DBD::mysql - MySQL driver for the Perl5 Database Interface (DBI)


           use DBI;

           $dsn = "DBI:mysql:database=$database;host=$hostname;port=$port";

           $dbh = DBI->connect($dsn, $user, $password);

           $drh = DBI->install_driver("mysql");
           @databases = DBI->data_sources("mysql");
           @databases = DBI->data_sources("mysql",
                                          {"host" => $host, "port" => $port});

           $sth = $dbh->prepare("SELECT * FROM foo WHERE bla");
           $sth = $dbh->prepare("LISTFIELDS $table");
           $sth = $dbh->prepare("LISTINDEX $table $index");
           $numRows = $sth->rows;
           $numFields = $sth->{'NUM_OF_FIELDS'};

           $rc = $drh->func('createdb', $database, $host, $user, $password, 'admin');
           $rc = $drh->func('dropdb', $database, $host, $user, $password, 'admin');
           $rc = $drh->func('shutdown', $host, $user, $password, 'admin');
           $rc = $drh->func('reload', $host, $user, $password, 'admin');

           $rc = $dbh->func('createdb', $database, 'admin');
           $rc = $dbh->func('dropdb', $database, 'admin');
           $rc = $dbh->func('shutdown', 'admin');
           $rc = $dbh->func('reload', 'admin');



         use strict;
         use DBI();

         # Connect to the database.
         my $dbh = DBI->connect("DBI:mysql:database=test;host=localhost",
                                "joe", "joe's password",
                                {'RaiseError' => 1});

         # Drop table 'foo'. This may fail, if 'foo' doesn't exist.
         # Thus we put an eval around it.
         eval { $dbh->do("DROP TABLE foo") };
         print "Dropping foo failed: $@\n" if $@;

         # Create a new table 'foo'. This must not fail, thus we don't
         # catch errors.
         $dbh->do("CREATE TABLE foo (id INTEGER, name VARCHAR(20))");

         # INSERT some data into 'foo'. We are using $dbh->quote() for
         # quoting the name.
         $dbh->do("INSERT INTO foo VALUES (1, " . $dbh->quote("Tim") . ")");

         # Same thing, but using placeholders
         $dbh->do("INSERT INTO foo VALUES (?, ?)", undef, 2, "Jochen");

         # Now retrieve data from the table.
         my $sth = $dbh->prepare("SELECT * FROM foo");
         while (my $ref = $sth->fetchrow_hashref()) {
           print "Found a row: id = $ref->{'id'}, name = $ref->{'name'}\n";

         # Disconnect from the database.


       DBD::mysql is the Perl5 Database Interface driver for the MySQL data-
       base. In other words: DBD::mysql is an interface between the Perl pro-
       gramming language and the MySQL programming API that comes with the
       MySQL relational database management system. Most functions provided by
       this programming API are supported. Some rarely used functions are
       missing, mainly because noone ever requested them. :-)

       In what follows we first discuss the use of DBD::mysql, because this is
       what you will need the most. For installation, see the sections on
       for a simple example above.

       From perl you activate the interface with the statement

           use DBI;

       After that you can connect to multiple MySQL database servers and send
       multiple queries to any of them via a simple object oriented interface.
       Two types of objects are available: database handles and statement han-
       dles. Perl returns a database handle to the connect method like so:

         $dbh = DBI->connect("DBI:mysql:database=$db;host=$host",
                             $user, $password, {RaiseError => 1});

       Once you have connected to a database, you can can execute SQL state-
       ments with:

         my $query = sprintf("INSERT INTO foo VALUES (%d, %s)",
                             $number, $dbh->quote("name"));

       See DBI(3) for details on the quote and do methods. An alternative
       approach is

         $dbh->do("INSERT INTO foo VALUES (?, ?)", undef,
                  $number, $name);

       in which case the quote method is executed automatically. See also the
       bind_param method in DBI(3). See "DATABASE HANDLES" below for more
       details on database handles.

