cpio -- copy file archives in and out 


   /u95/bin/cpio -i [ bBcdfkmrsSTtuvV6 ] [-C bufsize ] [ -E file ] [ -G fi
le ] [ -H hdr ]
        [ -e [xattr_name=]action[,[xattr_name=]action ...]
        [ -I file [-M message] ] [-R ID] ] [ pattern ...]
   cpio -o [ aABcLvV ] [ -C bufsize] [-G file] [-H hdr ] [ -K mediasize ]
        [ -e [xattr_name=]action[,[xattr_name=]action ... ]
        [ -O file [-M message] ]
   cpio -p directory |[adlLmuvV] [-R ID]
        [-e [xattr_name=]action[,[xattr_name=]action ...]


   The -i, -o, and -p options select the action to be performed. The
   following list describes each of the actions (which are mutually

   cpio -i (copy in) extracts files from the standard input (only if
   -I is not specified), which is assumed to be the product of a
   previous cpio -o. Only files with names that match patterns are
   selected. patterns are regular expressions given in the
   filename-generating notation of sh(1). In patterns,
   meta-characters ``?'', `` * '', and ``[ . . . ]'' match the slash
   (``/'') character, and backslash (``\'') is an escape character.
   A ``!'' meta-character means not. (For example, the ``!abc * ''
   pattern would exclude all files that begin with ``abc''.)
   Multiple patterns may be specified and if no patterns are
   specified, the default for patterns is `` * '' (that is, select
   all files). Each pattern must be enclosed in double quotes;
   otherwise, the name of a file in the current directory might be
   used. Extracted files are conditionally created and copied into
   the current directory tree based on the options described below.

   The permissions of the files will be those of the previous cpio
   -o. Owner and group permissions will be the same as the current
   user unless the current user possesses the owner privilege. If
   this is true, owner and group permissions will be the same as
   those resulting from the previous cpio -o.

   NOTE: If cpio -i tries to create a file that already exists and
   the existing file is the same age or younger (newer), cpio will
   output a warning message and not replace the file.

   (The -u option can be used to overwrite, unconditionally, the
   existing file.) If file names are given as absolute pathnames to
   cpio -o, then when the files are restored via cpio -i, they will
   be written to their original directories regardless of the
   current directory. This behavior can be circumvented by using the
   -r option. When cpio is invoked from the shell, each pattern
   should be quoted.

   In normal circumstances, cpio sets the Hdr_type variable (which
   defines the header type) to NONE before checking the actual
   header type. It does this even if you have specified a different
   header type on the command line. When you use the -k option,
   however, cpio does not set Hdr_type to NONE if you've specified a
   header type on the command line (with the -c or -H option). In
   this case, cpio sets Hdr_type to the header type you've
   specified. Thus you have a way of making sure the correct header
   file type is specified, which improves your chances of recovering
   files correctly. For this reason, we recommend you specify the
   header type for the file (with -c or -H) whenever you use the -k

   cpio -o (copy out) reads the standard input to obtain a list of
   pathnames and copies those files onto the standard output (only
   if the -O is not specified) together with pathname and status

   cpio -p (pass) reads the standard input to obtain a list of
   pathnames of files that are conditionally created and copied into
   the destination directory tree based on the options described

   By default, cpio also attempts to copy extended attribute
   information on the source to the target. Extended attribute
   information includes:
     * Access Control Lists (ACLs)
     * Privileges
     * Veritas file system type (vxfs) file system attributes

   The cpio command issues a warning if existing extended attribute
   information on the source cannot be copied to the destination
   (unless other actions are specified for extended attributes via
   the -e option).

   cpio processes supplementary code set characters, and recognizes
   supplementary code set characters in the message given to the -M
   option (see below) according to the locale specified in the
   LC_CTYPE environment variable (see LANG on environ(5)). In
   regular expressions, pattern searches are performed on
   characters, not bytes, as described on sh(1). Under the -vt
   option (see below), the date is displayed according to the locale
   specified in the LC_TIME environment variable.

