row in the user table. The preceding set of examples demonstrates this: Several of the entries shown match a connection from thomas.loc.gov by fred.

When multiple matches are possible, the server must determine which of them to use. It resolves this issue as follows:

To see how this works, suppose that the user table looks like this:

+-----------+----------+-
| Host      | User     | ...
+-----------+----------+-
| %         | root     | ...
| %         | jeffrey  | ...
| localhost | root     | ...
| localhost |          | ...
+-----------+----------+-

When the server reads in the table, it orders the entries with the most-specific Host values first. Literal hostnames and IP numbers are the most specific. The pattern '%' means ``any host'' and is least specific. Entries with the same Host value are ordered with the most-specific User values first (a blank User value means ``any user'' and is least specific). For the user table just shown, the result after sorting looks like this:

+-----------+----------+-
| Host      | User     | ...
+-----------+----------+-
| localhost | root     | ...
| localhost |          | ...
| %         | jeffrey  | ...
| %         | root     | ...
+-----------+----------+-

When a client attempts to connect, the server looks through the sorted entries and uses the first match found. For a connection from localhost by jeffrey, two of the entries in the table match: the one with Host and User values of 'localhost' and '', and the one with values of '%' and 'jeffrey'. The 'localhost' row appears first in sorted order, so that is the one the server uses.

Here is another example. Suppose that the user table looks like this:

+----------------+----------+-
| Host           | User     | ...
+----------------+----------+-
| %              | jeffrey  | ...
| thomas.loc.gov |          | ...
+----------------+----------+-

The sorted table looks like this:

+----------------+----------+-
| Host           | User     | ...
+----------------+----------+-
| thomas.loc.gov |          | ...
| %              | jeffrey  | ...
+----------------+----------+-

A connection by jeffrey from thomas.loc.gov is matched by the first row, whereas a connection by jeffrey from whitehouse.gov is matched by the second.

It is a common misconception to think that, for a given username, all entries that explicitly name that user will be used first when the server attempts to find a match for the connection. This is simply not true. The previous example illustrates this, where a connection from thomas.loc.gov by jeffrey is first matched not by the row containing 'jeffrey' as the User column value, but by the row with no username! As a result, jeffrey will be authenticated as an anonymous user, even though he specified a username when connecting.

If you are able to connect to the server, but your privileges are not what you expect, you probably are being authenticated as some other account. To find out what account the server used to authenticate you, use the CURRENT_USER() function. It returns a value in user_name@host_name format that indicates the User and Host values from the matching user table record. Suppose that jeffrey connects and issues the following query:

mysql> SELECT CURRENT_USER();
+----------------+
| CURRENT_USER() |
+----------------+
| @localhost     |
+----------------+

The result shown here indicates that the matching user table row had a blank User column value. In other words, the server is treating jeffrey as an anonymous user.

The CURRENT_USER() function is available as of MySQL 4.0.6. See section 12.8.3 Information Functions. Another thing you can do to diagnose authentication problems is to print out the user table and sort it by hand to see where the first match is being made.

5.5.6 Access Control, Stage 2: Request Verification

Once you establish a connection, the server enters Stage 2 of access control. For each request that comes in on the connection, the server determines what operation you want to perform, then checks whether you have sufficient privileges to do so. This is where the privilege columns in the grant tables come into play. These privileges can come from any of the user, db, host, tables_priv, or columns_priv tables. (You may find it helpful to refer to section 5.5.2 How the Privilege System Works, which lists the columns present in each of the grant tables.)

The user table grants privileges that are assigned to you on a global basis and that apply no matter what the current database is. For example, if the user table grants you the DELETE privilege, you can delete rows from any table in any database on the server host! In other words, user table privileges are superuser privileges. It is wise to grant privileges in the user table only to superusers such as database administrators. For other users, you should leave the privileges in the user table set to 'N' and grant privileges at more specific levels only. You can grant privileges for particular databases, tables, or columns.