       If you want to retrieve results, you need to create a so-called state-
       ment handle with:

         $sth = $dbh->prepare("SELECT * FROM $table");

       This statement handle can be used for multiple things. First of all you
       can retreive a row of data:

         my $row = $sth->fetchow_hashref();

       If your table has columns ID and NAME, then $row will be hash ref with
       keys ID and NAME. See "STATEMENT HANDLES" below for more details on
       statement handles.

       But now for a more formal approach:

       Class Methods

               use DBI;

               $dsn = "DBI:mysql:$database";
               $dsn = "DBI:mysql:database=$database;host=$hostname";
               $dsn = "DBI:mysql:database=$database;host=$hostname;port=$port";

               $dbh = DBI->connect($dsn, $user, $password);

           A "database" must always be specified.

               The hostname, if not specified or specified as '', will default
               to an MySQL daemon running on the local machine on the default
               port for the UNIX socket.

               Should the MySQL daemon be running on a non-standard port num-
               ber, you may explicitly state the port number to connect to in
               the "hostname" argument, by concatenating the hostname and port
               number together separated by a colon ( ":" ) character or by
               using the  "port" argument.

               Enables (TRUE value) or disables (FALSE value) the flag
               CLIENT_FOUND_ROWS while connecting to the MySQL server. This
               has a somewhat funny effect: Without mysql_client_found_rows,
               if you perform a query like

                 UPDATE $table SET id = 1 WHERE id = 1

               then the MySQL engine will always return 0, because no rows
               have changed.  With mysql_client_found_rows however, it will
               return the number of rows that have an id 1, as some people are
               expecting. (At least for compatibility to other engines.)

               As of MySQL 3.22.3, a new feature is supported: If your DSN
               contains the option "mysql_compression=1", then the communica-
               tion between client and server will be compressed.

               If your DSN contains the option "mysql_connect_timeout=##", the
               connect request to the server will timeout if it has not been
               successful after the given number of seconds.

               These options can be used to read a config file like
               /etc/my.cnf or ~/.my.cnf. By default MySQL's C client library
               doesn't use any config files unlike the client programs (mysql,
               mysqladmin, ...) that do, but outside of the C client library.
               Thus you need to explicitly request reading a config file, as

                   $dsn = "DBI:mysql:test;mysql_read_default_file=/home/joe/my.cnf";
                   $dbh = DBI->connect($dsn, $user, $password)

               The option mysql_read_default_group can be used to specify the
               default group in the config file: Usually this is the client
               group, but see the following example:



               (Note the order of the entries! The example won't work, if you
               reverse the [client] and [perl] sections!)

               If you read this config file, then you'll be typically con-
               nected to localhost. However, by using

                   $dsn = "DBI:mysql:test;mysql_read_default_group=perl;"
                       . "mysql_read_default_file=/home/joe/my.cnf";
                   $dbh = DBI->connect($dsn, $user, $password);

               you'll be connected to perlhost. Note that if you specify a
               default group and do not specify a file, then the default con-
               fig files will all be read.  See the documentation of the C
               function mysql_options() for details.

               As of MySQL 3.21.15, it is possible to choose the Unix socket
               that is used for connecting to the server. This is done, for
               example, with


               Usually there's no need for this option, unless you are using
               another location for the socket than that built into the

               A true value turns on the CLIENT_SSL flag when connecting to
               the MySQL database:


               This means that your communication with the server will be

               If you turn mysql_ssl on, you might also wish to use the fol-
               lowing flags:

               These are used to specify the respective parameters of a call
               to mysql_ssl_set, if mysql_ssl is turned on.

               As of MySQL 3.23.49, the LOCAL capability for LOAD DATA may be
               disabled in the MySQL client library by default. If your DSN
               contains the option "mysql_local_infile=1", LOAD DATA LOCAL
               will be enabled.  (However, this option is *ineffective* if the
               server has also been configured to disallow LOCAL.)