   The meanings of the available options are
          Reset access times of input files after they have been
          copied. Access times are not reset for linked files when
          cpio -pla is specified.
          Append files to an archive. The -A option requires the -O
          option. Valid only with archives that are files, or that
          are on floppy diskettes or hard disk partitions.
          Reverse the order of the bytes within each word. (Use only
          with the -i option.)
          Input/output is to be blocked 5120 bytes to the record.
          The default buffer size is device dependent when neither
          this nor the -C option is used.
          Read or write header information in ASCII character form
          for portability. Always use this option (or the -H option)
          when the origin and the destination machines are different
          types (mutually exclusive with -H and -6). (The -c option
          implies expanded fundamental types. See ``Notices'' for
          more information.)
          This option (or -H hdr) must be specified if the file to
          be copied in or out is larger than 2GB.
   -C bufsize
          Input/output is to be blocked bufsize bytes to the record,
          where bufsize is replaced by a positive integer. The
          default buffer size is device dependent when neither this
          nor the -B option is used. If used with -K, bufsize must
          be a multiple of 1K.
          Directories are to be created as needed.
   -E file
          Specify an input file (file) that contains a list of
          filenames to be extracted from the archive (one filename
          per line).
   [-e [xattr_name=]action[,[xattr_name=]action . . .]
          Specify how to handle various extended file attributes.
          The following are the valid parameters for xattr_name and
          the extended attribute information to which they refer:
               Access Control Lists (ACLs) on the source files and
               Privileges on the source files and directories
               Extent attributes include reserved space, a fixed
               extent size, and extent alignment. It may not be
               possible to preserve the information if the
               destination file system does not support extent
               attributes, has a different block size than the
               source file system, or lacks free extents appropriate
               to satisfy the extent attribute requirements.
               Can be used only on restore (cpio -i), and specifies
               how to deal with extended file attributes not
               recognized by the current version of cpio.
               Refers to all extended attribute information for each
               file or directory processed.
               Valid values for action are:
                    Issue a warning message if extent attribute
                    information cannot be kept (default).
                    Fail the file save or restore or copy if extent
                    attribute information cannot be kept.
                    Ignore extent attribute information entirely.
          For more information on extended attributes, see
          Copy in all files except those in patterns (See the
          paragraph about cpio -i for a description of patterns.)
   -G file

          NOTE: This option is intended for use by front-end or
          application programs that invoke cpio. If you're running
          cpio at the shell level, you probably won't need this

          The -G option allows a program to specify file as the
          interface through which cpio communicates with a user.
          Specifically, this interface is used for end-of-medium
          processing (but it also affects where -r gets done); it is
          used both for writing the prompts to the user and for
          reading the user's input. By default, /dev/tty is the
          interface. However, in some situations (such as graphics
          application environments), /dev/tty is not available.
          Therefore an alternative interface, such as a pseudo-tty,
          may be needed.
          If the argument to -G is the keyword STDIO, it will print
          prompts (to change the media, and also for new file names
          when the -r option is used) on stdout, and read responses
          from stdin.
   -H hdr
          Read or write header information in hdr format. Always use
          this option or the -c option when the origin and the
          destination machines are different types (mutually
          exclusive with -c and -6). Valid values for hdr are:
        crc or CRC
               ASCII header with expanded fundamental types and an
               additional per-file checksum. See ``Notices'' for
               The crc file format has been updated to handle files
               larger than 2GB.
        ustar or USTAR
               IEEE/P1003 Data Interchange Standard header and
        tar or TAR
               tar header and format
               ASCII header with small fundamental types (see
   -I file
          Read the contents of file as an input archive. If file is
          a character special device, and the current medium has
          been completely read, replace the medium and press
          <Return> to continue to the next medium. This option is
          used only with the -i option.
          Attempt to skip corrupted file headers and I/O errors that
          may be encountered. If you want to copy files from a
          medium that is corrupted or out of sequence, this option
          lets you read only those files with good headers. (For
          cpio archives that contain other cpio archives, if an
          error is encountered, cpio may terminate prematurely. cpio
          will find the next good header, which may be one for a
          smaller archive, and terminate when the smaller archive's
          trailer is encountered.) Used only with the -i option.
   -K mediasize
          Specify the media size as a multiple of 1K. If used with
          -C bufsize, then bufsize must be a multiple of 1K. Use
          only with the -o option.
          Whenever possible (only with the -p option), link files
          rather than copying them. (Even if a file cannot be
          linked, it will be copied.)
          Follow symbolic links. The default is not to follow
          symbolic links.
          Retain previous file modification time. The modification
          time and access time of a restored file is set to the
          modification time of the file when it was backed up.
          Modification time of directories is not retained.
   -M message
          Define a message to use when switching media. When you use
          the -O or -I options and specify a character special
          device, you can use this option to define the message that
          is printed when you reach the end of the medium. One %d
          can be placed in message to print the sequence number of
          the next medium needed to continue. message may contain
          supplementary code set characters.
   -O file
          Direct the output of cpio to file. If file is a character
          special device and the current medium is full, replace the
          medium and type a carriage return to continue to the next
          medium. Use only with the -o option. Using this option
          with -o guarantees exclusive access to the character
          special device or output file. Redirecting output to a
          device or file does not guarantee exclusive access and
          could result in a corrupted archive if a second process
          opens the device or file while the first process is still
          Interactively rename files. If the user types a carriage
          return alone, the file is skipped. If the user types a
          ``.'' the original pathname will be retained. (Should be
          used only with cpio -i.)
   -R ID
          Reassign ownership and group information for each file to
          user ID (ID must be a valid login ID from /etc/passwd).
          This option is valid only for a privileged user.
          Swap bytes within each half word.
          Swap halfwords within each word.
          Print a table of contents of the input. No files are
          created (mutually exclusive with -V).
          Truncate long file names to 14 characters. Use only with
          the -i option.
          Copy unconditionally (normally, an older file will not
          replace a newer file with the same name).
          Verbose: causes a list of file names to be printed. When
          used with the -t option, the table of contents looks like
          the output of an ls -l command (see ls(1)); dates are
          displayed according to the locale specified in the LC_TIME
          environment variable (see LANG on environ(5)).
          Special Verbose: print a dot for each file read or
          written. Useful to assure the user that cpio is working
          without printing out all file names.
          Process a UNIX System Sixth Edition archive format file.
          Use only with the -i option (mutually exclusive with -c
          and -H).