The db and host tables grant database-specific privileges. Values in the scope columns of these tables can take the following forms:

The server reads in and sorts the db and host tables at the same time that it reads the user table. The server sorts the db table based on the Host, Db, and User scope columns, and sorts the host table based on the Host and Db scope columns. As with the user table, sorting puts the most-specific values first and least-specific values last, and when the server looks for matching entries, it uses the first match that it finds.

The tables_priv and columns_priv tables grant table-specific and column-specific privileges. Values in the scope columns of these tables can take the following form:

The server sorts the tables_priv and columns_priv tables based on the Host, Db, and User columns. This is similar to db table sorting, but simpler because only the Host column can contain wildcards.

The request verification process is described here. (If you are familiar with the access-checking source code, you will notice that the description here differs slightly from the algorithm used in the code. The description is equivalent to what the code actually does; it differs only to make the explanation simpler.)

For requests that require administrative privileges such as SHUTDOWN or RELOAD, the server checks only the user table row because that is the only table that specifies administrative privileges. Access is granted if the row allows the requested operation and denied otherwise. For example, if you want to execute mysqladmin shutdown but your user table row doesn't grant the SHUTDOWN privilege to you, the server denies access without even checking the db or host tables. (They contain no Shutdown_priv column, so there is no need to do so.)

For database-related requests (INSERT, UPDATE, and so on), the server first checks the user's global (superuser) privileges by looking in the user table row. If the row allows the requested operation, access is granted. If the global privileges in the user table are insufficient, the server determines the user's database-specific privileges by checking the db and host tables:

  1. The server looks in the db table for a match on the Host, Db, and User columns. The Host and User columns are matched to the connecting user's hostname and MySQL username. The Db column is matched to the database that the user wants to access. If there is no row for the Host and User, access is denied.
  2. If there is a matching db table row and its Host column is not blank, that row defines the user's database-specific privileges.
  3. If the matching db table row's Host column is blank, it signifies that the host table enumerates which hosts should be allowed access to the database. In this case, a further lookup is done in the host table to find a match on the Host and Db columns. If no host table row matches, access is denied. If there is a match, the user's database-specific privileges are computed as the intersection (not the union!) of the privileges in the db and host table entries; that is, the privileges that are 'Y' in both entries. (This way you can grant general privileges in the db table row and then selectively restrict them on a host-by-host basis using the host table entries.)

After determining the database-specific privileges granted by the db and host table entries, the server adds them to the global privileges granted by the user table. If the result allows the requested operation, access is granted. Otherwise, the server successively checks the user's table and column privileges in the tables_priv and columns_priv tables, adds those to the user's privileges, and allows or denies access based on the result.

Expressed in boolean terms, the preceding description of how a user's privileges are calculated may be summarized like this:

global privileges
OR (database privileges AND host privileges)
OR table privileges
OR column privileges

It may not be apparent why, if the global user row privileges are initially found to be insufficient for the requested operation, the server adds those privileges to the database, table, and column privileges later. The reason is that a request might require more than one type of privilege. For example, if you execute an INSERT INTO ... SELECT statement, you need both the INSERT and the SELECT privileges. Your privileges might be such that the user table row grants one privilege and the db table row grants the other. In this case, you have the necessary privileges to perform the request, but the server cannot tell that from either table by itself; the privileges granted by the entries in both tables must be combined.

The host table is not affected by the GRANT or REVOKE statements, so it is unused in most MySQL installations. If you modify it directly, you can use it for some specialized purposes, such as to maintain a list of secure servers. For example, at TcX, the host table contains a list of all machines on the local network. These are granted all privileges.

You can also use the host table to indicate hosts that are not secure. Suppose that you have a machine public.your.domain that is located in a public area that you do not consider secure. You can allow access to all hosts on your network except that machine by using host table entries like this:

+--------------------+----+-
| Host               | Db | ...
+--------------------+----+-
| public.your.domain | %  | ... (all privileges set to 'N')
| %.your.domain      | %  | ... (all privileges set to 'Y')
+--------------------+----+-

Naturally, you should always test your entries in the grant tables (for example, by using SHOW GRANTS or mysqlaccess) to make sure that your access privileges are actually set up the way you think they are.

5.5.7 When Privilege Changes Take Effect

When mysqld starts, all grant table contents are read into memory and become effective for access control at that point.