       Private MetaData Methods

               my $drh = DBI->install_driver("mysql");
               @dbs = $drh->func("$hostname:$port", '_ListDBs');
               @dbs = $drh->func($hostname, $port, '_ListDBs');
               @dbs = $dbh->func('_ListDBs');

           Returns a list of all databases managed by the MySQL daemon running
           on $hostname, port $port. This method is rarely needed for data-
           bases running on "localhost": You should use the portable method

               @dbs = DBI->data_sources("mysql");

           whenever possible. It is a design problem of this method, that
           there's no way of supplying a host name or port number to
           "data_sources", that's the only reason why we still support "List-
           DBs". :-(

       Server Administration

               $rc = $drh->func("createdb", $dbname, [host, user, password,], 'admin');
               $rc = $drh->func("dropdb", $dbname, [host, user, password,], 'admin');
               $rc = $drh->func("shutdown", [host, user, password,], 'admin');
               $rc = $drh->func("reload", [host, user, password,], 'admin');


               $rc = $dbh->func("createdb", $dbname, 'admin');
               $rc = $dbh->func("dropdb", $dbname, 'admin');
               $rc = $dbh->func("shutdown", 'admin');
               $rc = $dbh->func("reload", 'admin');

           For server administration you need a server connection. For obtain-
           ing this connection you have two options: Either use a driver han-
           dle (drh) and supply the appropriate arguments (host, defaults
           localhost, user, defaults to '' and password, defaults to ''). A
           driver handle can be obtained with

               $drh = DBI->install_driver('mysql');

           Otherwise reuse the existing connection of a database handle (dbh).

           There's only one function available for administrative purposes,
           comparable to the m(y)sqladmin programs. The command being execute
           depends on the first argument:

               Creates the database $dbname. Equivalent to "m(y)sqladmin cre-
               ate $dbname".

               Drops the database $dbname. Equivalent to "m(y)sqladmin drop

               It should be noted that database deletion is not prompted for
               in any way.  Nor is it undo-able from DBI.

                   Once you issue the dropDB() method, the database will be gone!

               These method should be used at your own risk.

               Silently shuts down the database engine. (Without prompting!)
               Equivalent to "m(y)sqladmin shutdown".

               Reloads the servers configuration files and/or tables. This can
               be particularly important if you modify access privileges or
               create new users.


       The DBD::mysql driver supports the following attributes of database
       handles (read only):

         $errno = $dbh->{'mysql_errno'};
         $error = $dbh->{'mysql_error};
         $info = $dbh->{'mysql_hostinfo'};
         $info = $dbh->{'mysql_info'};
         $insertid = $dbh->{'mysql_insertid'};
         $info = $dbh->{'mysql_protoinfo'};
         $info = $dbh->{'mysql_serverinfo'};
         $info = $dbh->{'mysql_stat'};
         $threadId = $dbh->{'mysql_thread_id'};

       These correspond to mysql_errno(), mysql_error(),
       mysql_get_host_info(), mysql_info(), mysql_insert_id(),
       mysql_get_proto_info(), mysql_get_server_info(), mysql_stat() and
       mysql_thread_id(), respectively.

        $info_hashref = $dhb->{mysql_dbd_stats}

       DBD::mysql keeps track of some statistics in the mysql_dbd_stats
       attribute.  The following stats are being maintained:

           the number of times that DBD::mysql had to reconnect to mysql

           the number of times that DBD::mysql tried to reconnect to mysql but

       The DBD::mysql driver also supports the following attribute(s) of data-
       base handles (read/write):

        $bool_value = $dbh->{mysql_auto_reconnect};
        $dbh->{mysql_auto_reconnect} = $AutoReconnect ? 1 : 0;

           This attribute determines whether DBD::mysql will automatically
           reconnect to mysql if the connection be lost. This feature defaults
           to off; however, if either the GATEWAY_INTERFACE or MOD_PERL
           envionment variable is set, DBD::mysql will turn mysql_auto_recon-
           nect on.  Setting mysql_auto_reconnect to on is not advised if
           'lock tables' is used because if DBD::mysql reconnect to mysql all
           table locks will be lost.  This attribute is ignored when AutoCom-
           mit is turned off, and when AutoCommit is turned off, DBD::mysql
           will not automatically reconnect to the server.


