The first description of Scheme was written in 1975 [Scheme75]. A
revised report [Scheme78] appeared in 1978, which described the
evolution of the language as its MIT implementation was upgraded to
support an innovative compiler [Rabbit]. Three distinct projects began
in 1981 and 1982 to use variants of Scheme for courses at MIT, Yale, and
Indiana University [Rees82], [MITScheme], [Scheme311]. An introductory
computer science textbook using Scheme was published in 1984 [SICP].
As Scheme became more widespread, local dialects began to diverge until
students and researchers occasionally found it difficult to understand
code written at other sites. Fifteen representatives of the major
implementations of Scheme therefore met in October 1984 to work toward
a better and more widely accepted standard for Scheme.
Their report [RRRS] was published at MIT and Indiana University in the
summer of 1985. Further revision took place in the spring of 1986
[R3RS], and in the spring of 1988 [R4RS]. The present report reflects
further revisions agreed upon in a meeting at Xerox PARC in June 1992.
We intend this report to belong to the entire Scheme community, and so
we grant permission to copy it in whole or in part without fee. In
particular, we encourage implementors of Scheme to use this report as a
starting point for manuals and other documentation, modifying it as
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