When the server reloads the grant tables, privileges for existing client connections are affected as follows:

If you modify the grant tables using GRANT, REVOKE, or SET PASSWORD, the server notices these changes and reloads the grant tables into memory again immediately.

If you modify the grant tables directly using statements such as INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE, your changes have no effect on privilege checking until you either restart the server or tell it to reload the tables. To reload the grant tables manually, issue a FLUSH PRIVILEGES statement or execute a mysqladmin flush-privileges or mysqladmin reload command.

If you change the grant tables directly but forget to reload them, your changes will have no effect until you restart the server. This may leave you wondering why your changes don't seem to make any difference!

5.5.8 Causes of Access denied Errors

If you encounter problems when you try to connect to the MySQL server, the following items describe some courses of action you can take to correct the problem.

5.5.9 Password Hashing in MySQL 4.1

MySQL user accounts are listed in the user table of the mysql database. Each MySQL account is assigned a password, although what is stored in the Password column of the user table is not the plaintext version of the password, but a hash value computed from it. Password hash values are computed by the PASSWORD() function.

MySQL uses passwords in two phases of client/server communication:

In other words, the server uses hash values during authentication when a client first attempts to connect. The server generates hash values if a connected client invokes the PASSWORD() function or uses a GRANT or SET PASSWORD statement to set or change a password.

The password hashing mechanism was updated in MySQL 4.1 to provide better security and to reduce the risk of passwords being intercepted. However, this new mechanism is understood only by the 4.1 server and 4.1 clients, which can result in some compatibility problems. A 4.1 client can connect to a pre-4.1 server, because the client understands both the old and new password hashing mechanisms. However, a pre-4.1 client that attempts to connect to a 4.1 server may run into difficulties. For example, a 4.0 mysql client that attempts to connect to a 4.1 server may fail with the following error message:

shell> mysql -h localhost -u root
Client does not support authentication protocol requested
by server; consider upgrading MySQL client

The following discussion describes the differences between the old and new password mechanisms, and what you should do if you upgrade your server to 4.1 but need to maintain backward compatibility with pre-4.1 clients. Additional information can be found in section A.2.3 Client does not support authentication protocol.

Note: This discussion contrasts 4.1 behavior with pre-4.1 behavior, but the 4.1 behavior described here actually begins with 4.1.1. MySQL 4.1.0 is an ``odd'' release because it has a slightly different mechanism than that implemented in 4.1.1 and up. Differences between 4.1.0 and more recent versions are described further in section 5.5.9.2 Password Hashing in MySQL 4.1.0.

Prior to MySQL 4.1, password hashes computed by the PASSWORD() function are 16 bytes long. Such hashes look like this:

mysql> SELECT PASSWORD('mypass');
+--------------------+
| PASSWORD('mypass') |
+--------------------+
| 6f8c114b58f2ce9e   |
+--------------------+

The Password column of the user table (in which these hashes are stored) also is 16 bytes long before MySQL 4.1.

As of MySQL 4.1, the PASSWORD() function has been modified to produce a longer 41-byte hash value:

mysql> SELECT PASSWORD('mypass');
+-----------------------------------------------+
| PASSWORD('mypass')                            |
+-----------------------------------------------+
| *43c8aa34cdc98eddd3de1fe9a9c2c2a9f92bb2098d75 |
+-----------------------------------------------+

Accordingly, the Password column in the user table also must be 41 bytes long to store these values:

A widened Password column can store password hashes in both the old and new formats. The format of any given password hash value can be determined two ways:

The longer password hash format has better cryptographic properties, and client authentication based on long hashes is more secure than that based on the older short hashes.

The differences between short and long password hashes are relevant both for how the server uses passwords during authentication and for how it generates password hashes for connected clients that perform password-changing operations.