       The statement handles of DBD::mysql support a number of attributes. You
       access these by using, for example,

         my $numFields = $sth->{'NUM_OF_FIELDS'};

       Note, that most attributes are valid only after a successfull execute.
       An "undef" value will returned in that case. The most important excep-
       tion is the "mysql_use_result" attribute: This forces the driver to use
       mysql_use_result rather than mysql_store_result. The former is faster
       and less memory consuming, but tends to block other processes. (That's
       why mysql_store_result is the default.)

       To set the "mysql_use_result" attribute, use either of the following:

         my $sth = $dbh->prepare("QUERY", { "mysql_use_result" => 1});


         my $sth = $dbh->prepare("QUERY");
         $sth->{"mysql_use_result"} = 1;

       Column dependent attributes, for example NAME, the column names, are
       returned as a reference to an array. The array indices are correspond-
       ing to the indices of the arrays returned by fetchrow and similar meth-
       ods. For example the following code will print a header of table names
       together with all rows:

         my $sth = $dbh->prepare("SELECT * FROM $table");
         if (!$sth) {
             die "Error:" . $dbh->errstr . "\n";
         if (!$sth->execute) {
             die "Error:" . $sth->errstr . "\n";
         my $names = $sth->{'NAME'};
         my $numFields = $sth->{'NUM_OF_FIELDS'};
         for (my $i = 0;  $i < $numFields;  $i++) {
             printf("%s%s", $i ? "," : "", $$names[$i]);
         print "\n";
         while (my $ref = $sth->fetchrow_arrayref) {
             for (my $i = 0;  $i < $numFields;  $i++) {
                 printf("%s%s", $i ? "," : "", $$ref[$i]);
             print "\n";

       For portable applications you should restrict yourself to attributes
       with capitalized or mixed case names. Lower case attribute names are
       private to DBD::mysql. The attribute list includes:

           this attribute determines whether a fetchrow will chop preceding
           and trailing blanks off the column values. Chopping blanks does not
           have impact on the max_length attribute.

           MySQL has the ability to choose unique key values automatically. If
           this happened, the new ID will be stored in this attribute. An
           alternative way for accessing this attribute is via
           $dbh->{'mysql_insertid'}.  (Note we are using the $dbh in this

           Reference to an array of boolean values; TRUE indicates, that the
           respective column is a blob. This attribute is valid for MySQL

           Reference to an array of boolean values; TRUE indicates, that the
           respective column is a key. This is valid for MySQL only.

           Reference to an array of boolean values; TRUE indicates, that the
           respective column contains numeric values.

           Reference to an array of boolean values; TRUE indicates, that the
           respective column is a primary key.

           Reference to an array of boolean values; TRUE indicates that the
           respective column is an AUTO_INCREMENT column.  This is only valid
           for MySQL.

           A reference to an array of maximum column sizes. The max_length is
           the maximum physically present in the result table, length gives
           the theoretically possible maximum. max_length is valid for MySQL

           A reference to an array of column names.

           A reference to an array of boolean values; TRUE indicates that this
           column may contain NULL's.

           Number of fields returned by a SELECT or LISTFIELDS statement.  You
           may use this for checking whether a statement returned a result: A
           zero value indicates a non-SELECT statement like INSERT, DELETE or

           A reference to an array of table names, useful in a JOIN result.

           A reference to an array of column types. The engine's native column
           types are mapped to portable types like DBI::SQL_INTEGER() or
           DBI::SQL_VARCHAR(), as good as possible. Not all native types have
           a meaningfull equivalent, for example DBD::mysql::FIELD_TYPE_INTER-
           VAL is mapped to DBI::SQL_VARCHAR().  If you need the native column
           types, use mysql_type. See below.

