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 12 Functions and Operators
 Expressions can be used at several points in SQL statements, such as in
 the `ORDER BY' or `HAVING' clauses of `SELECT' statements, in the
 `WHERE' clause of a `SELECT', `DELETE', or `UPDATE' statement, or in
 `SET' statements.  Expressions can be written using literal values,
 column values, `NULL', functions, and operators.  This chapter
 describes the functions and operators that are allowed for writing
 expressions in MySQL.
 An expression that contains `NULL' always produces a `NULL' value
 unless otherwise indicated in the documentation for a particular
 function or operator.
 * By default, there must be no whitespace between a function name
 and the parenthesis following it. This helps the MySQL parser
 distinguish between function calls and references to tables or columns
 that happen to have the same name as a function.  Spaces around function
 arguments are permitted, though.
 You can tell the MySQL server to accept spaces after function names by
 starting it with the `--sql-mode=IGNORE_SPACE' option. Individual client
 programs can request this behavior by using the `CLIENT_IGNORE_SPACE'
 option for `mysql_real_connect()'.  In either case, all function names
 will become reserved words.   Server SQL mode.
 For the sake of brevity, most examples in this chapter display the
 output from the `mysql' program in abbreviated form.  Instead of showing
 examples in this format:
      mysql> SELECT MOD(29,9);
      | mod(29,9) |
      |         2 |
      1 rows in set (0.00 sec)
 This format is used instead:
      mysql> SELECT MOD(29,9);
              -> 2


* Non-typed Operators         Operators
* Control flow functions      Control Flow Functions
* String functions            String Functions
* Numeric Functions           Numeric Functions
* Date and time functions     Date and Time Functions
* Fulltext Search             Full-Text Search Functions
* Cast Functions              Cast Functions and Operators
* Other Functions             Other Functions
* Group by functions and modifiers  Functions and Modifiers for Use with `GROUP BY' Clauses
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