The way in which the server uses password hashes during authentication is affected by the width of the Password column:

For short-hash accounts, the authentication process is actually a bit more secure for 4.1 clients than for older clients. In terms of security, the gradient from least to most secure is:

The way in which the server generates password hashes for connected clients is affected by the width of the Password column and by the --old-passwords option. A 4.1 server generates long hashes only if certain conditions are met: The Password column must be wide enough to hold long values and the --old-passwords option must not be given. These conditions apply as follows:

The purpose of the --old-passwords option is to allow you to maintain backward compatibility with pre-4.1 clients under circumstances where the server would otherwise generate long password hashes. The option doesn't affect authentication (4.1 clients can still use accounts that have long password hashes), but it does prevent creation of a long password hash in the user table as the result of a password-changing operation. Were that to occur, the account no longer could be used by pre-4.1 clients. Without the --old-passwords option, the following undesirable scenario is possible:

This scenario illustrates that, if you must support older pre-4.1 clients, it is dangerous to run a 4.1 server without using the --old-passwords option. By running the server with --old-passwords, password-changing operations will not generate long password hashes and thus do not cause accounts to become inaccessible to older clients. (Those clients cannot inadvertently lock themselves out by changing their password and ending up with a long password hash.)

The downside of the --old-passwords option is that any passwords you create or change will use short hashes, even for 4.1 clients. Thus, you lose the additional security provided by long password hashes. If you want to create an account that has a long hash (for example, for use by 4.1 clients), you must do so while running the server without --old-passwords.

The following scenarios are possible for running a 4.1 server:

Scenario 1: Short Password column in user table:

Scenario 2: Long Password column; server not started with --old-passwords option:

As indicated earlier, a danger in this scenario is that it is possible for accounts that have a short password hash to become inaccessible to pre-4.1 clients. A change to such an account's password made via GRANT, PASSWORD(), or SET PASSWORD results in the account being given a long password hash. From that point on, no pre-4.1 client can authenticate to that account until the client upgrades to 4.1.

To deal with this problem, you can change a password in a special way. For example, normally you use SET PASSWORD as follows to change an account password:

mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR 'some_user'@'some_host' = PASSWORD('mypass');

To change the password but create a short hash, use the OLD_PASSWORD() function instead:

mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR 'some_user'@'some_host' = OLD_PASSWORD('mypass');

OLD_PASSWORD() is useful for situations in which you explicitly want to generate a short hash.

Scenario 3: Long Password column; server started with --old-passwords option:

In this scenario, you cannot create accounts that have long password hashes, because the --old-passwords option prevents generation of long hashes. Also, if you create an account with a long hash before using the --old-passwords option, changing the account's password while --old-passwords is in effect results in the account being given a short password, causing it to lose the security benefits of a longer hash.

The disadvantages for these scenarios may be summarized as follows:

In scenario 1, you cannot take advantage of longer hashes that provide more secure authentication.

In scenario 2, accounts with short hashes become inaccessible to pre-4.1 clients if you change their passwords without explicitly using OLD_PASSWORD().

In scenario 3, --old-passwords prevents accounts with short hashes from becoming inaccessible, but password-changing operations cause accounts with long hashes to revert to short hashes, and you cannot change them back to long hashes while --old-passwords is in effect.

5.5.9.1 Implications of Password Hashing Changes for Application Programs

An upgrade to MySQL 4.1 can cause a compatibility issue for applications that use PASSWORD() to generate passwords for their own purposes. Applications really should not do this, because PASSWORD() should be used only to manage passwords for MySQL accounts. But some applications use PASSWORD() for their own purposes anyway.

If you upgrade to 4.1 and run the server under conditions where it generates long password hashes, an application that uses PASSWORD() for its own passwords will break. The recommended course of action is to modify the application to use another function, such as SHA1() or MD5(), to produce hashed values. If that is not possible, you can use the OLD_PASSWORD() function, which is provided to generate short hashes in the old format. But note that OLD_PASSWORD() may one day no longer be supported.

If the server is running under circumstances where it generates short hashes, OLD_PASSWORD() is available but is equivalent to PASSWORD().

5.5.9.2 Password Hashing in MySQL 4.1.0

Password hashing in MySQL 4.1.0 differs from hashing in 4.1.1 and up. The 4.1.0 differences are:

These differences make authentication in 4.1.0 incompatible with that of releases that follow it. If you have upgraded t