           A reference to an array of MySQL's native column types, for example
           DBD::mysql::FIELD_TYPE_SHORT() or DBD::mysql::FIELD_TYPE_STRING().
           Use the TYPE attribute, if you want portable types like

           Similar to mysql, but type names and not numbers are returned.
           Whenever possible, the ANSI SQL name is preferred.


       Beginning with DBD::mysql 2.0416, transactions are supported.  The
       transaction support works as follows:

       o   By default AutoCommit mode is on, following the DBI specifications.

       o   If you execute

               $dbh-E<gt>{'AutoCommit'} = 0;


               $dbh-E<gt>{'AutoCommit'} = 1;

           then the driver will set the MySQL server variable autocommit to 0
           or 1, respectively. Switching from 0 to 1 will also issue a COMMIT,
           following the DBI specifications.

       o   The methods


           will issue the commands COMMIT and ROLLBACK, respectively. A ROLL-
           BACK will also be issued if AutoCommit mode is off and the database
           handles DESTROY method is called. Again, this is following the DBI

       Given the above, you should note the following:

       o   You should never change the server variable autocommit manually,
           unless you are ignoring DBI's transaction support.

       o   Switching AutoCommit mode from on to off or vice versa may fail.
           You should always check for errors, when changing AutoCommit mode.
           The suggested way of doing so is using the DBI flag RaiseError.  If
           you don't like RaiseError, you have to use code like the following:

             $dbh->{'AutoCommit'} = 0;
             if ($dbh->{'AutoCommit'}) {
               # An error occurred!

       o   If you detect an error while changing the AutoCommit mode, you
           should no longer use the database handle. In other words, you
           should disconnect and reconnect again, because the transaction mode
           is unpredictable. Alternatively you may verify the transaction mode
           by checking the value of the server variable autocommit.  However,
           such behaviour isn't portable.

       o   DBD::mysql has a "reconnect" feature that handles the so-called
           MySQL "morning bug": If the server has disconnected, most probably
           due to a timeout, then by default the driver will reconnect and
           attempt to execute the same SQL statement again. However, this be-
           haviour is disabled when AutoCommit is off: Otherwise the transac-
           tion state would be completely unpredictable after a reconnect.

       o   The "reconnect" feature of DBD::mysql can be toggled by using the
           mysql_auto_reconnect attribute. This behaviour should be turned off
           in code that uses LOCK TABLE because if the database server time
           out and DBD::mysql reconnect, table locks will be lost without any
           indication of such loss.


       Certain metadata functions of MySQL that are available on the C API
       level, haven't been implemented here. Instead they are implemented as
       "SQL extensions" because they return in fact nothing else but the
       equivalent of a statement handle. These are:

       LISTFIELDS $table
           Returns a statement handle that describes the columns of $table.
           Ses the docs of mysql_list_fields (C API) for details.


       The statement attribute TYPE has changed its meaning, as of DBD::mysql
       2.0119. Formerly it used to be the an array of native engine's column
       types, but it is now an array of portable SQL column types. The old
       attribute is still available as mysql_type.

       DBD::mysql is a moving target, due to a number of reasons:

       -   Of course we have to conform the DBI guidelines and developments.

       -   We have to keep track with the latest MySQL developments.

       -   And, surprisingly, we have to be as close to ODBC as possible: This
           is due to the current direction of DBI.

       -   And, last not least, as any tool it has a little bit life of its

       This means that a lot of things had to and have to be changed.  As I am
       not interested in maintaining a lot of compatibility kludges, which
       only increase the drivers code without being really usefull, I did and
       will remove some features, methods or attributes.

       To ensure a smooth upgrade, the following policy will be applied:

       Obsolete features
           The first step is to declare something obsolete. This means, that
           no code is changed, but the feature appears in the list of obsolete
           features. See "Obsolete Features" below.

       Deprecated features
           If the feature has been obsolete for quite some time, typically in
           the next major stable release, warnings will be inserted in the
           code. You can suppress these warnings by setting

               $DBD::mysql = 1;

           In the docs the feature will be moved from the list of obsolete
           features to the list of deprecated features. See "Deprecated Fea-
           tures" below.