   NOTE: cpio assumes four-byte words.

   If, when writing to a character device (-o) or reading from a
   character device (-i), cpio reaches the end of a medium (such as
   the end of a diskette), and the -O and -I options aren't used,
   cpio will print the following message:

   End of medium on input (output). To continue, type device/file name whe
n ready.

   To continue, you must replace the medium and type the character
   special device name (/dev/rdsk/f0 for example) and press
   <Return>. You may want to continue by directing cpio to use a
   different device. For example, if you have two floppy drives you
   may want to switch between them so cpio can proceed while you are
   changing the floppies.


  Output (-o)

   When standard input is directed through a pipe to cpio -o, files
   are grouped so they can be redirected (>) to a single file
   (../newfile). The -c option insures that the file will be
   portable to other machines (as would the -H option). Instead of
   ls(1), you could use find(1), echo(1), cat(1), and so on, to pipe
   a list of names to cpio. You could redirect the output to a
   device instead of a file.
   ls | cpio -oc > ../newfile

  Input (-i)

   cpio -i uses the output file of cpio -o (directed through a pipe
   with cat in the example below), extracts those files that match
   the patterns (memo/a1, memo/b * ), creates directories below the
   current directory as needed (-d option), and places the files in
   the appropriate directories. The -c option (with -k) is used if
   the input file was created with a portable header. If no patterns
   were given, all files from newfile would be placed in the
   cat newfile | cpio -ickd "memo/a1" "memo/b * "

  Pass (-p)

   cpio -p takes the file names piped to it and copies or links (-l
   option) those files to another directory (newdir in the example
   below). The -d option allows you to create directories as needed.
   The -m option lets you retain the modification time and security
   level. (It is important to use the -depth option of find(1) to
   generate pathnames for cpio. Use of this option eliminates
   problems cpio could have in trying to create files under
   read-only directories.) The destination directory, newdir, must
   find . -depth -print | cpio -pdlmv newdir

   Note that when you use cpio in conjunction with find, if you use
   the -L option with cpio then you must use the -follow option with
   find and vice versa. Otherwise there will be undesirable results.

Exit codes

          usage error
          file error (but cpio completes, displaying error number)
          fatal error (cpio dies immediately)

   Reading from magnetic tape in any fixed-length block length
   besides the block length that the media was written in originally
   will cause an I/O error. If you want to read a tape that was
   written using a block-length besides the default of 512, you must
   use the tapecntl(1) command ( qv ) to either set the block-length
   of the drive to match the block length of the media or to set the
   drive into variable block length mode.


          language-specific message file. (See LANG on environ(5).)


   ar(1), archives(4), cat(1), echo(1), find(1), ls(1), tar(1)


  Support for large files

   The cpio(1) utility supports the archival of files larger than 2
   gigabytes (2GB) in size when using the ASCII (-c ) or CRC (-H
   crc) formats. Files up to 2^63-1 bytes in size are supported.
   Previous versions of cpio will not be able to extract files
   larger than 2GB in size.

  Restoring extended attributes

   If you attempt to restore a cpio archive that contains extended
   attribute information and the version of cpio being used does not
   support one or more extended attributes found in the archive, the
   following occurs:
          The extended attributes not supported by the version of
          cpio being used will not be restored. It is assumed that
          if you use a version of cpio that does not support
          extended attributes, the target file system probably does
          not support extended attributes either.
          cpio creates a file in /tmp with a name of the form
          ._xAtTr_n where n is an apparently arbitrary number. If
          you use the -v option of cpio, the verbose output of cpio
          will contain references to this file. This file, which is
          not likely to be very large, can either be removed
          manually or it will be removed with the other files in
          /tmp during the next system reboot.