       Removing features
           Finally features will be removed silently in the next major stable
           release. The feature will be shown in the list of historic fea-
           tures.  See "Historic Features" below.

       Example: The statement handle attribute


       was declared obsolete in DBD::mysql 2.00xy. It was considered depre-
       cated in DBD::mysql 2.02xy and removed in 2.04xy.

       Obsolete Features

       Database handle attributes
           The following database handle attributes are declared obsolete in
           DBD::mysql 2.09. They will be deprecated in 2.11 and removed in

               Replaced by "$dbh->{'mysql_errno'}"

               Replaced by "$dbh->{'mysql_error'}"

               Replaced by "$dbh->{'mysql_hostinfo'}"

               Replaced by "$dbh->{'mysql_info'}"

               Replaced by "$dbh->{'mysql_protoinfo'}"

               Replaced by "$dbh->{'mysql_serverinfo'}"

               Replaced by "$dbh->{'mysql_stat'}"

               Replaced by "$dbh->{'mysql_thread_id'}"

       Deprecated Features

           Replace with the standard DBI method "$dbh->tables()". See also
           "$dbh->table_info()". Portable applications will prefer

               @tables = map { $_ =~ s/.*\.//; $_ } $dbh-E<gt>tables()

           because, depending on the engine, the string "user.table" will be
           returned, user being the table owner. The method will be removed in
           DBD::mysql version 2.11xy.

       Historic Features

           The methods

               $dbh-E<gt>func($db, '_CreateDB');
               $dbh-E<gt>func($db, '_DropDB');

           have been used for creating or dropping databases. They have been
           removed in 1.21_07 in favour of

               $drh-E<gt>func("createdb", $dbname, $host, "admin")
               $drh-E<gt>func("dropdb", $dbname, $host, "admin")

           The method

               $sth = $dbh-E<gt>func($table, '_ListFields');

           has been used to list a tables columns names, types and other
           attributes.  This method has been removed in 1.21_07 in favour of

               $sth = $dbh-E<gt>prepare("LISTFIELDS $table");

           The method


           use to return a hash ref of attributes like 'IS_NUM', 'IS_KEY' and
           so on. These attributes are now accessible via


           and so on. Thus the method has been removed in 1.21_07.

           The method


           used to be equivalent to


           and has been removed in 1.21_07.

           The method


           used to be equivalent with


       Statement handle attributes
               Replaced with $sth->{'mysql_affected_rows'} or the result of

               Replaced with $sth->{'PRECISION'}.

               Replaced with $sth->{'mysql_max_length'}.

               Replaced with $sth->{'TYPE'} (portable) or
               $sth->{'mysql_type_name'} (MySQL specific).

               Replaced with $sth->->{'TYPE'} (portable) or
               $sth->{'mysql_is_num'} (MySQL specific).

               Replaced with $sth->{'mysql_insertid'}.

               Replaced with $sth->{'TYPE'} (portable) or
               $sth->{'mysql_is_blob'} (MySQL specific).

               Replaced with $sth->{'TYPE'} (portable) or
               $sth->{'mysql_is_blob'} (MySQL specific).

               Replaced with $sth->{'mysql_is_pri_key'}.

               Replaced with $sth->{'mysql_is_pri_key'}.

               Replaced with $sth->{'NULLABLE'} (do not forget to invert the
               boolean values).

               Replaced with $sth->{'NULLABLE'} (do not forget to invert the
               boolean values).

               Replaced with $sth->{'TYPE'} (portable) or
               $sth->{'mysql_is_num'} (MySQL specific).

               Replaced with $sth->{'TYPE'} (portable) or
               $sth->{'mysql_is_num'} (MySQL specific).

               Replaced with $sth->{'mysql_is_key'}.

               Replaced with $sth->{'mysql_is_key'}.

               Replaced with $sth->{'mysql_max_length'}.

               Replaced with $sth->{'mysql_max_length'}.

               Replaced with $sth->{'PRECISION'} (portable) or
               $sth->{'mysql_length'} (MySQL specific)

               Replaced with $sth->{'PRECISION'} (portable) or
               $sth->{'mysql_length'} (MySQL specific)

               Replaced with $sth->{'NUM_OF_FIELDS'}.

               Replaced with $sth->{'NUM_OF_FIELDS'}.

               Replaced with the result of $sth->execute() or

               Replaced with $sth->{'mysql_table'}.

               Replaced with $sth->{'mysql_table'}.


       The multithreading capabilities of DBD::mysql depend completely on the
       underlying C libraries: The modules are working with handle data only,
       no global variables are accessed or (to the best of my knowledge)
       thread unsafe functions are called. Thus DBD::mysql is believed to be
       completely thread safe, if the C libraries are thread safe and you
       don't share handles among threads.

       The obvious question is: Are the C libraries thread safe?  In the case
       of MySQL the answer is "mostly" and, in theory, you should be able to
       get a "yes", if the C library is compiled for being thread safe (By
       default it isn't.) by passing the option -with-thread-safe-client to
       configure. See the section on How to make a threadsafe client in the


       Windows users may skip this section and pass over to "WIN32 INSTALLA-
       TION" below. Others, go on reading.

       First of all, you do not need an installed MySQL server for installing
       DBD::mysql. However, you need at least the client libraries and possi-
       bly the header files, if you are compiling DBD::mysql from source. In
       the case of MySQL you can create a client-only version by using the
       configure option --without-server.  If you are using precompiled bina-
       ries, then it may be possible to use just selected RPM's like MySQL-
       client and MySQL-devel or something similar, depending on the distribu-

       First you need to install the DBI module. For using dbimon, a simple
       DBI shell it is recommended to install Data::ShowTable another Perl

       I recommend trying automatic installation via the CPAN module. Try

         perl -MCPAN -e shell

       If you are using the CPAN module for the first time, it will prompt you
       a lot of questions. If you finally receive the CPAN prompt, enter

         install Bundle::DBD::mysql

       If this fails (which may be the case for a number of reasons, for exam-
       ple because you are behind a firewall or don't have network access),
       you need to do a manual installation. First of all you need to fetch
       the archives from any CPAN mirror, for example

       The following archives are required (version numbers may have changed,
       I choose those which are current as of this writing):


       Then enter the following commands:

         gzip -cd DBI-1.15.tar.gz | tar xf -
         cd DBI-1.15
         perl Makefile.PL
         make test
         make install

         cd ..
         gzip -cd Data-ShowTable-3.3.tar.gz | tar xf -
         cd Data-ShowTable-3.3
         perl Makefile.PL
         make install  # Don't try make test, the test suite is broken

         cd ..
         gzip -cd DBD-mysql-2.1001.tar.gz | tar xf -
         cd DBD-mysql-2.1001
         perl Makefile.PL
         make test
         make install

       During "perl Makefile.PL" you will be prompted some questions.  Other
       questions are the directories with header files and libraries.  For
       example, of your file mysql.h is in /usr/include/mysql/mysql.h, then
       enter the header directory /usr, likewise for /usr/lib/mysql/libmysql-
       client.a or /usr/lib/


       If you are using ActivePerl, you may use ppm to install DBD-mysql.  For
       Perl 5.6, upgrade to Build 623 or later, then it is sufficient to run

         ppm install DBI
         ppm install DBD::mysql

       If you need an HTTP proxy, you might need to set the environment vari-
       able http_proxy, for example like this:

         set http_proxy=

       As of this writing, DBD::mysql is missing in the ActivePerl 5.8.0
       repository. However, Randy Kobes has kindly donated an own distribution
       and the following might succeed:

         ppm install

       Otherwise you definitely *need* a C compiler. And it *must* be the same
       compiler that was being used for compiling Perl itself. If you don't
       have a C compiler, the file README.win32 from the Perl source distribu-
       tion tells you where to obtain freely distributable C compilers like
       egcs or gcc. The Perl sources are available on any CPAN mirror in the
       src directory, for example