  Compatibility with earlier releases

   Versions of cpio on earlier releases of UnixWare used a slightly
   different syntax for the -e option (that is, [-e extent_opt]). In
   these earlier releases, the -e option applied only to Veritas
   file system type (vxfs) extent attributes. For compatibility with
   these earlier releases, if an action is specified with the -e
   option, but without a preceding xattr_name=, that action is
   assumed by cpio to apply to the vxfs_extent attribute only.

   An archive created with the -c option on a System V Release 4
   system cannot be read on System V Release 3.2 systems, or
   earlier. Use the -H odc option, which is equivalent to the header
   created by the -c option in earlier System V Releases, if the
   cpio image will be read by a pre-System V Release 4 version of

   In releases of UNIX System V prior to Release 4, symbolic links
   are not understood. The result of copying in a symbolic link on
   an older release will be a regular file that contains the
   pathname of the referenced file.

   Prior to Release 4, the default buffer size was 512 bytes.
   Beginning with Release 4, the default buffer size is optimized
   for the device and using the -C option to specify a different
   block size may cause cpio to fail. Therefore, care must be taken
   when choosing the block size. To avoid wasting space on streaming
   tape drives, use the -C option and specify an appropriate block

   Using variable-length block mode when writing magnetic tapes is
   discouraged because it may not work correctly in releases before
   SVR4.2 MP. Magnetic tape should always be written in fixed-length
   block mode, even though you are free to change the default
   fixed-block length from 512 bytes to any other fixed-block mode
   the tape drive supports.

  Pathnames restrictions

   Pathnames are restricted to 256 characters for the binary (the
   default) and -H odc header formats. Otherwise, pathnames are
   restricted to 1024 characters.

  Expanded fundamental types support

   The default binary header format and the ODC header format do not
   support expanded fundamental types (EFTs). Smaller, preSVR4-type
   sizes are assumed by these header formats. If you are trying to
   use cpio over file systems with EFT and one of these two header
   formats are used, you will get the error message Old format
   cannot support expanded types. Use the -c or the -Hcrc options
   instead. See archives(4) for details on type sizes.

  Copying block or character special files

   Only a privileged user can copy block or character special files.

   When attempting to redirect standard input or standard output
   from or to a block or character special device you may get an
   error message such as Cannot read from device or Cannot write to
   device. The appearance of such a message does not necessarily
   mean a true I/O error has occurred. It is more likely to mean the
   user does not have access to that device; the user should ask the
   system administrator to allocate the device for him or her.

   It is not desirable for device overwriting to be the ordinary
   behavior for cpio even when the -u option is specified. This has
   been done for system resilience. If a device on an archive being
   read in does not match a device that is already on the system, it
   is almost always the case that the device on the archive is
   different because the archive was exported from another system
   that had different device numbers. To overwrite existing devices
   in such a situation could be crippling to the system, depending
   on which devices are overwritten and what the change is.

  Block sizes

   Blocks are reported in 512-byte quantities.

   The st01 tape driver does not always require block sizes that are
   in multiples of 512 bytes, but block size is device dependent.
   Use tapecntl to set the tape driver to use the block size
   supported by the tape device. Failure to set the block size
   correctly will result in an error when the driver attempts to
   write a block of the unsupported size.

  Saving and restoring files with 000 permissions

   If a file has ``000'' permissions and contains more than 0
   characters of data, and the user does not have the appropriate
   privilege, the file will not be saved or restored.

  Matching tape block length on read

   Reading from magnetic tape in any fixed-length block length,
   besides the block length that the media was written in
   originally, will cause an I/O error. In order to read a tape that
   was written using some block length besides the default of 512,
   use the tapecntl(1) command (qv) to either set the block length
   of the drive to match the block length of the media, or to set
   the drive into variable block length mode.

  Environment variables

   If POSIX2 is set in the current environment, then the
   pattern-matching notation specified by POSIX.2 is used:
          Matches any string, including the empty string.
          Matches any single character.
   [ . . . ]
          Matches any one of the enclosed characters. A pair of
          characters separated by `-' matches any symbol between the
          pair (inclusive), as defined by the system default
          collating sequence. If the first character following the
          opening `[' is a `!', it is regarded as a not operator;
          the characters within the braces are not used in the

   In pattern, the special characters ``?'', ``*'' and ``['' also
   match the / character. Multiple cases of pattern can be specified
   and if no pattern is specified, ``*'' is used (that is, all files
   are selected).

   (c) 2005 The SCO Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
   SCO OpenServer Release 6.0.0 - 02 June 2005
See also cpio(1)

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