       I recommend using the win32clients package for installing DBD::mysql
       under Win32, available for download on The following steps
       have been required for me:

       -   The current Perl versions (5.6, as of this writing) do have a prob-
           lem with detecting the C libraries. I recommend to apply the fol-
           lowing patch:

             *** c:\Perl\lib\ExtUtils\ Sat Apr 15 20:03:40 2000
             --- c:\Perl\lib\ExtUtils\      Sat Apr 15 20:03:45 2000
             *** 230,235 ****
             --- 230,239 ----
                 # add "$Config{installarchlib}/CORE" to default search path
                 push @libpath, "$Config{installarchlib}/CORE";

             +     if ($VC  and  exists($ENV{LIB})  and  defined($ENV{LIB})) {
             +       push(@libpath, split(/;/, $ENV{LIB}));
             +     }
                 foreach (Text::ParseWords::quotewords('\s+', 0, $potential_libs)){

                   $thislib = $_;

       -   Extract sources into C:\. This will create a directory C:\mysql
           with subdirectories include and lib.

           IMPORTANT: Make sure this subdirectory is not shared by other TCX
           files! In particular do *not* store the MySQL server in the same
           directory. If the server is already installed in C:\mysql, choose a
           location like C:\tmp, extract the win32clients there.  Note that
           you can remove this directory entirely once you have installed

       -   Extract the DBD::mysql sources into another directory, for example

       -   Open a DOS shell and change directory to C:\src\siteperl.

       -   The next step is only required if you repeat building the modules:
           Make sure that you have a clean build tree by running

             nmake realclean

           If you don't have VC++, replace nmake with your flavour of make. If
           error messages are reported in this step, you may safely ignore

       -   Run

             perl Makefile.PL

           which will prompt you for some settings. The really important ones

             Which DBMS do you want to use?

           enter a 1 here (MySQL only), and

             Where is your mysql installed? Please tell me the directory that
             contains the subdir include.

           where you have to enter the win32clients directory, for example
           C:\mysql or C:\tmp\mysql.

       -   Continued in the usual way:

             nmake install

       If you want to create a PPM package for the ActiveState Perl version,
       then modify the above steps as follows: Run

         perl Makefile.PL NAME=DBD-mysql BINARY_LOCATION=DBD-mysql.tar.gz
         nmake ppd

       Once that is done, use tar and gzip (for example those from the Cyg-
       Win32 distribution) to create an archive:

         mkdir x86
         tar cf x86/DBD-mysql.tar blib
         gzip x86/DBD-mysql.tar

       Put the files x86/DBD-mysql.tar.gz and DBD-mysql.ppd onto some WWW
       server and install them by typing


       in the PPM program.


       The current version of DBD::mysql is almost completely written by
       Jochen Wiedmann, and is now being maintained by Rudy Lippan (rlip- The first version's author was Alligator
       Descartes (, who has been aided and abetted by
       Gary Shea, Andreas Knig and Tim Bunce amongst others.

       The Mysql module was originally written by Andreas Knig <koenig@kultur->. The current version, mainly an emulation layer, is from Jochen


       This module is Copyright (c) 2003 Rudolf Lippan; Large Portions Copy-
       right (c) 1997-2003 Jochen Wiedmann, with code portions Copyright
       (c)1994-1997 their original authors This module is released under the
       same license as Perl itself. See the Perl README for details.


       This module is maintained and supported on a mailing list,


       To subscribe to this list, send a mail to




       Mailing list archives are available at


       Additionally you might try the dbi-user mailing list for questions
       about DBI and its modules in general. Subscribe via


       Mailing list archives are at



       Additional information on the DBI project can be found on the World
       Wide Web at the following URL:


       where documentation, pointers to the mailing lists and mailing list ar-
       chives and pointers to the most current versions of the modules can be

       Information on the DBI interface itself can be gained by typing:

           perldoc DBI

       right now!

perl v5.8.6                       2004-07-13                     DBD::mysql(3)

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